Lupinus texensis, the Texas bluebonnet or Texas lupineis a species of lupine endemic to Texas, plus the Mexican states of Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. With other related species of lupines also called bluebonnets, it is the state flower of Texas.
Lupinus, commonly known as lupin or lupine, is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. The genus includes over 200 species, with centers of diversity in North and South America. Smaller centers occur in North Africa and the Mediterranean. They are widely cultivated, both as a food source and as ornamental plants.
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.
Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Coahuila de Zaragoza, is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
It is an annual which begins its life as a small, gravel-like seed. The seed has a hard seed coat that must be penetrated by wind, rain, and weather over the course of a few months (but sometimes several years). In the fall, the bluebonnets emerge as small seedings with two cotyledons, and later a rosette of leaves that are palmately compound, with five to seven leaflets 3–10 cm long, green with a faint white edge and hair. Growth continues over the mild winter, and then in the spring takes off, rapidly grow larger, before sending up a 20– to 50-cm-tall plume of blue flowers (with bits of white and occasionally a tinge of pinkish-red). The scent of these blossoms has been diversely described; many people say they give off no scent at all, while a few have described the scent as 'sickly sweet'.
An annual plant is a plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one year, and then dies. Summer annuals germinate during spring or early summer and mature by autumn of the same year. Winter annuals germinate during the autumn and mature during the spring or summer of the following calendar year.
A cotyledon is a significant part of the embryo within the seed of a plant, and is defined as "the embryonic leaf in seed-bearing plants, one or more of which are the first leaves to appear from a germinating seed." The number of cotyledons present is one characteristic used by botanists to classify the flowering plants (angiosperms). Species with one cotyledon are called monocotyledonous ("monocots"). Plants with two embryonic leaves are termed dicotyledonous ("dicots").
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem. The leaves and stem together form the shoot. Leaves are collectively referred to as foliage, as in "autumn foliage".
It has been found in the wild with isolated mutations in other colors, most notably all-white flowers, pink, and the maroon 'Alamo Fire' variation. These mutations have since been selectively bred to produce different color strains that are available commercially.
Maroon is a dark reddish purple or dark brownish red color that takes its name from the French word marron, or chestnut.
Alamo Fire or Texas Maroon are names given to a maroon hybrid cultivar of Lupinus texensis, Texas' state flower.
Texas recognizes all native lupine species occurring in the state as the official state flower. That fact leads to other species such as L. subcarnosus and L. havardii also being referred to as bluebonnets, but distinctions are seen among the species that differentiate them from L. texensis.
Lupinus polyphyllus is a species of lupine (lupin) native to western North America from southern Alaska and British Columbia east to Quebec, and western Wyoming, and south to Utah and California. It commonly grows along streams and creeks, preferring moist habitats.
Lupinus arboreus, common name yellow bush lupine (US) or tree lupin (UK), is a species of flowering plant in the legume family Fabaceae.
Lupinus albus, commonly known as the white lupin or field lupine, is a member of the genus Lupinus in the family Fabaceae. It is a traditional pulse cultivated in the Mediterranean region.
The Mission blue is a blue or lycaenid butterfly subspecies native to the San Francisco Bay Area of the United States. The butterfly has been declared as endangered by the US federal government. It is a subspecies of Boisduval's blue.
Lupinus sparsiflorus is a species of lupin native to North America. In the United States it occurs in California, Nevada, Arizona and Utah, and in Mexico it is found in Baja California and Sonora. Other common names include Mojave lupine, a name it shares with Lupinus odoratus.
Lupinus perennis is a flowering plant in the Fabaceae family. It is widespread in the eastern part of the USA and Minnesota, Canada, and on the coasts of the Arctic Ocean, where it grows in sandy areas such as dunes and savannas.
Lupinus bicolor is a species of lupine known as the miniature lupine, Lindley's annual lupine, pigmy-leaved lupine, or bicolor lupine.
Lupinus excubitus is a species of lupine known as the grape soda lupine. Its common name refers to its sweet scent, which is said to be very reminiscent of grape soda. This species and its variants are found in Southwestern United States, especially in California and Nevada, e.g., Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks, and northwestern Mexico.
Lupinus havardii is a species of lupine known by the common names Big Bend bluebonnet and Chisos bluebonnet. It is native to Texas and Chihuahua, where it blooms between January and June. Its habitat includes gravelly, fine talus, and the alluvial soils in the desert, valleys, hills, and mountain slopes.
Lupinus antoninus is a rare species of lupine known by the common name Anthony Peak lupine. It is endemic to northern California, where it is known from only four occurrences in the North Coast Ranges, including near Anthony Peak.
Lupinus citrinus is a species of lupine known by the common names orange lupine, orangeflower lupine, and fragrant lupine. It is endemic to California, where it is known from a section of the Sierra Nevada foothills extending from Mariposa to Fresno Counties. This is an annual herb growing 10–60 centimetres (3.9–23.6 in) tall. Each palmate leaf is made up of 6 to 9 leaflets up to 3.5 centimetres (1.4 in) long. The herbage is coated in tiny white hairs. The inflorescence bears several flowers, sometimes in whorls. Each flower is roughly a centimeter long and orange to yellow to white in color. The fruit is a legume pod 1 or 2 centimetres (0.79 in) long containing seeds which resemble "pieces of granite."
Lupinus flavoculatus is a species of lupine known by the common name yelloweyes, or yellow-eyed lupine.,
Lupinus guadalupensis is a rare species of lupine known by the common name Guadalupe Island lupine. It is known only from San Clemente Island, one of the Channel Islands of California, and Guadalupe Island off the coast of Baja California. It is a member of the coastal scrub growing alongside other island endemics and more common plants. This is an annual herb growing 20 to 60 centimeters high. Each palmate leaf is made up of 7 to 9 narrow leaflets up to 5 centimeters long and just a few millimeters wide, sometimes linear in shape. The inflorescence bears whorls of flowers each about a centimeter long and blue in color with a white banner patch which may fade pink. The fruit is a very hairy legume pod up to 6 centimeters long and about one wide. It contains 6 to 8 seeds.
Lupinus padre-crowleyi is a rare species of lupine known by the common names DeDecker's lupine and Father Crowley's lupine. It is endemic to California, where it is known only from the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada and the high plateau below along the western border of Inyo County. It grows in the granite soils of the mountain forests and scrub. It has been noted at fewer than 20 locations. This is a perennial herb growing an erect inflorescence from a mat of silvery, woolly-haired herbage, reaching maximum heights over half a meter. Each palmate leaf is made up of 6 to 9 leaflets up to 7.5 centimeters long. The inflorescence is a raceme of whorled flowers each just over a centimeter long. The flower is cream to pale brownish yellow in color. The fruit is a silky-haired legume pod containing black-mottled white seeds.
Lupinus stiversii is a species of lupine known by the common names harlequin annual lupine and harlequin lupine. The plant was named for Army physician Dr. Charles Austin Stivers, who first collected it in 1862 near Yosemite.
Bluebonnet is a name given to any number of purple-flowered species of the genus Lupinus predominantly found in southwestern United States and is collectively the state flower of Texas. The shape of the petals on the flower resembles the bonnet worn by pioneer women to shield them from the sun. Species often called bluebonnets include:
Lupinus aridorum is a rare species of lupine known by the common name scrub lupine. It is endemic to Florida in the United States, where there were 10 known populations remaining in 2003. Fewer than 6000 individual plants were counted. It is threatened by the loss and degradation of its habitat. The scrub lupine is a federally listed endangered species of the United States.
Lupinus pilosus, commonly known as blue lupine, is a species of flowering plant from the family Fabaceae which is endemic to Israel where it is found in Mediterranean scrubland. It has a 30–70 centimetres (12–28 in) long stem and 3–8 centimetres (1.2–3.1 in) long legume. The species blooms from February to May. The species have white coloured flowers which are 1–1.5 centimetres (0.39–0.59 in) long and pods the diameter of which is 3–8 centimetres (1.2–3.1 in). In Israel the Lupinus pilosus has blue flowers with white vertical spot at the middle.
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