Lupinus texensis, the Texas bluebonnet or Texas lupineis a species of lupine endemic to Texas, plus the Mexican states of Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. With other related species of lupines also called bluebonnets, it is the state flower of Texas.
It is an annual which begins its life as a small, gravel-like seed. The seed has a hard seed coat that must be penetrated by wind, rain, and weather over the course of a few months (but sometimes several years). In the fall, the bluebonnets emerge as small seedings with two cotyledons, and later a rosette of leaves that are palmately compound, with five to seven leaflets 3–10 cm long, green with a faint white edge and hair. Growth continues over the mild winter, and then in the spring takes off, rapidly grow larger, before sending up a 20– to 50-cm-tall plume of blue flowers (with bits of white and occasionally a tinge of pinkish-red). The scent of these blossoms has been diversely described; many people say they give off no scent at all, while a few have described the scent as 'sickly sweet'.
It has been found in the wild with isolated mutations in other colors, most notably all-white flowers, pink, and the maroon 'Alamo Fire' variation. These mutations have since been selectively bred to produce different color strains that are available commercially.
Texas recognizes all native lupine species occurring in the state as the official state flower. That fact leads to other species such as L. subcarnosus and L. havardii also being referred to as bluebonnets, but distinctions are seen among the species that differentiate them from L. texensis.
Lupinus polyphyllus is a species of lupine (lupin) native to western North America from southern Alaska and British Columbia east to Quebec, and western Wyoming, and south to Utah and California. It commonly grows along streams and creeks, preferring moist habitats.
Lupinus, commonly known as lupin or lupine, is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family Fabaceae. The genus includes over 199 species, with centers of diversity in North and South America. Smaller centers occur in North Africa and the Mediterranean. They are widely cultivated, both as a food source and as ornamental plants, although in New Zealand's South Island, introduced lupins are viewed as a severe environmental threat.
Lupinus albus, commonly known as the white lupin or field lupine, is a member of the genus Lupinus in the family Fabaceae. It is a traditional pulse cultivated in the Mediterranean region.
The Mission blue is a blue or lycaenid butterfly subspecies native to the San Francisco Bay Area of the United States. The butterfly has been declared as endangered by the US federal government. It is a subspecies of Boisduval's blue.
Lupinus sparsiflorus is a species of lupin native to North America. In the United States it occurs in California, Nevada, Arizona and Utah, and in Mexico it is found in Baja California and Sonora. Other common names include Mojave lupine, a name it shares with Lupinus odoratus.
Lupinus perennis is a flowering plant in the family Fabaceae. It is widespread in the eastern part of the USA and Minnesota, Canada, and on the coasts of the Arctic Ocean, where it grows in sandy areas such as dunes and savannas.
Lupinus latifolius var. barbatus, the Klamath lupine, sometimes also called bearded lupine, is a very rare plant of the Western U.S., known only from northeastern California and southeastern Oregon. It is a rare variety of the generally common species L. latifolius, which is a member of the bean family.
Lupinus bicolor is a species of lupine known as the miniature lupine, Lindley's annual lupine, pigmy-leaved lupine, or bicolor lupine.
Lupinus excubitus is a species of lupine known as the grape soda lupine. Its common name refers to its sweet scent, which is said to be very reminiscent of grape soda. This species and its variants are found in Southwestern United States, especially in California and Nevada, e.g., Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks, and northwestern Mexico.
Lupinus nootkatensis, the Nootka lupine, is a perennial plant of the genus Lupinus in the legume family, Fabaceae. It is native to North America. The Nootka lupine grows to 60 cm tall. Late in the 18th century it was first introduced to Europe.
Lupinus havardii is a species of lupine known by the common names Big Bend bluebonnet and Chisos bluebonnet. It is native to Texas and Chihuahua, where it blooms between January and June. Its habitat includes gravelly, fine talus, and the alluvial soils in the desert, valleys, hills, and mountain slopes.
Lupinus antoninus is a rare species of lupine known by the common name Anthony Peak lupine. It is endemic to northern California, where it is known from only four occurrences in the North Coast Ranges, including near Anthony Peak.
Lupinus citrinus is a species of lupine known by the common names orange lupine, orangeflower lupine, and fragrant lupine. It is endemic to California, where it is known from a section of the Sierra Nevada foothills extending from Mariposa to Fresno Counties. This is an annual herb growing 10–60 centimetres (3.9–23.6 in) tall. Each palmate leaf is made up of 6 to 9 leaflets up to 3.5 centimetres (1.4 in) long. The herbage is coated in tiny white hairs. The inflorescence bears several flowers, sometimes in whorls. Each flower is roughly a centimeter long and orange to yellow to white in color. The fruit is a legume pod 1 or 2 centimetres (0.79 in) long containing seeds which resemble "pieces of granite."
Lupinus flavoculatus is a species of lupine known by the common name yelloweyes, or yellow-eyed lupine.,
Lupinus padre-crowleyi is a rare species of lupine known by the common names DeDecker's lupine and Father Crowley's lupine. It is endemic to California, where it is known only from the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada and the high plateau below along the western border of Inyo County. It grows in the granite soils of the mountain forests and scrub. It has been noted at fewer than 20 locations. This is a perennial herb growing an erect inflorescence from a mat of silvery, woolly-haired herbage, reaching maximum heights over half a meter. Each palmate leaf is made up of 6 to 9 leaflets up to 7.5 centimeters long. The inflorescence is a raceme of whorled flowers each just over a centimeter long. The flower is cream to pale brownish yellow in color. The fruit is a silky-haired legume pod containing black-mottled white seeds.
Bluebonnet is a name given to any number of purple-flowered species of the genus Lupinus predominantly found in southwestern United States and is collectively the state flower of Texas. The shape of the petals on the flower resembles the bonnet worn by pioneer women to shield them from the sun. Species often called bluebonnets include:
Lupinus aridorum is a rare species of lupine known by the common name scrub lupine. It is endemic to Florida in the United States, where there were 10 known populations remaining in 2003. Fewer than 6000 individual plants were counted. It is threatened by the loss and degradation of its habitat. The scrub lupine is a federally listed endangered species of the United States.
Lupinus arcticus is a species of flowering plant in the legume family known by the common names Arctic lupine or subalpine lupine. It is native to northwestern North America, where it occurs from Oregon north to Alaska and east to Nunavut. It is a common wildflower in British Columbia.
Lupinus pilosus, commonly known as blue lupine, is a species of flowering plant from the family Fabaceae which is endemic to Israel where it is found in Mediterranean scrubland. It has a 30–70 centimetres (12–28 in) long stem and 3–8 centimetres (1.2–3.1 in) long legume. The species blooms from February to May. The species have white coloured flowers which are 1–1.5 centimetres (0.39–0.59 in) long and pods the diameter of which is 3–8 centimetres (1.2–3.1 in). In Israel the Lupinus pilosus has blue flowers with white vertical spot at the middle.
Alamo Fire or Texas Maroon are names given to a maroon hybrid cultivar of Lupinus texensis, Texas' state flower.
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