Lyon

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Lyon

Liyon  (Arpitan)
Lyon-Paysages.jpg
Top: Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière, Place des Terreaux with Fontaine Bartholdi and Lyon City Hall at night. Centre: Parc de la Tête d'Or, Confluence district and the Vieux Lyon. Bottom: Pont Lafayette, Part-Dieu district with the Place Bellecour in foreground during Festival of Lights.
Motto(s): 
Avant, avant, Lion le melhor
(Old Franco-Provençal for "Forward, forward, Lyon the best") [lower-alpha 1]
Location of Lyon
France location map-Regions and departements-2016.svg
Red pog.svg
Lyon
Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes region location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Lyon
Coordinates: 45°46′N4°50′E / 45.76°N 4.84°E / 45.76; 4.84 Coordinates: 45°46′N4°50′E / 45.76°N 4.84°E / 45.76; 4.84
Country France
Region Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
Metropolis Metropolis of Lyon
Arrondissement Lyon
Subdivisions 9 arrondissements
Government
  Mayor (2018–2020) Gérard Collomb (LREM)
Area
1
47.87 km2 (18.48 sq mi)
  Metro
 (2010)
6,018.62 km2 (2,323.80 sq mi)
Population
 (Jan. 2016 [1] )
513,275
  Rank 3rd in France
  Density11,000/km2 (28,000/sq mi)
   Metro
 (2014)
2,265,375 [2]
(2nd in France)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
69123 /69001-69009
Elevation162–349 m (531–1,145 ft)
Website www.lyon-france.com
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Lyon or Lyons ( UK: /ˈlɒ̃/ , [3] [4] US: /liˈn/ , [5] [6] [lower-alpha 2] French:  [ljɔ̃] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Arpitan : Liyon [ʎjɔ̃] ; Italian: Lione [li’one]) is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, [8] about 470 km (292 mi) south from Paris, 320 km (199 mi) north from Marseille and 56 km (35 mi) northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais.

British English is the standard dialect of the English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom. Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland and Ireland, and occasionally Yorkshire, whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English is more difficult to apply to the spoken language. According to Tom McArthur in the Oxford Guide to World English, British English shares "all the ambiguities and tensions in the word 'British' and as a result can be used and interpreted in two ways, more broadly or more narrowly, within a range of blurring and ambiguity".

American English Set of dialects of the English language spoken in the United States

American English, sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. American English is considered one of the most influential dialects of English globally, including on other varieties of English.

Urban area (France) statistical area in France

An aire urbaine is an INSEE statistical concept describing a core of urban development and the extent of its commuter activity.

Contents

Lyon had a population of 513,275 in 2015. [1] It is the capital of the Metropolis of Lyon and the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. The Lyon metropolitan area had a population of 2,265,375 in 2014, the second-largest urban area in France. [2] The city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, and historical and architectural landmarks; part of it is registered as a UNESCO World Heritage site. Lyon was historically an important area for the production and weaving of silk. Lyon played a significant role in the history of cinema: it is where Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the cinematograph. It is also known for its light festival, the Fête des Lumières, which begins every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights.

Regions of France France top-level territorial subdivision

France is divided into 18 administrative regions, which are traditionally divided between 13 metropolitan regions, located on the European continent, and 5 overseas regions, located outside the European continent. The 12 mainland regions are each further subdivided into 4 to 13 departments, while the overseas regions consist of only one department each and hence are also referred to as "overseas departments". Similarly, Corsica is a "territorial collectivity" that also consists of only a single department. The current legal concept of region was adopted in 1982, and in 2016 what had been 27 regions was reduced to 18. The overseas regions should not be confused with the overseas collectivities, which have a semi-autonomous status.

Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Region of France

Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes or ARA is a region in southeast-central France created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2015; it resulted from the merger of Auvergne and Rhône-Alpes. The new region came into effect on 1 January 2016, after the regional elections in December 2015.

Lyonnaise cuisine

Lyonnaise cuisine refers to cooking traditions and practices centering on the area around the French city of Lyon and the historical culinary traditions Lyonnais. In the sixteenth century Catherine de Medici brought cooks from Florence to her court and they prepared dishes from the agricultural products from the regions of France. This was revolutionary, as it combined the fresh, diverse, and indigenous nature of regional produce with the know-how of Florentine cooks.

Economically, Lyon is a major centre for banking, as well as for the chemical, pharmaceutical, and biotech industries. The city contains a significant software industry with a particular focus on video games, and in recent years has fostered a growing local start-up sector. [9] Lyon hosts the international headquarters of Interpol, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and Euronews. According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute, Lyon is considered a Beta city, as of 2018. [10] It ranked second in France and 40th globally in Mercer's 2019 liveability rankings. [11]

Interpol international law enforcement agency

The International Criminal Police Organization, more commonly known as INTERPOL, is an international organization that facilitates worldwide police cooperation and crime control. Headquartered in Lyon, France, it was founded in 1923 as the International Criminal Police Commission (ICPC); the name INTERPOL served as the agency's telegraphic address in 1946, and was chosen as its common name in 1956.

International Agency for Research on Cancer Organization

The International Agency for Research on Cancer is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations. Its role is to conduct and coordinate research into the causes of cancer. It also collects and publishes surveillance data regarding the occurrence of cancer worldwide.

Euronews is a European pay television news network, headquartered in Lyon, France. The network began broadcasting on 1 January 1993 and aimed to cover world news from a pan-European perspective.

History of Lyon

Ancient Lyon

According to the historian Dio Cassius, in 43 BC, the Roman Senate ordered the creation of a settlement for Roman refugees of war with the Allobroges. These refugees had been expelled from Vienne and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers. The foundation was built on Fourvière hill and officially called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods. The city became increasingly referred to as Lugdunum (and occasionally Lugudunum [12] ). [13] The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as "Desired Mountain" is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary . [14] In contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lug[o]dunon, after the Celtic god Lugus ('Light', cognate with Old Irish Lugh , Modern Irish ), and dúnon (hill-fort).

Roman Senate A political institution in ancient Rome

The Roman Senate was a political institution in ancient Rome. It was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history, being established in the first days of the city of Rome,. It survived the overthrow of the kings in 509 BC, the fall of the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC, the division of the Roman Empire in 395 AD, the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, and the barbarian rule of Rome in the 5th, 6th, and 7th centuries.

Allobroges historical ethnical group

The Allobroges were a Gallic tribe of ancient Gaul, located between the Rhône River and Lake Geneva in what later became Savoy, Dauphiné, and Vivarais. Their cities were in the areas of modern-day Annecy, Chambéry and Grenoble, the modern departement of Isère, and modern Switzerland. Their capital was today's Vienne.

Saône river of France

The Saône is a river of eastern France. It is a right tributary of the Rhône, rising at Vioménil in the Vosges department and joining the Rhône in Lyon, just south of the Presqu'île.

The Roman-era Theatre on the Fourviere Hill Lyon - panoramio (70).jpg
The Roman-era Theatre on the Fourvière Hill

The Romans recognised that Lugdunum's strategic location at the convergence of two navigable rivers made it a natural communications hub. The city became the starting point of the principal Roman roads in the area, and it quickly became the capital of the province, Gallia Lugdunensis. Two Emperors were born in this city: Claudius, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic Senators, and Caracalla.

Roman roads roads built in service of the Roman Empire

Roman roads were physical infrastructure vital to the maintenance and development of the Roman state, and were built from about 300 BC through the expansion and consolidation of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. They provided efficient means for the overland movement of armies, officials, civilians, inland carriage of official communications, and trade goods. Roman roads were of several kinds, ranging from small local roads to broad, long-distance highways built to connect cities, major towns and military bases. These major roads were often stone-paved and metaled, cambered for drainage, and were flanked by footpaths, bridleways and drainage ditches. They were laid along accurately surveyed courses, and some were cut through hills, or conducted over rivers and ravines on bridgework. Sections could be supported over marshy ground on rafted or piled foundations.

Gallia Lugdunensis Roman province

Gallia Lugdunensis was a province of the Roman Empire in what is now the modern country of France, part of the Celtic territory of Gaul formerly known as Celtica. It is named after its capital Lugdunum, possibly Roman Europe's major city west of Italy, and a major imperial mint. Outside Lugdunum was the Condate Altar, where representatives of the Three Gauls met to celebrate the cult of Rome and Augustus.

Claudius Fourth Emperor of Ancient Rome

Claudius was Roman emperor from AD 41 to 54. Born to Drusus and Antonia Minor at Lugdunum in Roman Gaul, where his father was stationed as a military legate, he was the first Roman emperor to be born outside Italy. Nonetheless, Claudius was an Italic of Sabine origins and a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Because he was afflicted with a limp and slight deafness due to sickness at a young age, his family ostracized him and excluded him from public office until his consulship, shared with his nephew Caligula in 37.

Early Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimius Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina, Pothinus, and Epipodius, among others. In the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was the Easterner, Irenaeus. [15] To this day, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as "Primat des Gaules". [16]

Marcus Aurelius Roman Emperor and philosopher

Marcus Aurelius was Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoic philosopher. He was the last of the rulers known as the Five Good Emperors, and the last emperor of the Pax Romana, an age of relative peace and stability for the Roman Empire. He served as Roman consul in 140, 145, and 161.

Septimius Severus Roman Emperor (193–211)

Septimius Severus, also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211. He was born in Leptis Magna in the Roman province of Africa. As a young man he advanced through the customary succession of offices under the reigns of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. Severus seized power after the death of Emperor Pertinax in 193 during the Year of the Five Emperors.

Blandina Christian martyr

Saint Blandina was a Christian martyr who died at Lyon, France during the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius.

Burgundians fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled at Lugdunum. In 443 the Romans established the Kingdom of the Burgundians, and Lugdunum became its capital in 461. In 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, Lyon went to the Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I. It later was made part of the Kingdom of Arles. Lyon did not come under French control until the 14th century.

Modern Lyon

Fernand Braudel remarked, "Historians of Lyon are not sufficiently aware of the bi-polarity between Paris and Lyon, which is a constant structure in French development...from the late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution". [17] In the late 15th century, the fairs introduced by Italian merchants made Lyon the economic counting house of France. Even the Bourse (treasury), built in 1749, resembled a public bazaar where accounts were settled in the open air. When international banking moved to Genoa, then Amsterdam, Lyon remained the banking centre of France.

During the Renaissance, the city's development was driven by the silk trade, which strengthened its ties to Italy. Italian influence on Lyon's architecture is still visible among historic buildings. [18] In the later 1400s and 1500s Lyon was also a key centre of literary activity and book publishing, both of French writers (such as Maurice Scève, Antoine Heroet, and Louise Labé) and of Italians in exile (such as Luigi Alamanni and Gian Giorgio Trissino).

Lyon under siege in 1793 Siege of Lyon (1793).jpg
Lyon under siege in 1793

In 1572, Lyon was a scene of mass violence by Catholics against Protestant Huguenots in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Two centuries later, Lyon was again convulsed by violence when, during the French Revolution, the citizenry rose up against the National Convention and supported the Girondins. The city was besieged by Revolutionary armies for over two months before surrendering in October 1793. Many buildings were destroyed, especially around the Place Bellecour, while Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois and Joseph Fouché administered the execution of more than 2,000 people. The Convention ordered that its name be changed to "Liberated City" and a plaque was erected that proclaimed "Lyons made war on Liberty; Lyons no longer exists." A decade later, Napoleon ordered the reconstruction of all the buildings demolished during this period.

The Convention was not the only target within Lyon during the 1789-1799 French Revolution. After the National Convention faded into history, the French Directory appeared and days after the September 4, 1797, Coup of 18 Fructidor, a Directory's commissioner was assassinated in Lyon.

The city became an important industrial town during the 19th century. In 1831 and 1834, the canuts (silk workers) of Lyon staged two major uprisings for better working conditions and pay. In 1862, the first of Lyon's extensive network of funicular railways began operation.

During World War II, Lyon was a centre for the occupying Nazi forces, including Klaus Barbie, the infamous "Butcher of Lyon". But the city was also a stronghold of the French Resistance – the many secret passages known as traboules enabled people to escape Gestapo raids. On 3 September 1944, Lyon was liberated by the 1st Free French Division and the Forces Françaises de l'Intérieur. The city is now home to a resistance museum. [19] [20]

Geography

The Saone river in Lyon Lyon, an der Saone, Eglise Saint Georges (42645346872).jpg
The Saône river in Lyon

The Rhône and Saône converge to the south of the historic city centre, forming a peninsula – the " Presqu'île " – bounded by two large hills to the west and north and a large plain eastward. Place Bellecour is located on the Presqu'île between the two rivers and is the third-largest public square in France. The broad, pedestrian-only Rue de la République leads north from Place Bellecour.

The northern hill is La Croix-Rousse, known as "the hill that works" because it is traditionally home to many small silk workshops, an industry for which the city has long been renowned. [21]

The western hill is the Fourvière, known as "the hill that prays" because it is the location for the basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière, several convents, and the residence of the Archbishop. The district, Vieux Lyon, also hosts the Tour métallique (a highly visible TV tower, replicating the last stage of the Eiffel Tower) and one of the city's funicular railways. [22] Fourvière, along with portions of the Presqu'île and much of La Croix-Rousse, is designated as a UNESCO World Heritage site. [23]

East of the Rhône from the Presqu'île is a large flat area upon which sits much of modern Lyon and contains most of the city's population. Situated in this area is the urban centre of La Part-Dieu which clusters the landmark structures Tour Part-Dieu, Tour Oxygène, and Tour Swiss Life, as well as the city's primary railway station, Gare de Lyon-Part-Dieu.

North of this district is the sixth arrondissement, which is home to one of Europe's largest urban parks, the Parc de la Tête d'or, as well as Lycée du Parc and Interpol's world headquarters.

01. Panorama de Lyon pris depuis le toit de la Basilique de Fourviere.jpg
Panorama of the inner city of Lyon, taken from the basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière's roof

Climate

Lyon has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa), on the border with of the oceanic climate (Cfb) due to the higher average temperature being around 22 °C. [24] But in modified classifications such as that of Trewartha, France's third largest city has an oceanic climate (Do) as well as elsewhere in the continent and thus eliminating the humid subtropical zone of Europe. [25] The mean temperature in Lyon in the coldest month is 3.2 °C (37.8 °F) in January and in the warmest month in July is 22 °C (71.6 °F). Precipitation is adequate year-round, at an average of 830 mm (32.7 in), but the winter months are the driest. The highest recorded temperature is 40.5 °C (104.9 °F) on 13 August 2003 while the lowest recorded temperature is −24.6 °C (−12.3 °F) on 22 December 1938. [26]

Climate data for Lyon (LYN), elevation: 197 m (646 ft), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1920–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)19.1
(66.4)
21.9
(71.4)
25.7
(78.3)
30.1
(86.2)
34.2
(93.6)
38.4
(101.1)
40.4
(104.7)
40.5
(104.9)
35.8
(96.4)
28.4
(83.1)
23.0
(73.4)
20.2
(68.4)
40.5
(104.9)
Average high °C (°F)6.4
(43.5)
8.4
(47.1)
13.0
(55.4)
16.3
(61.3)
20.8
(69.4)
24.6
(76.3)
27.7
(81.9)
27.2
(81.0)
22.7
(72.9)
17.4
(63.3)
10.8
(51.4)
7.1
(44.8)
16.9
(62.4)
Daily mean °C (°F)3.4
(38.1)
4.8
(40.6)
8.4
(47.1)
11.4
(52.5)
15.8
(60.4)
19.4
(66.9)
22.1
(71.8)
21.6
(70.9)
17.6
(63.7)
13.4
(56.1)
7.5
(45.5)
4.3
(39.7)
12.5
(54.5)
Average low °C (°F)0.3
(32.5)
1.1
(34.0)
3.8
(38.8)
6.5
(43.7)
10.7
(51.3)
14.1
(57.4)
16.6
(61.9)
16.0
(60.8)
12.5
(54.5)
9.3
(48.7)
4.3
(39.7)
1.6
(34.9)
8.1
(46.6)
Record low °C (°F)−23.0
(−9.4)
−22.5
(−8.5)
−10.5
(13.1)
−4.4
(24.1)
−3.8
(25.2)
2.3
(36.1)
6.1
(43.0)
4.6
(40.3)
0.2
(32.4)
−4.5
(23.9)
−9.4
(15.1)
−24.6
(−12.3)
−24.6
(−12.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches)47.2
(1.86)
44.1
(1.74)
50.4
(1.98)
74.9
(2.95)
90.8
(3.57)
75.6
(2.98)
63.7
(2.51)
62.0
(2.44)
87.5
(3.44)
98.6
(3.88)
81.9
(3.22)
55.2
(2.17)
831.9
(32.75)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)9.07.88.49.311.38.46.97.17.610.29.09.1104.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 73.9101.2170.2190.5221.4254.3283.0252.7194.8129.675.954.52,001.9
Source: Meteo France, [27] [28]

Administration

Map of the City of Lyon divided into 9 arrondissements Arrondissements de Lyon.svg
Map of the City of Lyon divided into 9 arrondissements
Map of the Metropolis of Lyon (the city of Lyon is in red) Metropole de Lyon map-blank.svg
Map of the Metropolis of Lyon (the city of Lyon is in red)

Like Paris and Marseille, the city of Lyon is divided into a number of municipal arrondissements, each of which is identified by a number and has its own council and town hall. Five arrondissements were originally created in 1852, when three neighbouring communes (La Croix-Rousse, La Guillotière, and Vaise) were annexed by Lyon. Between 1867 and 1959, the third arrondissement (which originally covered the whole of the Left Bank of the Rhône) was split three times, creating a new arrondissement in each case. Then, in 1963, the commune of Saint-Rambert-l'Île-Barbe was annexed to Lyon's fifth arrondissement. A year later, in 1964, the fifth was split to create Lyon's 9th – and, to date, final – arrondissement. Within each arrondissement, the recognisable quartiers or neighbourhoods are:

Geographically, Lyon's two main rivers, the Saône and the Rhône, divide the arrondissements into three groups:

Mayors

The lion, symbol of the city, on display at Maison des avocats Lyon lion maison des avocats.jpg
The lion, symbol of the city, on display at Maison des avocats
MayorTerm startTerm end Party
Antoine Gailleton18811900
Victor Augagneur 190030 October 1905 PRS
Édouard Herriot 30 October 190520 September 1940 Radical
Georges Cohendy20 September 19401941Nominated and dismissed by Vichy
Georges Villiers19411942Nominated and dismissed by Vichy
Pierre-Louis-André Bertrand19421944Nominated by Vichy
Justin Godart 194418 May 1945 Radical
Édouard Herriot 18 May 194526 March 1957 Radical
Pierre Montel, ad interim26 March 195714 April 1957 Radical
Louis Pradel14 April 195727 November 1976 Centre-right
Armand Tapernoux, ad interim27 November 19765 December 1976Independent
Francisque Collomb 5 December 197624 March 1989 UDF
Michel Noir 24 March 198925 June 1995 RPR
Raymond Barre 25 June 199525 March 2001 UDF
Gérard Collomb 25 March 200117 July 2017 PS
Georges Képénékian 17 July 20175 November 2018 LREM
Gérard Collomb 5 November 2018Incumbent LREM

Main sights

Antiquity

Middle Ages and Renaissance

17th and 18th centuries

19th century and modern city

Museums

Parks and gardens

The lake in the Parc de la Tete d'or Parc de la Tete d'Or Vue sur le lac7.jpg
The lake in the Parc de la Tête d'or

Economy

La Part-Dieu, the city's central business district La Part-Dieu depuis Saint-Paul.JPG
La Part-Dieu, the city's central business district

The GDP of Lyon was 74 billion euro in 2012, [33] making it the second richest city in France after Paris. Lyon and its region Rhône-Alpes represent one of the most important economies in Europe and, according to Loughborough University, can be compared to Philadelphia, Mumbai or Athens with regard to its international position. The city of Lyon is working in partnership to more easily enable the establishment of new headquarters in the territory (ADERLY, Chambre du commerce et d'industrie, Grand Lyon...). High-tech industries such as biotechnology, software development, video game (Arkane Studios, Ivory Tower, Eden Games, EA France, Bandai Namco Entertainment Europe), and internet services are also growing. Other important sectors include medical research and technology, non-profit institutions, and universities. Lyon is home to the P4-Inserm–ean Merieux Laboratory which conducts top-level vaccine research. [34]

The city is home to the headquarters of many large companies such as Groupe SEB, Sanofi Pasteur, Renault Trucks, Norbert Dentressangle, LCL S.A., Descours & Cabaud, Merial, Point S, BioMérieux, Iveco Bus, Compagnie Nationale du Rhône, GL Events, April Group, Boiron, Feu Vert, Panzani, Babolat, Euronews, Lyon Airports, LVL Medical, and inter-governmental agencies IARC, Interpol. The specialisation of some sectors of activities has led to the creation of many main business centres: La Part-Dieu, located in the 3rd arrondissement is the second biggest business quarter after La Défense in Paris with over 1,600,000 m2 (17,222,256.67 sq ft) of office space and services and more than 55,000 jobs. [35] Cité Internationale, created by the architect Renzo Piano is located in the border of the Parc de la Tête d'Or in the 6th arrondissement. The worldwide headquarters of Interpol is located there. The district of Confluence, in the south of the historic centre, is a new pole of economical and cultural development.

Tourism is an important part of the Lyon economy, with one billion euros in 2007 and 3.5 million hotel-nights in 2006 provided by non-residents. Approximately 60% of tourists visit for business, with the rest for leisure. In January 2009, Lyon ranked first in France for hostels business. The festivals most important for attracting tourists are the Fête des lumières , the Nuits de Fourvière every summer, the Biennale d'art contemporain and the Nuits Sonores .

In 2017, the Lyon region ranked as the leading industrial region in France with a total of 770,000 companies, 500,000 jobs in industry, and 14 competitive clusters encompassing various sectors such as Life Sciences, Cleantech and Digital technologies. [36]

Culture

Historic Site of Lyon
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourviere - panoramio (1).jpg
Criteria Cultural: (ii)(iv)
Reference 872
Inscription1998 (22nd Session)
Area427 ha (1,060 acres)
Buffer zone323 ha (800 acres)

Since the Middle Ages, the residents of the region have spoken several dialects of Franco-Provençal. The Lyonnais dialect was replaced by the French language as the importance of the city grew. However some "frenchified" Franco-Provençal words can also be heard in the French of the Lyonnais, who call their little boys and girls "gones" and "fenottes" for example. [37]

UNESCO World Heritage Site

The Historic Site of Lyon was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1998. In its designation, UNESCO cited the "exceptional testimony to the continuity of urban settlement over more than two millennia on a site of great commercial and strategic significance." [23] The specific regions comprising the Historic Site include the Roman district and Fourvière, the Renaissance district (Vieux Lyon), the silk district (slopes of Croix-Rousse), and the Presqu'île, which features architecture from the 12th century to modern times. [41] Both Vieux Lyon and the slopes of Croix-Rousse are known for their narrow passageways (named traboules ) that pass through buildings and link streets on either side. The first examples of traboules are thought to have been built in Lyon in the 4th century. [42] The traboules allowed the inhabitants to get from their homes to the Saône quickly and allowed the canuts on the Croix-Rousse hill to get from their workshops to the textile merchants at the foot of the hill.

Gastronomy

Lyonnaise potatoes Potatoes lyonnaise.JPG
Lyonnaise potatoes

Lyon has a long and chronicled culinary arts tradition. The noted food critic Curnonsky referred to the city as "the gastronomic capital of the world", [43] a claim repeated by later writers such as Bill Buford. [44] Renowned 3-star Michelin chefs such as Marie Bourgeois [45] and Eugénie Brazier [46] developed Lyonnaise cuisine into a national phenomenon favoured by the French elite; a tradition which Paul Bocuse later turned into a worldwide success. [47]

The bouchon is a traditional Lyonnais restaurant that serves local fare such as sausages, duck pâté or roast pork, along with local wines. Two of France's best known wine-growing regions are located near the city: the Beaujolais region to the north and the Côtes du Rhône region to the south. Another Lyon tradition is a type of brunch food called "mâchons", made of local charcuterie and usually accompanied by Beaujolais red wine. Mâchons were the customary meal of the canuts, the city's silk workers, who ate a late-morning meal after they finished their shifts in the factories. [48]

Other traditional local dishes include coq au vin; quenelle; gras double; salade lyonnaise (lettuce with bacon, croûtons and a poached egg); and the sausage-based rosette lyonnaise and andouillette. Popular local confections include marron glacé and coussin de Lyon. Cervelle de canut (literally, "silk worker's brains") is a cheese spread/dip made of a base of fromage blanc, seasoned with chopped herbs, shallots, salt, pepper, olive oil and vinegar.

More recently, the french tacos was invented in Lyon suburbs in the early 2000s and is now worldwide famous.

Sport

Parc Olympique Lyonnais Parc OL.jpg
Parc Olympique Lyonnais

Lyon is home to the football club Olympique Lyonnais (OL), whose men's team plays in Ligue 1 and has won the championship of that competition seven times, all consecutively from 2002 to 2008). [49] OL played until December 2015 at the 43,000-seat Stade de Gerland, which also hosted matches of the 1998 FIFA World Cup. Since 2016, the team has played at the Parc Olympique Lyonnais, a 59,000-seat stadium located in the eastern suburb of Décines-Charpieu. [50] OL operates a women's team, Olympique Lyonnais Féminin, which competes in and dominates Division 1 Féminine. They are on a streak of 13 top-flight championships (2007–present), and additionally claim the four titles won by the original incarnation of FC Lyon, a women's football club that merged into OL in 2004 (the current FC Lyon was founded in 2009). The OL women have also won the UEFA Women's Champions League five times, including the two most recent editions in 2016 and 2017. Lyon will host the 2019 FIFA Women's World Cup Semi-Finals as well as the 7 July Final at Stade de Lyon.

Lyon has a rugby union team, Lyon OU, in the Top 14, which moved into Stade de Gerland full-time in 2017–18. In addition, Lyon has a rugby league side called Lyon Villeurbanne that plays in the French rugby league championship. The club's home is the Stade Georges Lyvet in Villeurbanne.

Lyon is also home to the Lyon Hockey Club, an ice hockey team that competes in France's national ice hockey league. The Patinoire Charlemagne is the seat of Club des Sports de Glace de Lyon, the club of Olympic ice dancing champions Marina Anissina and Gwendal Peizerat, and world champions Isabelle Delobel and Olivier Shoenfelder. [51] Villeurbanne also has a basketball team, ASVEL, that plays at the Astroballe arena.

Street art

Since 2000, Birdy Kids, a group of graffiti artists from the city, has decorated several random buildings and walls along the Lyon ring road. In 2012, the artist collective has been chosen to represent the city as its cultural ambassadors. [52]


Demographics

The population of the city of Lyon proper was 491,268 at the January 2011 census, [1] 14% of whom were born outside Metropolitan France. [53]


Lyon


Education

Universities and tertiary education

Lumiere University Univ-lyon2-berges-fugier2008-01-25 01.jpg
Lumière University
Jean Moulin University Facultes.JPG
Jean Moulin University
IPSA Lyon Campus IPSA Lyon Campus.jpg
IPSA Lyon Campus

Primary and secondary schools

There are some international private schools in the Lyon area, including:

Supplementary education

Other Japanese supplementary schools:

Transport

Network of highways around Lyon Lyon Autoroutes.svg
Network of highways around Lyon

Lyon–Saint-Exupéry Airport, located east of Lyon, serves as a base for domestic and international flights. It is a key transport facility for the entire Rhône-Alpes region, with coach links to other cities in the area. The in-house train station Gare de Lyon Saint-Exupéry connects the airport to the nationwide TGV network. The Rhônexpress tram monopoly links the airport with the business quarter of La Part Dieu in less than 30 minutes, and offers connections with Underground A & B, Tramway T1, T3 & T4, and bus lines. Lyon public transport Sytral offers no service despite a bus service operating to a nearby suburb. The regular price of public transport is €1.90, as opposed to €15 one way for the Rhonexpress. In the suburb of Bron, the smaller Lyon-Bron Airport provides an alternative for domestic aviation.

Lyon has two major railway stations: Lyon Part-Dieu, which was built to accommodate the TGV, and Lyon Perrache, an older station that now provides mostly regional service. Smaller railway stations include Gorge-de-Loup, Vaise, Vénissieux, Saint-Paul and Jean Macé. Lyon was the first city to be connected to Paris by the TGV in 1981. Since that time the TGV train network has expanded and links Lyon directly to Perpignan, Toulouse, Nice, Marseille, Strasbourg, Nantes and Lille. International trains operate directly to Madrid, Barcelona, Milan, Turin, Geneva, Frankfurt, Luxembourg, Brussels and London.

The city is at the heart of a dense road network and is located at the meeting point of several highways: A6 (to Paris); A7 (to Marseille); A42 (to Geneva); and A43 (to Grenoble). The city is now bypassed by the A46. A double motorway tunnel passes under Fourvière, connecting the A6 and the A7 autoroutes, both forming the "Autoroute du Soleil".

Lyon is served by the Eurolines intercity coach organisation. Its Lyon terminal is located at the city's Perrache railway station, which serves as an intermodal transportation hub that also includes tramways, local and regional trains and buses, the terminus of Metro line A, of the Tramway T2, the bicycle service Vélo'v, and taxis.

Public transport map Lyon - transports en commun - Farben nach Transportmittel.png
Public transport map

The Transports en commun lyonnais (TCL), Lyon's public transit system, consisting of metro, tramways and buses, serves 62 communes of the Lyon metropolis. The metro network has four lines (  A    B    C    D  ), 42 stations, and runs with a frequency of up to a train every 2 minutes. There are five Lyon tram lines (  T1   T2   T3   T4   T5) since April 2009: T1 from Debourg in the south to IUT-Feyssine in the north, Tram T2 from Perrache railway station to Saint-Priest in the south-east, Tram T3 from Part-Dieu to Meyzieu, Tram T4 from 'Hôptial Feyzin Venissieux' to Gaston Berger. Tram T5 from Grange Blanche, in the south-east to Eurexpo in the south-wast. The Lyon bus network consists of the Lyon trolleybus system, motorbuses, and coaches for areas outside the centre. There are also two funicular lines from Vieux Lyon to Saint-Just and Fourvière. The ticketing system is relatively simple as the city has only one public transport operator, the SYTRAL.

The public transit system has been complemented since 2005 by Vélo'v , a bicycle network providing a low-cost service where bicycles can be hired and returned at any of 340 stations throughout the city. Borrowing a bicycle for less than 30 minutes is free. Free rental time can be extended for another 30 minutes at any station. Lyon was the first city in France to introduce this bicycle renting system. In 2011 the Auto'lib car rental service was introduced; it works much the same way as the Velo'v but for cars.

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Lyon on a weekday is 45 minutes. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 11 min, while 17% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 4.7 km, while 4% travel for over 12 km in a single direction. [56]

International relations

Lyon is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission "Intercultural cities" program. [57]

Sister cities

Lyon is twinned with: [58]

See also

Notes

  1. A war cry from 1269, spelt in modern Franco-Provençal as Avant, Avant, Liyon lo mèlyor.
  2. Traditionally spelled in English Lyons and in this case alternatively pronounced /ˈlənz/ . [6] [7]

Related Research Articles

Traboule passageway mainly found in Lyon, France

Traboules are a type of passageway primarily associated with the city of Lyon, France, but also located in the French cities of Villefranche-sur-Saône, Mâcon, Saint-Étienne, along with a few in Chambéry). In Lyon, they were originally used by silk manufacturers and other merchants to transport their products.

The Funiculars of Lyon is a network of funicular railways in Lyon, France. Of the five lines once in existence, only the two routes on the Fourvière hill remain in operation, with the rest of the network now either closed, converted to road vehicle use, or integrated within the Lyon underground system.

Arrondissements of Lyon administrative divisions of the City of Lyon in France

The nine arrondissements of Lyon are the administrative divisions of the City of Lyon. Unlike the spiral pattern of the arrondissements of Paris, or the meandering pattern of those in Marseille, the layout in Lyon is more idiosyncratic. This is for historical reasons: following the annexation of the communes of La Guillotière, La Croix-Rousse and Vaise in 1852, the newly enlarged city was divided into 5 arrondissements, which originally spiralled out anticlockwise from the Hôtel de Ville ; however, as the city's population expanded, it became necessary to split certain arrondissements, giving rise to today's seemingly random pattern.

Lyon tramway tramway network in Lyon, France

The Lyon tramway comprises six lines, five lines operated by TCL and one by Rhônexpress in the city of Lyon in Rhône-Alpes, France. The original tramway network in Lyon was developed in 1879, and the modern network was built in 2001.

La Croix-Rousse hill in the town of Lyon, France

La Croix-Rousse is a hill 254 metres (833 ft) high in the city of Lyon, France, as well as the name of a neighborhood located on this hill. The neighborhood is divided into les pentes and le plateau. The name "La Croix-Rousse" comes from a reddish-brown stone cross erected there in the 16th century. This zone is served by Metro line  C .

Presquîle place in the city centre of Lyon, France

The Presqu’île is the heart of Lyon, France. Extending from the foot of the Croix Rousse hill to the confluence of the Rhône and the Saône rivers, it has a preponderance of cafés, restaurants, luxury shops, department stores, banks, government buildings, and cultural institutions. The 1st and 2nd arrondissements of the city are located here, along with the Hôtel de Ville. The spires of the church of St. Nizier, reconstructed starting in the 14th century, are at the foot of the former Saône river bridge. Though the business centre is located to the east in the 3rd arrondissement, road signs pointing to the centre of the city take drivers to Place Bellecour in the 2nd.

1st arrondissement of Lyon French municipal arrondissement in Rhône-Alpes, France

The 1st arrondissement of Lyon, France is one of the nine arrondissements of the City of Lyon. It is located below the hill of Croix-Rousse and on the north part of the Presqu'île formed by the Saône and the Rhône, the two rivers in Lyon

Place des Terreaux public square located in the centre of Lyon, France

The Place des Terreaux is a square located in the center of Lyon, France on the Presqu'île between the Rhône and the Saône, at the foot of the hill of La Croix-Rousse in the 1st arrondissement of Lyon. The square belongs to the zone classified as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

2nd arrondissement of Lyon French municipal arrondissement in Rhône-Alpes, France

The 2nd arrondissement of Lyon is one of the nine arrondissements of the City of Lyon.

4th arrondissement of Lyon French municipal arrondissement in Rhône-Alpes, France

The 4th arrondissement of Lyon is one of the nine arrondissements of the City of Lyon.

5th arrondissement of Lyon French municipal arrondissement in Rhône-Alpes, France

The 5th arrondissement of Lyon is one of the nine arrondissements of the City of Lyon.

Clair Tisseur architect and popular writer

Clair Tisseur, was a French architect whose best known work is Église du Bon-Pasteur, a prominent Romanesque Revival church in the 1st arrondissement of Lyon. He is also remembered as a historian, linguist, biographer, poet, novelist, journalist, moralist, and satirist who frequently published his writings under the pen name Nizier du Puitspelu.

Gare de Lyon-Saint-Paul railway station in Lyon, France

Lyon-Saint-Paul is a railway station in the 5th arrondissement of Lyon, France. It is located at the northern end of the Vieux Lyon quarter, between the base of the Fourvière hill and the river Saône. The station is a terminus for local trains serving the western suburbs of the city.

Église Saint-Polycarpe church in Lyon, France

The Église Saint-Polycarpe is a Roman Catholic church located in the 1st arrondissement of Lyon, on the slopes of La Croix-Rousse, between rue René Leynaud, rue Burdeau and passages Mermet and Thiaffait. It is the oldest church of the Oratory of Saint Philip Neri.

Rue du Bœuf street in Lyon, France

The Rue du Bœuf is a 188-metre cobbled pedestrian street of the Vieux Lyon quarter, located in the 5th arrondissement of Lyon. Very representative of the Renaissance architecture of the neighborhood, it is lined only with old houses from the 16th or 17th century. The street connects the rue de Gadagne which it continues after the Place du Petit Collège and the intersection of the rue du Chemin Neuf, the rue de la Bombarde and the rue Tramassac which prolongs it. The street belongs to the zone classified as World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

Montée du Gourguillon street in Lyon, France

The Montée du Gourguillon is an old street of the hill of Fourvière in the 5th arrondissement of Lyon, between the Saint-Jean and Saint-Just quarters. It begins from the Place de la Trinité and ends with the rue des Farges. The street belongs to the zone classified as World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Lyon, France.

<i>Berges du Rhône</i>

The Berges du Rhône or Quais du Rhône refer to a series of parks, quays, streets and walking paths along the Rhône river in Lyon, France. The construction for the modern Berges du Rhône took place between 2005 and 2007, resulting in the development of 10 hectares of land on the left and right banks of the Rhône from Parc de la Tête d'Or to Parc de Gerland.

Parc des Hauteurs park in Lyon, France

Parc des Hauteurs is an urban park on Fourvière hill in Lyon, France. It encompasses the public spaces between the basilique de Fourvière and Loyasse cemetery.

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