Lysgårdsbakken

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Lysgårdsbakken
Lysgårdsbakkene Ski Jumping Arena
Lysgard.JPG
Lysgårdsbakken
Location Lillehammer
Norway
Opened1993
Renovated2007
Size
K–point K-90
K-123
Hill size HS100
HS138
Hill record Karl Geiger
(107.5 m in 2013)
Simon Amman
(146.0 m in 2009)
Top events
Olympics 1994 Winter Olympics
2016 Winter Youth Olympics

Lysgårdsbakken, officially known as Lysgårdsbakkene Ski Jumping Arena (Norwegian : Lysgårdsbakkene hoppanlegg), is a ski jumping hill in Lillehammer, Norway. It consists of a large hill, with a K-point of 123 and a hill size of 138, and a small hill with a K-point of 90 and a hill size of 100. It opened in 1993 for the 1994 Winter Olympics, where it hosted the ski jumping and Nordic combined events, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. After the Olympics, ownership was transferred to the municipal Lillehammer Olympiapark and it has since been used for several FIS Ski Jumping World Cup and FIS Nordic Combined World Cup tournaments, including hosting the Nordic Tournament. It has a capacity for 35,000 spectators and is one of three national ski jumping hills in Norway. In 2007, the large hill was rebuilt to a larger profile, and received a new plastic lining. The venue sees 80,000 annual jumps in the winter and 20,000 in the summer season.

Norwegian language North Germanic language spoken in Norway

Norwegian is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language. Along with Swedish and Danish, Norwegian forms a dialect continuum of more or less mutually intelligible local and regional varieties; some Norwegian and Swedish dialects, in particular, are very close. These Scandinavian languages, together with Faroese and Icelandic as well as some extinct languages, constitute the North Germanic languages. Faroese and Icelandic are not mutually intelligible with Norwegian in their spoken form because continental Scandinavian has diverged from them. While the two Germanic languages with the greatest numbers of speakers, English and German, have close similarities with Norwegian, neither is mutually intelligible with it. Norwegian is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era.

Ski jumping hill venue used for ski jumping

A ski jumping hill is a sports venue used for ski jumping. They vary in size from temporary handmade snow structures to permanent competition venues. At the top is an in-run where the jumper runs down to generate sufficient speed, before reaching the jump. The skier is then airborne until landing on the landing slope. The last part of the hill is the out-run, which may be either flat or even uphill, allowing the jumper to stop. The steepest point of the hill is the construction point, which is used to determine the score of a particular length. The size of a hill is measured in the hill size. Hills with a hill size exceeding HS185 are designated ski flying hills; there are five such hills in the world.

Lillehammer Municipality in Oppland, Norway

Lillehammer is a town and municipality in Oppland county, Norway. It is part of the traditional region of Gudbrandsdal. The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Lillehammer. As of 2018, the population of the town of Lillehammer was 28,034. The city centre is a late nineteenth-century concentration of wooden houses, which enjoys a picturesque location overlooking the northern part of lake Mjøsa and the river Lågen, surrounded by mountains. Lillehammer hosted the 1994 Winter Olympics and 2016 Winter Youth Olympics. Before Oslo's withdrawal from consideration, it was included as part of a bid to host events in the 2022 Winter Olympics if Oslo were to win the rights to hold the Games.

Contents

Construction

Stands and commentator boxes Lysgardsbakken stands.jpg
Stands and commentator boxes

The plans which were approved when Lillehammer were awarded the 1994 Winter Olympics, involved using the existing Balbergbakken in Fåberg, north of Lillehammer. [1] However, the venue was rejected by the broadcasting planners, and instead it was decided that an all-new venue would be built at Lysgård. [2] Financing of the venue was given through a grant issued by the Parliament of Norway on 1 August 1990. Architects were Økaw Arkitekter, with Martin M. Bakken as the main contractor. Construction had already stated earlier in 1990, and it was completed by December 1992. The seating area was made with pre-fabricated concrete elements with metal bars. Temporary buildings and facilities for the opening ceremonies were installed in December 1993, and removed after the Olympics. [3] This included 70 commentator boxes, a media center, and offices for technical personnel. [4] The original construction included plastic on the outrun and porcelain tracks on the small hill, allowing jumping during summer. The venue was placed deep in the terrain to shield the jumpers from the wind while minimizing the venue's impact in the surroundings. [5] The National Association of Norwegian Architects awarded the hill the 1993 Betongtavlen. [6] In 2007, the large hill was renovated. The profile was expanded, increasing the K-point from 120 to 123. In addition, plastic way was laid, allowing both hills to be used during summer. [7]

Balbergbakken or Balbergbakkene was a ski jumping hill complex located at Fåberg in Lillehammer, Norway. The centerpiece consisted of a large hill with a construction point of 120 meters (390 ft) (K-120), in addition to three smaller K-40, K-25 and K-15 hills. The venue was opened in 1972, having cost slightly more than one million Norwegian krone (NOK) after significant cost overruns. Balbergbakken hosted three Norwegian Championships, in 1973, 1978 and 1983, and a FIS Ski Jumping World Cup in 1984. The hill record of 130.5 meters was set by Tom Levorstad in 1981. It was planned that the venue would be used for the 1994 Winter Olympics, but because of lack of infrastructure, the new Lysgårdsbakken was built instead. Balbergbakken was closed in 1992.

Fåberg

Fåberg is a village and former municipality in Oppland county, Norway.

Økaw Arkitekter

ØKAW Arkitekter is an architecture firm based in Oslo, Norway and established in 1969. As of 2017, partners are Tom Wike, Øystein Midtbø, Rolf Erik Wahlstrøm, Trine Hauge, Hanne Sørbø, Elisabeth Edin Ruge, Tone Andreassen, Nicca Gade Christensen, Sturla Sandsdalen, Lasse Brøgger and Margrethe Maisey.

Facilities

The hill has a capacity for 35,000 spectators, of which 7,500 can be seated. [3] In addition, up to 25,000 people can follow events from free areas around the venue. [8] Auxiliary structures include a start house, a judges tower—which includes office space for organizers and judges—a media building, and a technical room below the stands, as well as a first aid room and restrooms. It also features a high-pressure snow production facility with outtakes all along the approach and outrun. Transport to the tower of the large hill is accessible via a chair lift. [4] During the Olympics, transport to the venues was mostly by railway. Spectators discharged at Lillehammer Station on the Dovre Line and would then walk to the stadium. [9]

Lillehammer Station railway station in Lillehammer, Norway

Lillehammer is a railway station located in downtown Lillehammer, Norway, on the Dovre Line. The station was opened in 1894 with the construction of the railway between Hamar Station and Tretten Station. The station got a major overhaul before the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer. It is located 184.18 kilometers (114.44 mi) from Oslo Central Station and at 179.5 meters (589 ft) above mean sea level.

Dovre Line railway line

The Dovre Line is a Norwegian railway line with three slightly different lines which all lead to the historic city of Trondheim.

View down the large hill, from before the renovation Lillehammer skijumper.jpg
View down the large hill, from before the renovation

The small hill has a K-point of 90 and a hill size of 100. It has a 36 degree slope for the outrun and an 11 degree slope for the approach. The height difference is 112 meters (367 ft) and the approach is 82 meters (269 ft) long. Prior to 2007, the large hill had a K-point of 123, a 27.5 degree slope for the outrun and an 11.5 degree slope for the approach. The height difference was 137 meters (449 ft), while the approach is 96.6 meters (317 ft) long. [4] After 2007, the hill size was increased to 138 and the K-point to 123. [7]

Events

During the 1994 Winter Olympics, the venue hosted three ski jumping and two Nordic combined events, in addition to the opening and closing ceremonies. [3] Competition events consisted of individual normal hill, individual large hill, and team large hill in ski jumping, [10] and individual and team small hill for Nordic combined. [11]

Ski jumping at the 1994 Winter Olympics ski jumping events during the 1994 Olympic Winter Games

Ski jumping at the 1994 Winter Olympics consisted of three events held from 20 February to 25 February, taking place at Lysgårdsbakken.

Nordic combined at the 1994 Winter Olympics 1994 edition of the Nordic combined skiing competitions during the Olympic Winter Games

Nordic combined at the 1994 Winter Olympics, consisted of two events, held from 18 February to 24 February. The ski jumping portion took place at Lysgårdsbakken, while the cross-country portion took place at Birkebeineren Ski Stadium.

The men's normal hill individual ski jumping competition for the 1994 Winter Olympics was held in Lysgårdsbakken. It occurred on 25 February.

The hills in 2007, just after the new plastic had been laid Lysgardsbakkene 02.jpg
The hills in 2007, just after the new plastic had been laid

Lysgårdsbakken is a regular site for FIS Ski Jumping World Cup and FIS Nordic Combined World Cup tournaments. FIS Ski Jumping World Cup has been hosted nearly every year since 1993. [12] Since 2004, with the exception of 2007 and 2010, Lysgårdsbakken is a co-host of the Nordic Tournament. [12] The FIS Nordic Combined World Cup has been hosted nine times, in 1993, 1998, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2009, and 2010. All tournaments have been held in December; nine of the ten have had the cross-country skiing part held at nearby Birkebeineren Ski Stadium, while in 2001 the cross-country skiing was held at Beitostølen. [13] Lillehammer is scheduled to host the 2016 Winter Youth Olympics, [14] where Lysgårdsbakken would be used for ski jumping and Nordic combined. [15]

The Nordic Tournament was an annual ski jumping tournament that was a part of the FIS Ski Jumping World Cup. The tournament started in 1997 as a counterpart to the widely successful Four Hills Tournament in Germany and Austria. It is held in March in Finland and Norway, earlier even in Sweden.

Birkebeineren Ski Stadium is a cross-country skiing and biathlon venue located in Lillehammer, Norway. Situated 3 kilometers (2 mi) from the town center and at 485 meters (1,591 ft) above mean sea level, it has two stadium areas, one for cross-country and one for biathlon. The former has a capacity for 31,000 spectators, and the latter for 13,500. The venue was built for the 1994 Winter Olympics, costing 83.6 million Norwegian krone (NOK). It was subsequently used by the 1994 Winter Paralympics for Paralympic Nordic skiing and Paralympic biathlon. After the games, ownership was transferred to the municipal Lillehammer Olympiapark. The venue has since been used for one Biathlon World Cup, three FIS Cross-Country World Cup and nine FIS Nordic Combined World Cup tournaments, the latter with the ski jumping competition taking place at the nearby Lysgårdsbakkene Ski Jumping Arena. Birkebeineren is scheduled to host the 2016 Winter Youth Olympics.

Beitostølen Place in Oppland, Norway

Beitostølen is a village at Øystre Slidre in Oppland, Norway. As of 1 January 2009, it had 247 residents, and is located 900 meters (3,000 ft) above mean sea level.

The hill record for the large hill is 146 meters (479 ft), set by Simon Amman in 2009. The summer record for the large hill is 140.5 meters (461 ft), set by Thomas Lobben in 2007. The winter record for the small hill is 104 meters (341 ft), set by Espen Bredesen during the 1994 Olympics. The summer small hill record is 106.5 meters (349 ft), set by Daniela Iraschko in 2010. [7] The hill is one of three national ski jumping hills in Norway, with the other two being Holmenkollbakken in Oslo and Granåsen in Trondheim. [16] Lysgårdsbakken is regularly used as a training venue, and sees 80,000 winter jumps and 20,000 summer jumps per year. [7]

In 2005, the hills were the eleventh-most visited tourist attraction in Norway. [17] The hill has a souvenir shop and visitors are permitted to take the elevator to the top of the hill. Alternatively, tourists can walk the 954 steps to the top. [7] In 2006, the BBC One television show Top Gear's episode "Winter Olympics Special", was filmed at various Olympic venues around Lillehammer. It included a successful attempt at a ski jump using an unoccupied rocket-powered British Leyland Mk V Mini. [18] KT Tunstall shot the majority of the video for her 2008 single "If Only" at Lysgårdsbakken. [19]

Related Research Articles

1994 Winter Olympics 17th edition of Winter Olympics, held in Lillehammer (Norway) in 1994

The 1994 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVII Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 12 to 27 February 1994 in and around Lillehammer, Norway.

Holmenkollbakken

Holmenkollbakken is a large ski jumping hill located at Holmenkollen in Oslo, Norway. It has a hill size of HS134, a construction point of K-120, and a capacity for 70,000 spectators. Holmenkollen has hosted the Holmenkollen Ski Festival since 1892, which since 1980 have been part of the FIS Ski Jumping World Cup and 1983 the FIS Nordic Combined World Cup. It has also hosted the 1952 Winter Olympics and the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in 1930, 1966, 1982 and 2011.

Lillehammer Olympic Bobsleigh and Luge Track

Lillehammer Olympic Bobsleigh and Luge Track is a bobsleigh, luge and skeleton track located at Hunderfossen in Lillehammer, Norway, 15 kilometers (9 mi) north of the town center of Lillehammer. It was completed in 1992 for the 1994 Winter Olympics, where it hosted the bobsleigh events and luge events. It has since also hosted the FIBT World Championships 1995 in skeleton and the FIL World Luge Championships 1995, and hosted 2016 Winter Youth Olympics.

2016 Winter Youth Olympics 2016 edition of the Winter Youth Olympics

The 2016 Winter Youth Olympics, officially known as the II Winter Youth Olympic Games, took place in and around Lillehammer, Norway, between 12 February and 21 February 2016. They were the fourth Youth Olympic Games and the second winter edition. Lillehammer was awarded the games on 7 December 2011 as the only candidate. The games reused venues from the 1994 Winter Olympics. In addition to Lillehammer, sports were contested in Hamar, Gjøvik and Øyer.

Kanthaugen Freestyle Arena building in Lillehammer, Oppland, Norway

Kanthaugen Freestyle Arena is a freestyle skiing stadium located in the hillside area of Kanthaugen in Lillehammer, Norway. Opened in 1992, it was built for the 1994 Winter Olympics. The venue consists of three hills—one each for aerials, moguls and ski ballet. The moguls hill has a capacity for 12,000 spectators while the other two have a 15,000-person capacity. The arena is designated as Norway's national venue for freestyle skiing. It hosted the FIS Freestyle Skiing World Cup in 1993 and 1995, and is scheduled to host freestyle skiing and snowboarding at the 2016 Winter Youth Olympics. The arena is owned by Lillehammer Olympiapark and is located adjacent to the ski jumping hill Lysgårdsbakken.

Lillehammer Olympiapark

Lillehammer Olympiapark AS, trading as Olympiaparken, is a company established following the 1994 Winter Olympics to operate the Olympic venues in Lillehammer, Norway. Owned by Lillehammer Municipality, it operates five sports venues: Birkebeineren Ski Stadium, Håkons Hall, Lillehammer Olympic Bobsleigh and Luge Track, Kanthaugen Freestyle Arena and the ski jumping hill of Lysgårdsbakken. In addition to serving sports events, the company provides tourist and group activities at the venues as well as catering to larger events.

The 2009–10 FIS Ski Jumping World Cup was the 31st World Cup season in ski jumping and the 13th official World Cup season in ski flying. It started on 26 November 2009 at the Rukatunturi ski jumping hill in Kuusamo, Finland and finished on 14 March 2010 at Holmenkollen, Norway.

Venues of the 1994 Winter Olympics Wikimedia list article

The 1994 Winter Olympics were held in and around Lillehammer, Norway, from 12 to 27 February 1994. Ten competition and fourteen non-competition venues were used, most of which were subsequently used for the 1994 Winter Paralympics. The Games were spread out over ten venues in five municipalities in two counties, Oppland and Hedmark. Lillehammer, with approximately 25,000 inhabitants, and Hamar and Gjøvik, both with approximately 27,000 inhabitants, are all situated on the lake Mjøsa. Gjøvik and Hamar are 45 and 54 kilometers south of Lillehammer, respectively. Hunderfossen is 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) north of Lillehammer, but located within the municipality. Øyer and Ringebu, each with just under 5,000 inhabitants, are 18 and 50 kilometers north of Lillehammer, respectively, in the valley Gudbrandsdalen. Lillehammer had four competition venues, Hamar had two competition venues, while Hunderfossen, Gjøvik, Øyer and Ringebu had one competition venue each.

Rødkleiva mountain in Norway

Rødkleiva is a hill located in Nordmarka in Oslo, Norway. It was taken into use as a slalom hill in 1947 and was used for the combined event of the Holmenkollen Ski Festival eleven times between 1947 and 1963. It hosted the slalom events for the 1952 Winter Olympics, which saw a crowd of at least 25,000 spectators. The Olympic course was 422.5 meters (1,386 ft) long and had a drop of 169 meters (554 ft). The course gradually fell into disrepair and was closed in 1988.

Holmenkollen National Arena ski and biathlon venue

Holmenkollen National Arena is a Nordic skiing and biathlon venue located at Holmenkollen in Oslo, Norway. It consists of the large ski jumping hill Holmenkollbakken, the normal hill Midtstubakken and a stadium for cross-country skiing and a shooting range for biathlon. Since 1892, it has hosted the annual Holmenkollen Ski Festival, which is part of the world cup tournaments in ski jumping, cross-country skiing, Nordic combined, as well as annual Biathlon World Cup races. It has previously hosted the 1952 Winter Olympics, and the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in 1930, 1966, 1982 and 2011.

Big Thunder Ski Jumping Center architectural structure

Big Thunder Ski Jumping Centre was a twin ski jumping hill located in Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario, Canada. It constitutes part of Big Thunder National Training Centre. The first hills were built by Knute and Thor Hansen and opened in 1963. They were originally known as Lille Norway Ski Area, then Mt. Norway Ski Area, and Sundance Northwest Resort before taking the current name. The large and normal hills were built in 1974 and the venue was taken over by the provincial government in 1985. The hills hosted 29 FIS Ski Jumping World Cup and 50 Canadian Ski Jumping Championships tournaments between 1975 and 1995, climaxing with the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 1995. Funding was then cut and the venue has since been closed and unmaintained.

Venues of the 2016 Winter Youth Olympics Wikimedia list article

The 2016 Winter Youth Olympics in and around Lillehammer, Norway, between 12 February and 21 February 2016. Nine competition and twelve non-competition venues are to be used; all except the Youth Olympic Village in Lillehammer and a training ice rink being are existing venues. All the competition venues and some of the non-competition venues were built ahead of the 1994 Winter Olympics. The games be held in four municipalities: Lillehammer, Hamar, Gjøvik and Øyer.

Tremplin du Praz

Tremplin du Praz is a ski jumping hill at Le Praz in Courchevel, France. The complex consists of four hills: a large hill with construction point of K125 (HS137), a normal hill at K90 (HS96), and two training hills at K60 and K25. The complex also has a cross-country skiing stadium used for Nordic combined. Jörg Ritzerfeld holds the large hill winter record of 134.0 metres and Nicolas Mayer the normal hill record of 100.5 metres.

Igman Olympic Jumps

Igman Olympic Jumps, also known as Malo Polje, is a ski jumping hill on the mountain of Igman in Ilidža, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. It consists of a large hill with a construction point (K-point) of 112 meters (367 ft) and a normal hill with a K-point of 90 meters (295 ft). Construction started in 1980 and the venue opened in 1982 to host ski jumping and Nordic combined at the 1984 Winter Olympics. The large hill event saw Finland's Matti Nykänen set the hill record of 116.0 meters (381 ft) in front of 90,000 spectators. No other International Ski Federation (FIS) sanctioned competitions have taken place at the hills. During the Siege of Sarajevo, the hills became a battleground and have since not been used. However, there are plans to rebuild the in-run, expand the large hill and build new spectator stands and visitor facilities.

The men's team Nordic combined competition for the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer was held at Lysgårdsbakken and Birkebeineren Ski Stadium on 23 and 24 February.

Nordic combined at the 2016 Winter Youth Olympics

Nordic combined at the 2016 Winter Youth Olympics was held at the Lysgårdsbakken in Lillehammer, Norway on 16 February. Nordic combined athletes also took part at the mixed ski jumping team event and the nordic team event.

References

  1. Hansen, Espen (2 April 1985). "Hvem får OL?". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). p. 18.
  2. Kvalheim, Svein (29 January 1994). "Kongen på haugen". Bergens Tidende (in Norwegian). p. 29.
  3. 1 2 3 LOOC (III): 18
  4. 1 2 3 LOOC (III): 21
  5. LOOC (III): 22
  6. National Association of Norwegian Architects. "Betongtavlen". Archived from the original on 8 December 2010. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 Lillehammer Olympiapark. "Lysgårdsbakkene hoppsenter" (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 3 October 2010. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
  8. LOOC (II): 241–242
  9. LOOC (III): 43
  10. LOOC (IV): 106–112
  11. LOOC (IV): 129–135
  12. 1 2 International Ski Federation. "Results". Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
  13. International Ski Federation. "Nordic combined World Cup Lillehammer medalist history: 1993-2010". Archived from the original on 3 January 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
  14. "Lillehammer awarded 2016 Winter Youth Olympic Games". Inside the Games. 7 December 2011. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2011.
  15. Norwegian Olympic and Paralympic Committee and Confederation of Sports. "Candidate city for the Winter Youth Olympic Games: Lillehammer 2016" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
  16. Ministry of Culture (19 December 1999). "Nasjonalanlegg – anlegg for internasjonale mesterskap og konkurranser" (in Norwegian).
  17. "Turistattraksjoner: Plass 11 til 50". British Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 2 December 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
  18. "Series 7 – Episode 7". British Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 2 December 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
  19. Nyhagen, Alexander (27 February 2008). "Se premieren på KT Tunstalls "norske" video" (in Norwegian). Verdens Gang. Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
Bibliography

Coordinates: 61°07′30″N10°29′14″E / 61.12500°N 10.48722°E / 61.12500; 10.48722