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|President of South Ossetia|
September 17, 1993 –December 18, 2001
|Prime Minister|| Gerasim Khugayev |
|Preceded by||Torez Kulumbegov|
|Succeeded by||Eduard Kokoity|
|Born||November 9, 1932|
Tskhinvali, South Ossetia
Lyudvig Alekseyevich Chibirov (Ossetian : Цыбырты Алексейы фырт ЛюдвигCybyrty Aleksejy fyrt Ljudvig, Georgian :ლუდვიგ ჩიბიროვი, Russian : Лю́двиг Алексе́евич Чи́биров; born November 19, 1932 in Tskhinvali) was the Chairman of the Parliament and later, following inaugural elections the first President of South Ossetia. Born in 1932, Chibirov is a former member of the South Ossetian Parliament. Prior to the elections in 1996, he had been South Ossetia's head of state since 1993. When the post of Chairman of the Parliament was abolished in favor of the presidency, Chibirov became the first occupant of the new office.
Ossetian, also known as Ossete and Ossetic, is an Eastern Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains. It is a relative and possibly a descendant of the extinct Scythian, Sarmatian, and Alanic languages.
Georgian is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians. It is the official language of Georgia. Georgian is written in its own writing system, the Georgian script. Georgian is the literary language for all regional subgroups of Georgians, including those who speak other Kartvelian languages: Svans, Mingrelians and the Laz.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.
During the 1996 elections, he received 65% of the vote compared with former Prime Minister Vladislav Gabaraev, who advocates South Ossetia's secession from the Republic of Georgia and its unification with North Ossetia in Russia, won about 20%. Georgian President Eduard Shevardnadze blasted the elections calling them "unlawful."
Presidential elections were held in South Ossetia on 10 November 1996. The result was a victory for Lyudvig Chibirov, who received 52.3% of the vote.
Georgia known until 1995 as the Republic of Georgia is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan. The capital and largest city is Tbilisi. Georgia covers a territory of 69,700 square kilometres (26,911 sq mi), and its 2017 population is about 3.718 million. Georgia is a unitary parliamentary republic, with the government elected through a representative democracy.
Eduard Ambrosiyevich Shevardnadze was a Georgian politician and diplomat. He served as First Secretary of the Georgian Communist Party (GPC), the de facto leader of Soviet Georgia from 1972 to 1985 and as Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. Shevardnadze was responsible for many key decisions in Soviet foreign policy during the Gorbachev Era including reunification of Germany. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, he was President of Georgia from 1992 to 2003. He was forced to retire in 2003 as a consequence of the bloodless Rose Revolution.
In the next elections in 2001, the 69-year-old Chibirov received less than 20% of the votes, while Stanislav Kochiev came in second with 25%, and the 38-year-old Eduard Kokoity (Kokoyev) won with more than 48% of the vote.
Stanislav Jakovlevich Kochiev is a South Ossetian politician, who is a former presidential candidate and former chairman (speaker) of the Parliament of South Ossetia.
Eduard Dzhabeyevich Kokoyty is the former President of South Ossetia. His term in office lasted just under ten years, beginning December 2001 and ending December 2011.
The Georgian–Ossetian conflict is an ethno-political conflict over Georgia's former autonomous region of South Ossetia, which evolved in 1989 and developed into a 1991–1992 South Ossetia War. Despite a declared ceasefire and numerous peace efforts, the conflict remained unresolved. In August 2008, military tensions and clashes between Georgia and South Ossetian separatists erupted into the Russo-Georgian War.
South Ossetia, a mostly unrecognized republic in the South Caucasus, formerly the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast within the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic with its capital in Tskhinvali, held a referendum on independence on November 12, 2006.
A presidential election in South Ossetia, an unrecognized republic within Georgia, was held on November 12, 2006, coinciding with the South Ossetian independence referendum. Incumbent Eduard Kokoity was seeking a second full five-year term. He was re-elected with more than 98.1%. According to the de facto authorities, the election was monitored by a team of 34 international observers from Germany, Austria, Poland, Sweden and other countries at 78 polling stations. The Ukrainian delegation was led by Nataliya Vitrenko of the Progressive Socialist Party of Ukraine. The election process was criticised by local civic society and the results were likely to be inflated.
The Communist Party of South Ossetia is a communist political party in South Ossetia. The party was founded in 1993. As of 2004, the party claimed a membership of 1500. The party seeks recognition of the Republic of South Ossetia.
Dmitry Ivanovich Sanakoyev is a South Ossetian and Georgian politician, a former official in the secessionist government of South Ossetia and currently Head of the Provisional Administration of South Ossetia, a rival entity established in 2007 in the Georgian-controlled territories of this separatist region.
The People of South Ossetia for Peace movement was the opposition party and political movement in South Ossetia which was formed by the ethnic Ossetians who had been formerly members of the secessionist government in Tskhinvali and outspoken critics of de facto separatist regime in Tskhinvali, headed at that time by Eduard Kokoity.
The 1991–1992 South Ossetian War was fought as part of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict between Georgian government forces and ethnic Georgian militia on one side and the forces of South Ossetia and North Ossetian volunteers who wanted South Ossetia to secede from Georgia and become an independent state on the other. The war ended with a Russian-brokered ceasefire, signed on 24 June 1992, which established a joint peacekeeping force and left South Ossetia divided between the rival authorities.
The Provisional Administration of South Ossetia is an administrative body that Georgia regards as the legal government of South Ossetia. The administration was set up by the Georgian government as a transitional measure leading to the settlement of South Ossetia's status. As of 2007, Georgia is proposing the status of autonomous republic within the Georgian state. The area mainly lies within the Shida Kartli region.
A parliamentary election in South Ossetia, a breakaway region of Georgia recognised as an independent state by Russia and Nicaragua, was held in June 2009. According to the preliminary results, the highest number of votes went to the ruling Unity Party. Two opposition parties were not permitted to run out of concern that they might not be loyal to Eduard Kokoity, the President of South Ossetia.
The Parliament of South Ossetia is the unicameral legislature of the partially recognized Republic of South Ossetia. Members are elected using a system of Party-list proportional representation. South Ossetia has a multi-party system, and currently 4 political parties are represented in parliament. The parliament is headed by a speaker, who is elected from among the members. The current speaker is Pyotr Gassiev, member of parliament for United Ossetia.
Gerasim "Rezo" Georgievich Khugayev is an Ossetian politician a former Prime Minister of the Republic of South Ossetia. He is the only South Ossetian Prime Minister to serve more than one time, at this date. He first served from October 1993 until May 1994 under Head of State Lyudvig Chibirov, and then again from December 2001 until August 2003, as the first Prime Minister appointed by President of South Ossetia Eduard Kokoity.
Znaur Nikolayevich Gassiyev was a South Ossetian politician, who was one of the leaders of the South Ossetian independence movement in the early 1990s, which culminated in the 1991–1992 South Ossetia War.
Aleksandr Apollonovich Shavlokhov is a South Ossetian politician and former Prime Minister, from 1996 until August 1998.
Kosta Georgievich Dzugaev, is a South Ossetian politician, who is a former chairman (speaker) of the Parliament of South Ossetia.
Presidential elections were held in South Ossetia on 13 November 2011. A referendum was held on the same day. A run-off was held on 27 November, but the result were invalidated by the Supreme Court of South Ossetia. A new election was scheduled for 25 March 2012.
Anatoly Ilyich Bibilov is a Russian and South Ossetian military officer, currently serving as the 4th President of South Ossetia, a partially recognized, but de facto independent state, succeeding Leonid Tibilov as President on April 21, 2017, following his election victory.
Leonid Tibilov is a South Ossetian politician who was the President of South Ossetia after winning the 2012 South Ossetian presidential election.
| Head of State of South Ossetia |
| Chairman of the Supreme Council |
Kosta Georgievich Dzugaev
| President of South Ossetia |
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