Météo-France

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Météo-France
Meteo-FranceLogo.jpg
Department overview
FormedJune 18, 1993;26 years ago (1993-06-18)
JurisdictionFlag of France.svg  France [lower-alpha 1]
Headquarters73 Avenue de Paris, Saint-Mandé, Paris
42 Avenue de Gaspard Coriolis, Toulouse
Minister responsible
Parent department Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy
Website meteofrance.com
Footnotes
  1. Includes overseas territories and collectivites

Météo-France is the French national meteorological service.

Contents

Organization

The organisation was established by decree in June 1993 and is a department of the Ministry of Transportation. It is headquartered in Paris but many domestic operations have been decentralised to Toulouse. Its budget of around €300 million is funded by state grants, aeronautic royalties and sale of commercial services.

Météo-France has a particularly strong international presence, and is the French representative at the World Meteorological Organization. The organisation is a leading member of EUMETSAT, responsible for the procurement of Meteosat weather satellites. It is also member of the Institut au service du spatial, de ses applications et technologies. It also a critical national weather service member of the ECMWF and hosts one of two major centers of the IFS numerical weather prediction model widely used worldwide.

Worldwide

In addition to its operations in metropolitan France, the agency provides forecasts and warnings for the French overseas départements and collectivités. It has four sub-divisions based in Martinique (with further divisions serving Guadeloupe and French Guiana), New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Réunion. Some of these sub-divisions have particularly important international responsibilities:

Naming

Although the original name of the organization was "Météo-France", with acute accents and normal French capitalization, all the publications made by Météo-France are now using the name written with capitals only, without any accents, everywhere the name is used as a trademark for the products and services delivered by the national organization.

This trademark decision reflects the need to have its name not altered in electronic documents due to transcoding errors, and to allow easier international references in many languages, including when referencing the organization itself (in copyright notices for example, or when citing sources).

The name in capitals or with normal capitalization with accents is protected internationally under trademark law, and as an organization name. Some non-binding information documents sometimes forget the hyphen in the name (but the hyphen is normally required).

See also

Related Research Articles

Tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones are named by various warning centers to provide ease of communication between forecasters and the general public regarding forecasts, watches, and warnings. The names are intended to reduce confusion in the event of concurrent storms in the same basin. Generally once storms produce sustained wind speeds of more than 33 knots, names are assigned in order from predetermined lists depending on which basin they originate. However, standards vary from basin to basin: some tropical depressions are named in the Western Pacific, while tropical cyclones must have a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the centre before they are named in the Southern Hemisphere.

Tropical cyclone warnings and watches are two levels of alert issued by national weather forecasting bodies to coastal areas threatened by the imminent approach of a tropical cyclone of tropical storm or hurricane intensity. They are notices to the local population and civil authorities to make appropriate preparation for the cyclone, including evacuation of vulnerable areas where necessary. It is important that interests throughout the area of an alert make preparations to protect life and property, and do not disregard it on the strength of the detailed forecast track. Tropical cyclones are not points, and forecasting their track remains an uncertain science.

Tropical cyclones are ranked on one of five tropical cyclone intensity scales, according to their maximum sustained winds and which tropical cyclone basin(s) they are located in. Only a few scales of classifications are used officially by the meteorological agencies monitoring the tropical cyclones, but some alternative scales also exist, such as accumulated cyclone energy, the Power Dissipation Index, the Integrated Kinetic Energy Index, and the Hurricane Severity Index.

A Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre is responsible for the distribution of information, advisories, and warnings regarding the specific program they have a part of, agreed by consensus at the World Meteorological Organization as part of the World Weather Watch.

2007–08 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the South-West Indian ocean

The 2007–08 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was the third most active tropical cyclone season, along with the 1985–86 season and behind the 1993–94 season and the 2018–19 season, with twelve named tropical cyclones developing in the region. It began on November 15, 2007, and ended on April 30, 2008, with the exception for Mauritius and the Seychelles, which ended May 15. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the basin, which is west of 90°E and south of the Equator. Tropical cyclones in this basin are monitored by the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre in Réunion.

2001–02 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the South-West Indian ocean

The 2001–02 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season had the earliest named storm since 1992. Many storms formed in the north-east portion of the basin, and several more originated around Australia. The basin is defined as the waters of the Indian Ocean west of longitude 90°E to the coast of Africa and south of the equator. Eleven tropical storms formed, compared to an average of nine. Tropical systems were present during 73 days, which was significantly higher than the average of 58 for this basin.

South-West Indian Ocean tropical cyclone

In the south-west Indian Ocean, tropical cyclones form south of the equator and west of 90° E to the coast of Africa.

2008–09 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the South-West Indian ocean

The 2008–09 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was a slightly above average event in tropical cyclone formation. It began on November 15, 2008, and officially ended on April 30, 2009, with the exception for Mauritius and the Seychelles, for which it ended on May 15, 2009. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the basin, which is west of 90°E and south of the Equator. Tropical cyclones in this basin were monitored by the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre in Réunion.

2009–10 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the South-West Indian ocean

The 2009–10 South-West Indian Ocean tropical cyclone season was a near average event in tropical cyclone formation. the season officially started on July 1, 2009, and ended on June 30, 2010, after incorporating the tropical cyclone season which ran from November 1 to April 30 for all areas except for Mauritius and the Seychelles, for which it ended on May 15, 2010. In this basin which officially runs from 30 to 90E and is to the south of the equator, the main warning center is the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center on La Reunion Island; however they delegate the naming of Cyclones to the Meteorological services of Mauritius and Madagascar.

2011–12 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the South-West Indian ocean

The 2011–12 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was a slightly above average event in tropical cyclone formation. It began on November 15, 2011, and ended on April 30, 2012, with the exception for Mauritius and the Seychelles, for which it ended on May 15, 2012. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the region; however, Severe Tropical Storm Kuena developed in early June after the season had officially ended. The basin is defined as the area west of 90°E and south of the Equator in the Indian Ocean, which includes the waters around Madagascar westward to the east coast of Africa. Tropical cyclones in this basin are monitored by the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre in Réunion.

Timeline of the 2009–10 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season

This timeline documents all of the events of the 2009-10 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season which is the period that tropical cyclones formed in the Indian Ocean. Within the Indian Ocean most tropical cyclones form within the cyclone season which began on November 1 and will end on April 30. The scope of this article is limited to tropical cyclones that form in the Indian Ocean 30°E and 90°E to the south of the equator. When a zone of disturbed weather form or moves into the South-West Indian Ocean it is assigned a number and monitored by Météo-France who run the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) on Réunion Island. Should a tropical disturbance intensify and become a moderate tropical storm the two sub-regional tropical cyclone Advisory Centres in Mauritius and Madagascar in conjunction with RSMC La Réunion. The United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) also issue warnings on tropical cyclones in this region assigning a number with an "S" suffix. When monitoring a tropical cyclone the Joint Typhoon Warning Center will assess the cyclones intensity on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale whilst RSMC La Réunion, Maurtius and Madagascar use the Southwest Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale to assess a tropical cyclones intensity.

2014–15 South Pacific cyclone season

The 2014–15 South Pacific cyclone season was a slightly-below average tropical cyclone season, with five tropical cyclones occurring within the basin between 160°E and 120°W. The season officially ran from November 1, 2014 to April 30, 2015. During the season, tropical cyclones were officially monitored by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) in Nadi, Fiji and the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers in Brisbane, Australia and Wellington, New Zealand. The United States Armed Forces through the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) also monitored the basin and issued unofficial warnings for American interests. RSMC Nadi attaches a number and an F suffix to tropical disturbances that form in or move into the basin while the JTWC designates significant tropical cyclones with a number and a P suffix. RSMC Nadi, TCWC Wellington and TCWC Brisbane all use the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale and estimate windspeeds over a period of ten minutes, while the JTWC estimated sustained winds over a 1-minute period, which are subsequently compared to the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS).

2012–13 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the South-West Indian ocean

The 2012–13 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was a slightly above average event in tropical cyclone formation in the Southern hemisphere tropical cyclone year starting on July 1, 2012, and ending on June 30, 2013. Within this basin, tropical and subtropical disturbances are officially monitored by the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre on Réunion island, while the Mauritius and Madagascar weather services assign names to significant tropical and subtropical disturbances. The first tropical disturbance of the season developed on October 12 and rapidly developed into the earliest known intense tropical cyclone on record during October 14.

2013–14 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 2013–14 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was an above average event in tropical cyclone formation. The season officially began on July 1, 2013, though the first tropical system designated by Météo-France was a short-lived tropical disturbance that developed on July 8. However, the first named storm was Cyclone Amara in December. Bruce was the first very intense tropical cyclone since Edzani in 2010, which originated from the Australian region. The strongest system of the cyclone season was Hellen, also one of the most intense tropical cyclones over the Mozambique Channel. The season officially ended on June 30, 2014

2014–15 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 2014–15 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was an above average event in tropical cyclone formation. It began on November 15, 2014, and ended on April 30, 2015, with the exception for Mauritius and the Seychelles, for which it ended on May 15, 2015. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical and subtropical cyclones form in the basin, which is west of 90°E and south of the Equator. Tropical and subtropical cyclones in this basin are monitored by the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre in Réunion.

2015–16 South Pacific cyclone season east of 160°E

The 2015–16 South Pacific cyclone season was one of the most disastrous South Pacific tropical cyclone seasons on record, with a total of 50 deaths and $1.405 billion in damage. Throughout the season, 8 systems attained tropical cyclone status, whilst 5 became severe tropical cyclones. The most notable cyclone of the season by far was Winston, which attained a minimum pressure of 884 hPa, and maximum ten-minute sustained winds of 175 mph (280 km/h), making it the most intense tropical cyclone on record in the Southern Hemisphere. Winston went on to devastate Fiji, causing $1.4 billion in damage and 44 deaths across the country.

2015–16 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 2015–16 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was a slightly below average event in tropical cyclone formation. The annual cyclone season began on November 15, 2015, with the first storm, Annabelle, forming four days following. The final and strongest storm, Fantala, dissipated on April 23, 2016, a week before the season ended on April 30 for most of the region. In Mauritius and the Seychelles, the cyclone season ended half a month later, on May 15. The season's activity was influenced by an ongoing El Niño, and a positive Indian Ocean Dipole.

Cyclone Amos Category 3 South Pacific cyclone in 2016

Severe Tropical Cyclone Amos was a strong tropical cyclone that affected the Fijian and Samoan Islands as well as Wallis and Futuna. Amos was first noted as Tropical Disturbance 17F during April 13, 2016 to the northwest of Fiji. The system subsequently moved south-eastwards towards the Fijian Islands, before it passed near or over Vanua Levu during April 16. After passing over Fiji, the system gradually developed further as it moved north-eastwards towards the Samoan Islands. The system was subsequently named Amos during April 20, after it had developed into a tropical cyclone and started to move north-westwards towards the island nation of Tuvalu.

2016–17 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the South-West Indian Ocean

The 2016–17 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was a below-average season, with five tropical storms, three of which intensified into tropical cyclones. It officially began on November 15, 2016, and ended on April 30, 2017, with the exception for Mauritius and the Seychelles, for which it ended on May 15, 2017. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical and subtropical cyclones form in the basin, which is west of 90°E and south of the Equator. Tropical and subtropical cyclones in this basin were monitored by the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre in Réunion, though the Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued unofficial advisories.