The M-11 Shtorm (Russian : М-11 «Шторм»; English: Storm ) is a Russian naval surface-to-air missile system. Its GRAU designation is 4K60. Its NATO reporting name is SA-N-3 Goblet. The system was first installed on Moskva, an anti-submarine warfare carrier, which was commissioned in 1967, but the system was not officially accepted into service until 1969. Unusually for such systems, it has no land-based counterpart. It was only deployed on Russian vessels, and was never fired in anger.
Development of the M-11 Storm system was first authorised on 25 July 1959. Work was carried out by Scientific Research Institute 10 (NII-10) that was also working on the SA-N-1 system. It was originally intended to be installed on the Project 1126 warship, but both the ship and missile system were canceled in June 1961. However, the missile project was re-activated only a month later for installation in the Project 1123 Moskva-class helicopter carrier. The design was completed in April 1962, and included a modified version of the ZIF-101 launcher, that was used with the SA-N-1 missile system. The launcher design proved to be impractical, the resulting redesign delayed production of prototypes until 1964.
Between 1964 and 1966 sea trials were conducted on the missile testbed OS-24 which had previously been the heavy cruiser Voroshilov. The system was installed on Moskva, which was commissioned on 25 December 1967, but development continued until 1969 when it was officially accepted into service.
The 4K60/41K65 missiles are carried in pairs on rotating twin rail launchers and fly at between Mach 2 and 3. They are 6.1 m (20 ft) long, weigh 845 kg (1,863 lb) each with an 80 kg (180 lb) warheads. The effective altitude is around 100–25,000 m (330–82,020 ft) and the earlier missiles have an engagement range of 3–30 km (1.9–18.6 mi) while the 41K65 extends the maximum range to 55 km (34 mi). Guidance is via radio command.
The radar associated with the SA-N-3 is known as "Head Lights", often found in conjunction with a "Top Sail" search radar.
The initial version of this system, the 4K60 M-11 "Shtorm" with V611 missiles is known to the US DoD as the SA-N-3A. The upgraded version is the 4K65 "Shtorm-M" with V611M missiles and is designated the SA-N-3B.
A total of 25 systems were produced and installed on the following classes of ships:
The Kuznetsov-class aircraft carrier, Soviet designation Project 11435, is a class of fixed-wing aircraft carriers operated by the Russian and Chinese navies. Originally designed for the Soviet Navy, the Kuznetsov-class ships use a ski-jump to launch high-performance conventional aircraft in a STOBAR configuration. The design represented a major advance in Soviet fleet aviation over the Kiev-class carriers, which could only launch VSTOL aircraft. The Soviet Union's classification for the class was as a heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser, which permits the ships to transit the Turkish Straits without violating the Montreux Convention, however the Chinese variants are classified as aircraft carriers.
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Metel Anti-Ship Complex is a Russian family of anti-submarine missiles. There are different anti-submarine variants ('Metel') for cruisers and frigates, and a later version with a shaped charge ('Rastrub') that can be used against shipping as well as submarines.
Leningrad was the second of two Moskva class helicopter carriers in service with the Soviet Navy. Laid down at Nikolayev South, Leningrad was commissioned in late 1968. Preceded by Moskva, there were no further vessels built, reportedly due to the poor handling of the ships in rough seas. She was conventionally powered.
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Kronstadt was a Project 1134A Kresta II-class cruiser of the Soviet Navy, named for the Kronstadt naval base. The first ship of her class, the ship served during the Cold War, from 1969 to 1991. She served with the Northern Fleet, with her shakedown cruise being through the Mediterranean Sea. After colliding with a destroyer in 1975, she spent five years being repaired and modernized. She was decommissioned in 1991 before being sold for scrap two years later due to reduced naval funding and deteriorating conditions.
The RPK-1 Vikhr NATO reporting name SUW-N-1 was a Soviet nuclear anti submarine missile system. FRAS-1 was the NATO code for the missile round itself.
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Admiral Zozulya was the lead ship of the Soviet Navy Project 1134 Admiral Zozulya-class Large Anti-submarine Ship also known as the Kresta I Class guided missile cruisers. Launched in 1965, the ship was reclassified a Large Rocket Ship in 1977. Admiral Zozulya served primarily in the Northern Fleet during the Cold War, transferring to the Russian Navy at the dissolution of the Soviet Navy, and was decommissioned in 1994 after nearly thirty years of service.
Vitse-Admiral Drozd was the third ship of the Project 1134 Berkut Large Anti-submarine Ships built for the Soviet Navy, also known as the Kresta I-class or Admiral Zozulya-class guided missile cruisers. The vessel was launched on 18 November 1966 and served with the Baltic Fleet through the 1970s and 1980s. As well as taking part in naval exercises in the Atlantic, the ship assisted in the rescue of the crew of the stricken submarine K-19 in March 1972. Subsequently, the ship was visited by Sergey Gorshkov, commander of the Soviet Navy. The vessel was reclassified a Large Rocket Ship in 1977 to reflect its multi-purpose capability. After an upgrade in 1981, Vitse-Admiral Drozd continued to operate in the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean until being decommissioned in 1 July 1990. The ship was sent to India to be scrapped in March 1992 but sank en route.
Marshal Voroshilov was a Project 1134A Berkut A class cruiser of the Soviet Navy, which briefly became part of the Russian Navy after being renamed Khabarovsk in 1991. The fifth ship of her class, the ship served mostly during the Cold War, from 1973 to 1992.
Admiral Oktyabrsky was a Project 1134A Berkut A -class cruiser of the Soviet Navy, which briefly became part of the Russian Navy. The sixth ship of her class, the ship served mostly during the Cold War, from 1973 to 1993.
Vasily Chapayev was a Project 1134A Berkut A class cruiser of the Soviet Navy named for Soviet commander Vasily Chapayev. The ninth ship of the class, the vessel served mostly during the Cold War from being launched in 1974.
Admiral Isachenkov was a Project 1134A Berkut A -class Large Anti-submarine Ship of the Soviet Navy. The seventh ship of the class, the vessel was launched in 1972 and served during the Cold War with the Northern Fleet, often operating in the Atlantic Ocean but also travelling to various ports in the Mediterranean Sea. The ship acted as flagship for the Minister of Defence, Marshal of the Soviet Union Andrei Grechko, during Okean-75 in 1975 and operated alongside the newly launched Project 1143 Krechyet aircraft carrier Kiev in 1977 and 1978. The ship also shadowed the NATO aircraft carriers HMS Ark Royal, USS Independence and USS John F. Kennedy. The cruiser was taken out of service for repairs in 1981 and substantially upgraded with new weapons and communications systems, re-entering service in 1982. With the end of the Cold War, the Navy reassessed its need for large warships and, after a career stretching nearly twenty years, Admiral Isachenkov was decommissioned in 1992 and sold to be broken up.
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