Merle Calvin Ricklefs(17 July 1943 – 29 December 2019) was an American-born Australian scholar of the history and current affairs of Indonesia.
Ricklefs was born in Fort Dodge, Iowa, on 17 July 1943and died on 29 December 2019, aged 76.
Ricklefs received his PhD with a dissertation entitled "Jogjakarta under Sultan Mangkubumi (1749-1792)" from Cornell University in 1973, under the supervision of O. W. Wolters.He held positions at the School of Oriental and African Studies, All Souls College, Monash University, the Australian National University and the University of Melbourne. He retired from the professorship of Southeast Asian history at the National University of Singapore. He was emeritus professor of history at both the Australian National University and Monash University.
Ricklef's publications focused on the history of Mataram, Kartasura, Yogyakarta, Surakarta (locations in Central Java). He also regularly updated his history of Indonesia, A History of Modern Indonesia, ca. 1300 to the present.
In 1989 Ricklefs was elected a fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities.
The Government of Australia awarded him in 2001 the Centenary Medal for "service to Australian society and the humanities in the study of Indonesia".
In June 2017, Ricklefs was made a member of the Order of Australia.
In the early 1980s Ricklefs became deeply involved in education for indigenous Australians, acting as the driving force behind and co-founding the Monash Orientation Scheme for Aborigines, the first bridging program for Aboriginal people in an Australian university.This aimed to prepare Aboriginal students, who suffered from great educational disadvantage, for university study. The scheme was a runaway success and by the time Ricklefs left Monash in 1993 it had been responsible for roughly doubling the number of Aboriginal university graduates.
Ricklefs was also involved in the 1980s ‘immigration debate’ in Australia, which was sparked when his counterpart at the University of Melbourne, Geoffrey Blainey, argued that Australia should limit Asian immigration.
The Special Region of Yogyakarta is a provincial-level autonomous region of Indonesia in the southern Java. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south, as well as sharing all the land borders to the province of Central Java. Ruled by the Yogyakarta Sultanate, the region is the only officially recognized monarchy within the government of Indonesia. The city of Yogyakarta is a popular tourist destination and cultural center of the region.
The Sultanate of Mataram was the last major independent Javanese kingdom on the island of Java before it was colonised by the Dutch. It was the dominant political force radiating from the interior of Central Java from the late 16th century until the beginning of the 18th century.
Hamengkubuwono is the current ruling royal house of the Yogyakarta Sultanate in the Special Region of Yogyakarta of Indonesia. The reigning Sultan of Yogyakarta is the hereditary Governor of the Special Region with terms of 5 years without bounded by periodic provision, as normally applied to such public office. The current Sultan is Hamengkubuwono X.
The Pararaton, also known as the Katuturanira Ken Angrok, is a Javanese historical chronicle written in Kawi. The comparatively short text of 32 folio-size pages contains the history of the kings of Singhasari and Majapahit in eastern Java.
Hamengkubuwono I, born Raden Mas Sujana, was the first sultan of Yogyakarta, reigning between 1755 and 1792.
Yogyakarta is the capital city of Special Region of Yogyakarta in Indonesia, on the island of Java. As the only Indonesian royal city still ruled by a monarchy, Yogyakarta is regarded as an important centre for classical Javanese fine arts and culture such as ballet, batik textiles, drama, literature, music, poetry, silversmithing, visual arts, and wayang puppetry. Renowned as a centre of Indonesian education, Yogyakarta is home to a large student population and dozens of schools and universities, including Gadjah Mada University, the country's largest institute of higher education and one of its most prestigious.
Amangkurat II was the Susuhunan of Mataram from 1677 to 1703. Prior to taking the throne, he was the crown prince and had the title Pangeran Adipati Anom.
The Treaty of Giyanti was signed and ratified on February 13, 1755 between Prince Mangkubumi, the Dutch East India Company, and Sunan Pakubuwono III along with his allies. The accord officially divided the Sultanate of Mataram between Mangkubumi and Pakubuwono. The name "Giyanti" was taken from the location of the signing of the agreement, namely in Giyanti Village which is now located in Hamlet Kerten, Jantiharjo Village, southeast of Karanganyar, Central Java.
Plered was the location of the palace of Amangkurat I of Mataram. Amangkurat moved the capital there from the nearby Karta in 1647. During the Trunajaya rebellion, the capital was occupied and sacked by the rebels, and Amangkurat died during the retreat from the capital. His son and successor Amangkurat II later moved the capital to Kartasura. It was twice occupied by Diponegoro, during the Java War (1825–1830) between his forces and the Dutch. The Dutch assaulted the walled complex in June 1826, which was Diponegoro's first major defeat in the war.
Kartosuro is an Indonesian subdistrict (Kecamatan) in the Sukoharjo Regency, Central Java. Kartosuro is a Surakarta's satellite city, and a junction of Surabaya-Solo-Yogyakarta and Solo-Semarang highway. It can be reached within minutes southward of Surakarta's International Airport of Adi Sumarmo.
Pakubuwono II (1711–1749) was the last ruler of Mataram and the first Susuhunan.
Mangkunegara I, also known as Pangeran Sambernyawa, was the first ruler of Mangkunegaran in Java in the eighteenth century.
Surakarta Sunanate was a Javanese monarchy centred in the city of Surakarta, in the province of Central Java, Indonesia.
The Java War of 1741 to 1743 was an armed struggle by a joint Chinese and Javanese army against the Dutch colonial government and pro-Dutch Javanese that took place in central and eastern Java. Ending in victory for the Dutch, the war led to the fall of the Sultanate of Mataram and, indirectly, the founding of both the Sunanate of Surakarta and the Sultanate of Yogyakarta.
The First Javanese War of Succession was a struggle between Sultan Amangkurat III of Mataram and the Dutch East India Company who supported the claim of the Sultan's uncle, Pangeran Puger to the throne.
Trunajaya rebellion or Trunajaya War was the ultimately unsuccessful rebellion waged by the Madurese prince Trunajaya and fighters from Makassar against the Mataram Sultanate and its Dutch East India Company (VOC) supporters in Java during the 1670s.
After his victory at the Battle of Gegodog in northeast Java, the Madurese rebel leader Trunajaya proceeded westwards to conquer Mataram Sultanate's remaining towns on the north coast of Java. By January 1677, nearly all coastal towns from Surabaya to Cirebon were taken.
Hermanus Johannes de Graaf was a Dutch historian specialising in the history of Java, Indonesia's most populous island. Trained as historian at Leiden University, he moved to Batavia to take a government job, and later became a teacher for various schools in Indonesia. At the same time, he pursued his interest in the history of Indonesia and published books and articles on the topic. After a brief assignment at the University of Indonesia, he returned to the Netherlands. He taught at various institutions, including Leiden, until 1967 and continued to publish scholarly works, even after his retirement. He suffered a serious stroke in 1982 and died two years later.
The Third Javanese War of Succession was an armed conflict that raged from 1749 to 1757 on the island Java. It led to the partition of the Mataram Sultanate into two, and later three, nominally independent 'Princely States': Surakarta, Yogyakarta and Mangkunegara.
Buda Script or (Aksara Buda) or Gunung Script is an archaic script. Based on its shape, the Buda Script still has a close relationship with the Kawi script. This script was previously used on the island of Java and Bali. This type of script is called the Buda script because it is considered to have originated from the pre-Islamic era which is called the Buddhist Age. The word Buda is based on the Buddha word. Manuscripts containing writing using the Buda script are commonly found in mountainous areas. Because of that, this type of script is also called the "Mountain script".