|London Orbital Motorway|
Junction 13 looking south
|Part of |
|Maintained by Highways England|
|Length||117 mi (188 km)|
|Orbital around London (in conjunction with the A282)|
J3 → M20 motorway
J5 → M26 motorway
J7 → M23 motorway
J12 → M3 motorway
J15 → M4 motorway
J16 → M40 motorway
J21 → M1 motorway
J23 → A1(M) motorway
J27 → M11 motorway
|Counties||Kent, Surrey, Berkshire, Greater London, Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire, Essex|
| London |
The M25 or London Orbital Motorway is 117 miles (188 km) long encircling almost all of Greater London, England (with the exception of North Ockendon). An ambitious concept to build four concentric ring roads around London was first mooted in the 1960s. A few sections of the outer two rings were constructed in the early 1970s, but the plan was abandoned and the sections were later integrated to form a single ring which became the M25, aka London Ring Road, finally completed in 1986.
Greater London is a ceremonial county of England that is located within the London region. This region forms the administrative boundaries of London and is organised into 33 local government districts—the 32 London boroughs and the City of London, which is located within the region but is separate from the county. The Greater London Authority, based in Southwark, is responsible for strategic local government across the region and consists of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly. The City of London Corporation is the principal local authority for the City of London, with a similar role to that of the 32 London borough councils.
North Ockendon is the easternmost and most outlying settlement of Greater London, England and part of the London Borough of Havering. It is located 18.4 miles (29.6 km) east northeast of Charing Cross and consists of a dispersed settlement within the Metropolitan Green Belt. It was historically an ancient parish in the county of Essex, that was abolished for civil purposes in 1936. North Ockendon is the only area in London located outside of the M25 London Orbital Motorway. North Ockendon is located on the border with Essex. The area to the south is South Ockendon.
The London Ringways were a series of four ring roads planned in the 1960s to circle London at various distances from the city centre. They were part of a comprehensive scheme developed by the Greater London Council (GLC) to alleviate traffic congestion on the city's road system by providing high speed motorway-standard roads within the capital linking a series of radial roads taking traffic into and out of the city. Following a campaign by Homes before Roads, the scheme was cancelled in 1973, at which point only three sections had been constructed.
It is one of the busiest of the British motorway network: the stretch between Junctions 14 and 15 outside Heathrow Airport consistently records the highest number of daily traffic counts on the British strategic road network with the average flow in 2017 of 211,059 counts (lower than the record peak measured in 2014 of 262,842 counts).This compares to 197,219 counts measured on the M1 motorway between junction 7 and 8 outside Hemel Hempstead in 2014, and 195,325 counts measured on the M60 motorway between junctions 12 and 13 in Western Manchester, also in 2014.
The M1 motorway connects London to Leeds, where it joins the A1(M) near Aberford, to connect to Newcastle. It was the first inter-urban motorway to be completed in the UK; the first motorway in the country was the Preston By-pass, which later became part of the M6.
Hemel Hempstead is a historic town, later developed as a new town, in Hertfordshire, England. Located 24 miles (39 km) northwest of London, it is part of the Greater London Urban Area. The population according to the 2001 Census was 81,143, and at the 2011 census was 94,932. Developed after the Second World War as a new town, it has existed as a settlement since the 8th century and was granted its town charter by King Henry VIII in 1539. It is part of the district of Dacorum and the Hemel Hempstead constituency.
The M60 motorway, Manchester Ring Motorway, or Manchester Outer Ring Road, is an orbital motorway in North West England. Built over a 40-year period, it passes through all Greater Manchester's metropolitan boroughs except for Wigan and Bolton. Most of Manchester is encompassed within the motorway, except for the southernmost part of the city which is served by the M56.
The M25, plus the short non-motorway A282 which joins the two ends of the M25 across the River Thames using the Dartford Crossing, is Europe's second longest orbital road after the Berliner Ring, which is 122 miles (196 km).
The River Thames, known alternatively in parts as the Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London. At 215 miles (346 km), it is the longest river entirely in England and the second longest in the United Kingdom, after the River Severn.
The Dartford-Thurrock River Crossing, commonly known as the Dartford Crossing and until 1991 the Dartford Tunnel, is a major road crossing of the River Thames in England, carrying the A282 road between Dartford in Kent to the south with Thurrock in Essex to the north. It consists of two bored tunnels and the cable-stayed Queen Elizabeth II Bridge. The only fixed road crossing of the Thames east of Greater London, it is the busiest estuarial crossing in the United Kingdom, with an average daily use of over 130,000 vehicles. It opened in stages: the west tunnel in 1963, the east tunnel in 1980 and the bridge in 1991. The crossing, although not officially designated a motorway, is considered part of the M25 motorway's route, using the tunnels northbound and bridge southbound. Described as one of the most important road crossings in Britain, it suffers from heavy traffic and congestion.
Bundesautobahn 10 is an orbital motorway around the German capital city of Berlin. Colloquially called Berliner Ring, it is predominantly located in the state of Brandenburg, with a short stretch of 5 km in Berlin itself. It should not be confused with the Berliner Stadtring around Berlin's inner city.
This section needs additional citations for verification . (October 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Originally built almost wholly as a dual three-lane motorway, much of the motorway has been widened: to dual four lanes for almost half, to a dual five-lanes section between junctions 12 and 14 and a dual six-lane section between junctions 14 and 15. Further widening is in progress of minor sections with plans for managed motorways in many others.
To the east of London the two ends of the M25 are joined to complete a loop by the non-motorway A282 Dartford Crossing of the River Thames between Thurrock and Dartford. This crossing, which consists of twin two-lane tunnels and the four-lane QE2 (Queen Elizabeth II) bridge, is named Canterbury Way. Passage across the bridge or through the tunnels is subject to a toll, its level depending on the kind of vehicle. This stretch being non-motorway, it allows traffic, including that not permitted to use motorways, to cross the River Thames east of the Woolwich Ferry; the only crossing further to the east is a passenger ferry between Gravesend, in Kent, and Tilbury, in Essex. However, in 2017 Highways England published plans to build another motorway-grade Thames tunnel to the east of Gravesend and Grays, the Lower Thames Crossing, in order to relieve congestion on the A282 Dartford Crossing and connect the M25 at North Ockendon in Essex with the M2 in Kent.
Thurrock is a unitary authority area with borough status in the English ceremonial county of Essex. It is part of the London commuter belt and an area of regeneration within the Thames Gateway redevelopment zone. The local authority is Thurrock Council.
A toll road, also known as a turnpike or tollway, is a public or private road for which a fee is assessed for passage. It is a form of road pricing typically implemented to help recoup the cost of road construction and maintenance.
The Woolwich Ferry is a free vehicle and pedestrian ferry across the River Thames in East London, connecting Woolwich on the south bank with North Woolwich on the north. It is licensed and financed by London River Services, the maritime arm of Transport for London (TfL). The service is operated by Briggs Marine under licence from TfL and carries both foot passengers and vehicles. Around two million passengers use the ferry each year.
At Junction 5, the clockwise carriageway of the M25 is routed off the main north–south dual carriageway onto the main east–west dual carriageway with the main north–south carriageway becoming the A21. In the opposite direction, to the east of the point where the M25 diverges from the main east–west carriageway, that carriageway become the M26 motorway.
A dual carriageway or divided highway is a class of highway with carriageways for traffic travelling in opposite directions separated by a central reservation. Roads with two or more carriageways which are designed to higher standards with controlled access are generally classed as motorways, freeways, etc., rather than dual carriageways.
The A21 is a trunk road in Southern England, one of several which connect London and various commuter towns to the south coast. It provides a link to Hastings, East Sussex and parts of Kent. Half of the distance covered is over gently undulating terrain, with some hills and bends. Often traffic is slow-moving, particularly on weekdays on the single carriageway stretches; and in summer with holiday traffic. Because of this, people have described the A21 as "a joke" and businesspeople have been reported to "hate coming down the A21". There have been many proposals to upgrade parts of the A21 in response to this.
The M26 is a motorway in Kent, England. It provides a short link between the M25 at Sevenoaks and the M20 near West Malling.
The radial distance from London (taken as Charing Cross) varies from 12.5 miles (20.1 km) in Potters Bar to 19.5 miles (31.4 km) in Byfleet. Three Greater London boroughs (Enfield, Hillingdon and Havering) have realigned their boundaries to the M25 for minor stretches; while in others, most notably in Essex and Surrey, the radial gap between Greater London and the motorway reaches 7.8 miles (12.6 km), neither of which coincide with the Metropolitan Green Belt. Major towns listed as destinations (right), in various counties, adjoin the M25. North Ockendon is the only settlement of Greater London situated outside the M25. In 2004, following an opinion poll, the London Assembly mooted for consultation alignment of the Greater London boundary with the M25. "Inside the M25" and "outside/beyond the M25" are colloquial, looser alternatives to "Greater London" sometimes used in haulage. The Communications Act 2003 explicitly uses the M25 as the boundary in requiring a proportion of television programmes to be made outside the London area.
Two motorway service areas are on the M25, and two others are directly accessible from it. Those on the M25 are Clacket Lane between junctions 5 and 6 (in the south-east) and Cobham between junctions 9 and 10 (in the south-west). Those directly accessible from it are South Mimms off junction 23 (to the north of London) and Thurrock off junction 31 (to the east of London). Cobham services opened on 13 September 2012.
Originally, the M25 was unlit except for sections around Heathrow, major interchanges and Junctions 23–30. Originally, low pressure sodium (SOX) lighting was the most prominent technology used, but widening projects from the 1990s onwards have all used high-pressure sodium (SON) lighting and this has diminished the original installations. By 2014 only one significant stretch was still SOX-lit (Junction 25–26) and the units were removed the same year.
The motorway passes through five counties. Junctions 1A–5 are in Kent, 6–14 are in Surrey, 15–16 are in Buckinghamshire, 17–25 are in Hertfordshire, and 26–31 are in Essex. Policing of the road is carried out by an integrated policing group made up of the Metropolitan, Thames Valley, Essex, Kent, Hertfordshire and Surrey forces.
The M25 is one of Europe's busiest motorways. In 2003, a maximum of 196,000 vehicles a day were recorded on the motorway just south of London Heathrow Airport between junctions 13 and 14.
The idea of an orbital road around London was first proposed early in the 20th century. An outer orbital road around London had first been proposed in 1913, and was re-examined as a motorway route in Sir Charles Bressey's and Sir Edwin Lutyens' The Highway Development Survey, 1937.Sir Patrick Abercrombie's County of London Plan, 1943 and Greater London Plan, 1944 proposed a series of five roads encircling the capital. The northern sections of the M25 follow a similar route to the World War II Outer London Defence Ring, a concentric series of tanks and pillboxes designed to slow down a potential German invasion of the capital.
Little was done to progress these plans until the 1960s when the Greater London Council developed its London Ringways plan – Ringway 3 (the 'M16 motorway') and Ringway 4 – were constructed in the early 1970s and were integrated into the single M25 orbital motorway. But the Ringways plan was hugely controversial owing to the destruction required for the inner two ring roads, (Ringway 1 and Ringway 2). Parts of Ringway 1 were constructed (including West Cross Route), against stiff opposition, before the overall plan was abandoned in 1973 following pressure from residents in the threatened areas.consisting of four "rings" around the capital. Sections of the two outer rings
This section needs additional citations for verification . (February 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Construction of parts of the two outer ring roads, Ringways 3 and 4, began in 1973. The first section, between South Mimms and Potters Bar in Hertfordshire (junction 23 to junction 24) opened in September 1975 and was given the temporary general purpose road designation A1178 (a section of motorway-standard-road, originally the M16, which eventually was incorporated into the M25) was completed and operational before this. A Watford-avoiding route between the M1 and the A40 between north Watford and Denham was locally known as the Croxley Green/Rickmansworth bypass, and was operational about 1973/4; a section south of London (junction 6 to junction 8) opened in 1976. A section of Ringway 3 south of the river between Dartford and Swanley (junction 1 to junction 3) was constructed between 1974 and 1977. In 1975 the plans for Ringway 3 were modified to combine it with Ringway 4, the outermost Ringway. The M25 as a component of ringway 4, was first conceived to be an east-west road south of London to relieve the A25, and running parallel to it, with its eastern end following the route of what is now the M26. However, it was subsequently routed northwards towards the Dartford Tunnel to form, in conjunction with similar roads, including the M16 planned to the north of London, part of the London Orbital.The combined motorway was given the designation M25 which had originally been intended for the southern and western part of Ringway 4 and the M16 designation was dropped. The section of Ringway 3 west of South Mimms anti-clockwise around London to Swanley in Kent was cancelled. The stages were not constructed contiguously but in small sections. As the orbital road developed the sections were linked. Each section was presented to planning authorities in its own right and was individually justified, with almost 40 public inquiries relating to sections of the route. Maps at this time depicting these short sections named the route as the M16 but this changed before completion.
The section from Potters Bar to the Dartford Tunnel was constructed between 1979 and 1982. Construction of the M25 continued in stages until its completion in 1986. Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher officially opened the M25 on 29 October 1986, with a ceremony in the section between J22 and J23 (London Colney and South Mimms). The initial tenders for the construction of the M25 totalled £631.9 million. This did not include compulsory purchase of land and subsequent upgrades and repairs.[ citation needed ]
Soon after the motorway opened in 1986 traffic levels exceeded the maximum design capacity and in 1990 the Secretary of State for Transport announced plans to widen the whole of the M25 to four lanes.By 1993 the motorway, which was designed for a maximum of 88,000 vehicles per day, was carrying 200,000 vehicles per day. 15% of UK motorway traffic volume was on the M25 and there were plans to add six lanes to the section from Junctions 12 to 15 as well as widening the rest of the motorway to four lanes.
In parts, particularly the western third this plan went ahead, due to consistent congestion. Again, however, plans to widen further sections to eight lanes (four each way) were scaled back in 2009 in response to rising costs. The plans were reinstated in the agreed Highways Agency 2013-14 business plan.
In 1995 a contract was awarded to widen the section between Junctions 8 and 10 from six to eight lanes for a cost of £93.4 millionand a Motorway Incident Detection and Automatic Signalling (MIDAS) system was introduced to the M25 from Junction 10 to Junction 15 at a cost of £13.5m in 1995. This was then extended to Junction 16 at a cost of £11.7m in 2002. This consists of a distributed network of traffic and weather sensors, speed cameras and variable-speed signs that control traffic speeds with little human supervision, and has improved traffic flow slightly, reducing the amount of start-stop driving.
In 1995 there was a proposal to widen the section close to Heathrow Airport to fourteen lanes. This attracted fierce opposition from road protesters opposing the Newbury Bypass and other schemesand it was cancelled shortly afterwards. In 1997, however, the Department of Transport announced new proposals to widen the section between Junction 12 (M3) and Junction 15 (M4) to twelve lanes. At the Terminal Five public inquiry a Highways Agency official said that the widening was needed to accommodate traffic to the proposed new terminal, however the transport minister said that no such evidence had been given. Environmental groups objected to the decision to go ahead with a scheme that would create the widest motorways in the UK without holding a public inquiry. The decision was again deferred. A decision to go-ahead was given for a ten-lane scheme in 1998 and the £148 million 'M25 Jct 12 to 15 Widening' contract was awarded to Balfour Beatty in 2003. The scheme was completed in 2005 as dual-five lanes between Junctions 12 and 14 and dual-six lanes from Junctions 14 to 15.
In 2007 capacity at Junction 25 (A10/Waltham Cross) was increased and the Holmesdale Tunnel was widened to three lanes in an easterly direction at a cost of £75 million.
Work to widen the exit slip-roads in both directions at Junction 28 (A12 road/A1023) was completed in 2008. It was designed to reduce the amount of traffic queueing on the slip roads at busy periods, particularly traffic from the clockwise M25 joining the northbound A12 where the queue extended onto the inside lane of the Motorway.
In 2006 the Highways Agency proposed to widen 63 miles (101 km) of M25 from six to eight lanes, between junctions 5–6 and 16–30 as part of a Design, Build, Finance and Operate (DBFO) project. A shortlist of contractors was announced in October 2006 for the project which was expected to cost £4.5 billion. Contractors were asked to resubmit their bids in January 2008 and in June 2009 the new transport minister indicated that the cost had risen to £5.5 billion and the benefit to cost ratio had dropped considerably. In January 2009 the government announced that plans to widen the sections from Junction 5–7 and from 23–27 had been 'scrapped' and that hard shoulder running would be introduced instead. However widening was reinstated to four lanes in the 2013–14 Highways Agency Business Plan.
In 2009 a £6.2 billion M25 DBFO private finance initiative contractwas awarded to Connect Plus to widen the sections between junctions 16 and 23 and between junctions 27 and 30 and maintain the M25 and the Dartford Crossing for a 30-year period.
Works to widen the section between Junctions 16 (M40) and 23 (A1(M)) to dual four lanesstarted in July 2009 at an estimated cost of £580 million. The Junction 16 to 21 (M1) section was completed by July 2011 and the Junction 21 to 23 by June 2012. Works to widen the Junctions 27 (M11) to 30 (A13) section to dual four lanes also started in July 2009. The Junction 27 to 28 (A12) section was completed in July 2010, the Junction 28 to 29 (A127) in June 2011 and finally the Junction 29 to 30 (A13) section opened in May 2012.
Works to introduce managed motorway technology and permanent hard shoulder running on two sections of the M25 began in 2013. The first section between Junctions 5 (A21/M26) and 7 (M23) started construction in May 2013 with the scheme being completed and opened in April 2014.The second section, between Junctions 23 (A1/A1(M)) and 27 (M11), began construction in February 2013 and was completed and opened in November 2014.
In December 2016 Highways England completed the capacity project at Junction 30 (Thurrock) as part of the Thames Gateway Delivery Plan.
The improved junction is said to facilitate billions of pounds of investment in the region, making journeys more reliable and improving safety. In addition, the A13 through the junction has been widened to four lanes in each direction with speed limits capped to 50 mph. New dedicated link roads created and existing slip roads improved to facilitate east bound migration to the Regional Shopping Centre (Lakeside). Drainage, safety barriers and lighting on the M25 have also been upgraded as part of the improvements around Junction 30 and 31 including new electronic gantry signage.
|August 2014 to December 2014||Advance scheme work|
|December 2014||Award of design and build contract|
|Late February 2015||Start of works on A13|
|November 2015||Start of works on M25|
|December 2016||Completion of works|
In 2009 the Department for Transport published options for a new Lower Thames Crossing to add capacity to the Dartford Crossing or create a new road and crossing linking to the M2 and M20 motorways.
This section needs additional citations for verification . (October 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The M25 is the second-longest ring road in Europe, after the Berlin Ring (A 10), which is 5 miles (8.0 km) longer.
Other cities in the UK encircled by motorways include: Birmingham, using parts of the M5, M6 and M42, and Manchester, using the M60. Additionally, from 2011 Glasgow has an orbital motorway made of the M8, M73 and M74, although one section of the route passes through the centre of the city.
The M25 is one of the busiest motorways in Europe. Here are some comparisons:
Iain Sinclair's 2002 book and film London Orbital is based on a year-long journey around the M25 on foot.
The M25 (including the A282 Dartford Crossing) is known for its frequent traffic jams. These have been the subject of so much comment from such an early stage that even at the official opening ceremony Margaret Thatcher complained about "those who carp and criticise". The jams have inspired jokes (e.g., "the world's first circular car park", "the London Orbital Car Park", "the biggest Car Park in Europe") and songs (e.g., Chris Rea's "The Road to Hell").
The M25 plays a role in the comedy-fantasy novel Good Omens , as "evidence for the hidden hand of Satan in the affairs of Man".The demon character, Crowley, had manipulated the design of the M25 to resemble a Satanic sigil, and tried to ensure it would anger as many people as possible to drive them off the path of good.
The M25 enjoyed a more positive reputation among ravers in the late 1980s, when this new orbital motorway became a popular route to the parties that took place around the outskirts of London. This use of the M25 for these raves inspired the name of electronic duo Orbital.
The orbital nature of the motorway, in common with racetracks, lent itself to unofficial, and illegal, motor racing. At the end of the 1980s, before the advent of speed enforcement devices, owners of supercars would meet at night at service stations such as South Mimms and conduct time trials. Times below 1 hour were achieved - an average speed of over 117 mph (188 km/h), which included coming to a halt at the Dartford Tunnel road user charge payment booths.
Data from driver location signs provide carriageway identifier information.The numbers on the signs are kilometres from a point near the River Thames, east of London, when travelling clockwise on the motorway. The table below gives details of each junction, including the roads interchanged and the destinations that are signed from the motorway on the blue advance direction signs. Figures in kilometres are from the driver location signs; figures in miles are derived from them.
|A282 – Dartford Crossing (Kent)(M25)|
|miles||km||Clockwise exits (A carriageway)||Junction||Anti-clockwise exits (B carriageway)||European Route|
| Dartford Crossing South|
Queen Elizabeth II Bridge (Toll)
|Dartford Crossing North|
Dartford Tunnels (Toll)
|3.5||5.7||Erith A206||J1A||Erith A206, Swanscombe (A226)|
|4.7||7.5||Dartford A225||J1B||Exit via J2 – Dartford (A225)|
|M25 motorway – London Orbital|
|5.5||8.8||London (SE & C), Bexleyheath A2 (W), Canterbury (M2) A2 (E) Ebbsfleet International, Gillingham||J2||London (SE & C), Bexleyheath A2, Canterbury (M2), Dartford (A225) Ebbsfleet International, Bluewater, Gillingham |
Dover, Chnl Tnl (M20)
|8.7||14.0||London (SE & C) A20 |
Maidstone, Channel Tunnel, Folkestone M20
|J3|| Maidstone, Channel Tunnel M20 |
London (SE & C), Lewisham A20
|12.2||19.6|| Bromley A21 |
|J4||Bromley, London (SE & C) A21 |
|Sevenoaks, Royal Tunbridge Wells, Hastings A21||J5||Maidstone, Channel Tunnel, Dover M26 (M20) |
Sevenoaks, Hastings A21
|21.0||33.8||Clacket Lane services||Services||Clacket Lane services|
|25.8||41.6|| East Grinstead, Eastbourne, Caterham, Godstone A22 |
Redhill, Westerham (A25)
|J6||East Grinstead, Eastbourne, Caterham, Godstone A22|
Redhill, Westerham (A25)
|28.6||46.0||Gatwick Airport, Crawley, Brighton, Croydon M23||J7||Gatwick Airport, Crawley, Brighton, M23(S), Croydon M23(N)|
|31.9||51.4||London (S & SW), Reigate, Sutton A217 |
|J8||London (S & SW), Reigate, Sutton A217 |
|Leatherhead A243, Dorking, (A24)||J9||Leatherhead A243, Dorking (A24)|
|Cobham services||Services||Cobham services|
|45.0||72.4||London (SW & C), Guildford, Portsmouth A3||J10||London (SW & C), Guildford, Kingston A3|
|49.8||80.2||Chertsey A317, Woking A320||J11||Woking A320, Chertsey A317|
|52.1||83.8||Basingstoke, Southampton, Richmond M3||J12||Basingstoke, Southampton, Richmond M3|
|55.2||88.8||London (W & C), Hounslow, Staines A30||J13||London (W & C), Hounslow, Staines A30|
|57.0||91.8||Heathrow Airport (Terminals 4, 5 and Cargo) A3113||J14||Heathrow Airport (Terminals 4, 5 and Cargo) A3113|
|59.0||95.0||The WEST, Slough, Reading, London (W & C), Heathrow Airport (Terminals 2 and 3) M4 ||J15||The WEST, Slough, Reading M4(W) |
London (W & C), Heathrow Airport (Terminals 2 & 3) M4(E)
|63.8||102.6||The NORTH, Birmingham, Oxford, Uxbridge, London (W & C) M40||J16||Birmingham, Oxford M40(W) |
Uxbridge, London (W & C) M40(E)
|68.7||110.5||Rickmansworth, Maple Cross (A412)||J17||Rickmansworth, Maple Cross A412|
|69.9||112.5||Chorleywood, Amersham A404||J18||Chorleywood, Amersham A404|
|71.5||116.4||Watford A41||J19||Exit via J20 – Watford A41|
|73.5||118.2||Hemel Hempstead, Aylesbury A41||J20||Hemel Hempstead, Aylesbury, Watford A41|
|76.3||122.8||The North, Luton & Luton Airport M1||J21||The North, Luton & Luton Airport M1|
|76.9||123.7||Watford A405 |
Harrow (M1 South)
|J21A|| St Albans A405 |
London (NW & C) (M1 (South))
|80.6||129.7||London Colney A1081||J22||St Albans A1081|
|83.3||134.0|| Hatfield A1(M), London (NW & C) A1, Barnet A1081 |
South Mimms services
|J23||Hatfield A1(M), London (NW & C) A1, Barnet A1081|
South Mimms services
|85.9||138.2||Potters Bar A111||J24||Potters Bar A111|
|91.4||147.1||Enfield Town, Hertford A10||J25||Enfield, Hertford, London (N & C) A10|
|94.9||152.7||Waltham Abbey, Loughton A121||J26||Waltham Abbey, Loughton A121|
|99.2||159.7||London (NE & C), Stansted Airport, Harlow, Cambridge M11||J27||London (NE & C) M11(N), Stansted Airport, Harlow, Cambridge M11(S)|
|107.1||172.4|| Chelmsford, Witham, Colchester A12 |
|J28||Chelmsford, Romford A12 |
|109.9||176.8||Romford, Basildon, Southend A127||J29||Basildon, Southend, Romford A127|
|115.2||185.4||Tilbury, Thurrock, Lakeside A13(E), London (E & C) A13(W) |
|J30||London (E & C), Barking, Tilbury, Basildon, Dagenham, Rainham A13|
|A282 Road – Dartford Crossing|
|115.9||186.6||Exit via J30 – Purfleet (A1090), South Ockendon, Thurrock services A1306||J31||Thurrock (Lakeside), Thurrock services A1306, Purfleet (A1090), West Thurrock (A126)|
| Dartford Crossing South|
Queen Elizabeth II Bridge (Toll)
|Dartford Crossing North|
Dartford Tunnels (Toll)
|1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi|
The M11 motorway is a 55-mile (88.5 km) motorway that runs north from the North Circular Road (A406) in South Woodford in northeast London to the A14, northwest of Cambridge, England. Originally proposed as early as 1915, various plans were considered throughout the 1960s, with final construction being undertaken between 1975 and 1980. The motorway was opened in stages, with the first stage opening in June 1975, and the completed motorway becoming fully operational in February 1980. Running from South Woodford to Girton, the motorway provides direct access to Harlow, a large new town, as well as the city of Cambridge and since 2002, the motorway has greatly improved access to London Stansted Airport, the fourth busiest airport in the United Kingdom.
The M4, a motorway in the United Kingdom running from west London to southwest Wales, was originally referred to as the London-South Wales Motorway. The English section to the Severn Bridge was constructed between 1961 and 1971; the Welsh element was completed in 1993. The Second Severn Crossing officially renamed the Prince of Wales Bridge, was inaugurated on 5 June 1996 by HRH The Prince of Wales and the M4 was rerouted. Apart from its two spurs—the A48(M) and the M48—the M4 is the only motorway in Wales.
The M3 is a motorway that runs from Sunbury-on-Thames, Surrey, to Southampton, Hampshire, a distance of approximately 59 miles (95 km). Via its feeder the A316, the route is one of five roads of dual carriageway width or greater into the southern half of London. It also provides access to major towns and cities along its route, principally the Aldershot Urban Area, Basingstoke, Winchester and Southampton.
The A2 is a major road in southern England, connecting London with the English Channel port of Dover in Kent. This route has always been of importance as a connection between the British capital of London and sea trade routes to Continental Europe. It was formerly known as the Dover Road.
The M5 is a motorway in England linking the Midlands and the South West. It runs from Junction 8 of the M6 at West Bromwich near Birmingham to Exeter in Devon. Heading south-west, the M5 runs east of West Bromwich and west of Birmingham through Sandwell Valley. It continues past Bromsgrove, Droitwich Spa, Worcester, Tewkesbury, Cheltenham, Gloucester, Bristol, Weston-super-Mare, Bridgwater and Taunton on its way to Exeter, ending at Junction 31. It is the primary gateway to South West England. Congestion is common during the summer holidays, on Friday afternoons, and school and bank holidays on the section south of the M4.
The M23 is a motorway in the United Kingdom, running from the south of Hooley in Surrey, where it splits from the A23, to Pease Pottage, south of Crawley in West Sussex where it rejoins the A23. The northern end of the motorway starts at junction 7 on what is effectively a 2-mile (3.2 km) spur north from junction 7 of the M25 motorway. From Hooley it runs for 17 miles (27 km) past Redhill, Gatwick Airport and Crawley. A spur runs from junction 9 to Gatwick Airport.
The N11 road is a national primary road in Ireland, running for 129 km (80 mi) along the east side of Ireland from Dublin to Wexford. It passes close to Bray, Greystones, Wicklow, Arklow and Gorey and also passes through Enniscorthy, amongst others. Beyond Wexford, the route continues to Rosslare as the N25. The road forms part of European route E01. As of 2015 the N11/M11 is of dual carriageway or motorway standard from Dublin as far as Gorey in County Wexford.
The North Circular Road is a 25.7-mile-long (41.4 km) ring road around Central London in England. It runs from Chiswick in the west to Woolwich in the east, and connects the various suburbs in the area, including Ealing, Willesden, Wembley, Finchley, Southgate, Edmonton, Woodford, Ilford, and Barking. Together with its counterpart, the South Circular Road, it forms a ring road through the Outer London suburbs. This ring road does not make a complete circuit of the city, being C-shaped rather than a complete loop as the crossing of the River Thames in the east is made on the Woolwich Ferry.
The A453 road was formerly the main trunk road connecting the English cities of Nottingham and Birmingham. However, the middle section of this mainly single-carriageway road has largely been downgraded to B roads or unclassified roads following the construction of the parallel M42-A42 link around 1990. The M42 was originally meant to pass further north than it does, and to join the M1 at Sandiacre in Derbyshire. The M42/A42 does not enter Derbyshire, but instead joins the M1 closer to the A453 junction at Kegworth. The A42 shadows the former A453 from Appleby Magna to Castle Donington. The road historically connected the East Midlands with the West Midlands.
South Cross Route (SCR) was the designation for the southern section of Ringway 1, the innermost circuit of the London Ringways network, a complex and comprehensive plan for a network of high speed roads circling and radiating out from central London designed to manage and control the flow of traffic within the capital.
Ringway 2 was the second innermost of the series of four London Ringways, ring roads planned in the 1960s to circle London at various distances from the city centre. They were part of a comprehensive scheme developed by the Greater London Council (GLC) to alleviate traffic congestion on the city's road system by providing high speed motorway-standard roads within the capital linking a series of radial roads taking traffic into and out of the city. The scheme was cancelled in 1973.
Ringway 3 was the third from the centre of the series of four London Ringways, ring roads planned in the 1960s to circle London at various distances from the city centre. They were part of a comprehensive scheme developed by the Greater London Council (GLC) to alleviate traffic congestion on the city's road system by providing high speed motorway-standard roads within the capital linking a series of radial roads taking traffic into and out of the city. Most of the scheme was cancelled in 1973. Ringway 3 was planned as a new motorway running either through or around the periphery of the capital's outer suburbs linking areas such as Barnet, Epping, Dartford, Purley and Chessington. Construction began on the first section of the motorway between South Mimms and Potters Bar in 1973 and the motorway was initially designated as the M16 motorway before its opening.
The Lower Thames Crossing, or Third Thames Crossing, is a proposed new road crossing of the River Thames estuary linking the county of Kent with the county of Essex through Thurrock. The route was confirmed on 12 April 2017 by Transport Secretary Chris Grayling. It is designed to relieve the pressure on the existing A282 Dartford Crossing. After consideration, changes have been made to the plan to make it less obtrusive- the junction with the A226 has been eliminated, and the upgrade extended to the M2, junction 1.
The Auckland Northern Motorway in the Auckland Region of New Zealand links central Auckland City and Puhoi in the former Rodney District via the Hibiscus Coast and North Shore. It is part of State Highway 1.
Ringway 4 was the outermost of the series of four London Ringways, ring roads planned in the 1960s to circle London at various distances from the city centre. They were part of a comprehensive scheme developed by the Greater London Council (GLC) to alleviate traffic congestion on the city's road system by providing high speed motorway-standard roads within the capital linking a series of radial roads taking traffic into and out of the city. Most of the scheme was cancelled in 1973.
In 2003, Balfour Beatty Civil Engineering was awarded the £148 million contract to widen the 10-mile stretch of the M25, between Junction 12 (the M3 Interchange) and Junction 15 (the M4 Interchange).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to M25 motorway .|