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A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.
The African-led International Support Mission to the Central African Republic(MISCA, French acronym for Mission internationale de soutien à la Centrafrique sous conduite africaine ) is an African Union peacekeeping mission to the Central African Republic. MISCA was established on 5 December 2013 by United Nations Security Council resolution 2127 to stabilise the country as a result of the Central African Republic conflict under the Djotodia administration and following the 2013 Central African Republic coup d'état.
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of 55 member states located on the continent of Africa, with exception of various territories of European possessions located in Africa. The bloc was founded on 26 May 2001 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and launched on 9 July 2002 in South Africa. The intention of the AU is to replace the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa by 32 signatory governments. The most important decisions of the AU are made by the Assembly of the African Union, a semi-annual meeting of the heads of state and government of its member states. The AU's secretariat, the African Union Commission, is based in Addis Ababa.
The Central African Republic is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Chad to the north, Sudan to the northeast, South Sudan to the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the south, the Republic of the Congo to the southwest and Cameroon to the west. The CAR covers a land area of about 620,000 square kilometres (240,000 sq mi) and had an estimated population of around 4.6 million as of 2016. Currently, the C.A.R. is the scene of a civil war, ongoing since 2012.
A United Nations Security Council resolution is a UN resolution adopted by the fifteen members of the Security Council; the UN body charged with "primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security".
The mission, officially backed by France and initially led by the African Union, was deployed on 19 December 2013. The resolution includes the option to transfer it to a larger mission under United Nations authority with peacekeeping forces from more countries — if needed and if appropriate local conditions are met.
The creation of MISCA is a consequence of United Nations Security Council resolution on 10 October 2013, expressing its concerns for stabilizing the political transition of the new regime following the Agreements of Libreville on 11 January 2013 and the declaration of N'Djamena on 18 April 2013, calling for the organisation of free elections in the country, and for the responsibility of the new leaders of the country to stop the violence, and urging the United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in the Central African Republic (BINUCA) to report about the effective status for all its efforts accomplished after nearly one year of its mandated presence in the country in severe troubles, in order to have its government and opponents supporting a peaceful transition and protecting the population, and to coordinate the international efforts for this goal.
This interim resolution was insufficient and the United Nations with the BINUCA could not reach the expected warranties from the new Centrafican leaders and opponent armed groups (and notably the security , indirectly supported from Uganda and South Sudan) and the Séléka militias and various smaller armed religious activist groups or gangs, or exactions committed by them or their supporters against humanitarian NGOs' facilities in the country or against the civil populations and camps of refugees, such as massive murders, rapes of women, or the forced conscription of children in armed troops, and many civilians wounded by machetes or knives within dozens of hospitals in the Bangui capital region, as reported by the head of Doctors without Borders in the country).
Séléka CPSK-CPJP-UFDR is an alliance of rebel militia groups that subjugated the Central African Republic (CAR) on March 24, 2013. After its official dissolution in September 2013, the remaining rebel groups became known as Ex-Séléka. Séléka leader Michel Djotodia became the nation's president from March 2013 until his resignation in January 2014. Members of Séléka are almost entirely Muslim.
Since the beginning of the BINUCA mission, the traffic of firearms, the violence and destruction of public or private assets never stopped, but increased in a deadly spiral causing much more political turmoil, numerous victims and destruction, as well as massive migrations of refugees within the CAR itself as well as in neighbouring countries, where they are still endangered by spreading violence and by lack of protection and assistance. The BINUCA and NGO's operating in the region estimate that already about 15% of the Central African population (millions people when counting those in bordering countries, i.e. more than the whole population of either Haiti, Rwanda, Somalia or of regions affected by the conflict in Darfur) is directly exposed to these turmoils which will rapidly evolve to a severe humanitarian crisis affecting several African countries.
Haiti, officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola, east of Cuba in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island, which it shares with the Dominican Republic. Haiti is 27,750 square kilometres (10,714 sq mi) in size and has an estimated 10.8 million people, making it the most populous country in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the second-most populous country in the Caribbean as a whole.
Rwanda, officially the Republic of Rwanda, is a country in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland. Located a few degrees south of the Equator, Rwanda is bordered by Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Rwanda is in the African Great Lakes region and is highly elevated; its geography is dominated by mountains in the west and savanna to the east, with numerous lakes throughout the country. The climate is temperate to subtropical, with two rainy seasons and two dry seasons each year.
Somalia, officially the Federal Republic of Somalia (Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya; Arabic: جمهورية الصومال الفيدرالية, translit. Jumhūrīyah aṣ-Ṣūmāl al-Fīdirālīyah, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Guardafui Channel and Somali Sea to the east, and Kenya to the southwest. Somalia has the longest coastline on Africa's mainland, and its terrain consists mainly of plateaus, plains and highlands. Climatically, hot conditions prevail year-round, with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall.
The resolution 2121 also suggested increasing the international peacekeeping forces, for which the UN called all African countries to participate, notably those participating with the African Union (AU) or with the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS or CEEAC) in their Mission for the Consolidation of Peace in Central African Republic (MICOPAX) cooperation mission, in order to transfer it to a newer, strengthened and better integrated MISCA peacekeeping force. Based on the alarming BINUCA report on the local situation (that the UN Security Council also requested in its resolution 2121), the Security Council had to make a new decision rapidly.
On 5 December 2013, the UNSC unanimously passed resolution 2127 which called for support of the Libreville agreement that initiated a temporary ceasefire in the country. It also called for Séléka and other armed groups to lay down their arms, called for Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR), or Disarmament, Demobilization, Repatriation, Reintegration and Resettlement (DDRRR), and looked forward to the immediate deployment of MISCA to be supported by the African Union (which will still lead the new integrated mission). This replaces the existing mission from the African Union and the FOMAC operation from the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), as well as their Mission for the Consolidation of Peace in Central African Republic (MICOPAX), which are all working with the United Nations to ensure peace and unity in the country
The AU's Multinational Force of Central Africa (FOMAC), which will transfer to MISCA, comprises soldiers from Gabon, Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, and Cameroon. It will receive the support from France (already supporting the FOMAC), which will increase its presence in the CAR from 600 to 1200 troops in order to protect local French citizens, UN observers and the area of the Bangui M'Poko International Airport, and to provide assistance for the deployment and logistics of AU forces or international NGO workers, or for the possible evacuation of foreign residents in the country.
The resolution comes just in time before the international Élysée Summit for Peace and Security in Africa, starting the next day on December 6 and dominated by the situation in the Central African Republic, where most African leaders (including 40 country heads of state), the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and France will meet in Paris along with observers from other countries. France had already announced in the last weeks of November its intent to increase the deployment in the CAR to about 1,000 troops for a short mission of about 6 months to one year, in order to restore local order in the country; the resolution allows immediate deployment of French troops in the next few days.
At start of the two-day summit in Paris, French President François Hollande, at the funeral for former South African president and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Nelson Mandela, was horrified by the dramatic situation in Bangui, he announced that the French military presence in the CAR would double to include 1,200 troops, immediately, possibly within hours.And the African Union proposed increasing its forces participating in Central Africa to be boosted soon from about 2,000 to 3,500 troops within the MISCA mission which should last for at least one year according to mandate given by the UN resolution.
British Foreign Secretary William Hague stated that British military will assist the deployment of French military equipment to the Central African Republic, with one of the first flights arriving "shortly" on Bangui.The United States made a similar promise to transport forces of the African Union using two C-17s.
The Central African Armed Forces are the armed forces of the Central African Republic, established after independence in 1960. Today they are among the world's weakest armed forces, dependent on international support to hold back enemies in the current civil war. Its disloyalty to the president came to the fore during the mutinies in 1996–1997, and since then has faced internal problems. It has been strongly criticised by human rights organisations due to terrorism, including killings, torture and sexual violence. Its budget is currently just $15 million adjusted USD per year.
The United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo or MONUSCO, an acronym based on its French name, is a United Nations peacekeeping force in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) which was established by the United Nations Security Council in resolutions 1279 (1999) and 1291 (2000) of the United Nations Security Council to monitor the peace process of the Second Congo War, though much of its focus subsequently turned to the Ituri conflict, the Kivu conflict and the Dongo conflict. The mission was known as the United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo or MONUC, an acronym of its French name Mission de l'Organisation des Nations Unies en République démocratique du Congo, until 2010.
The Peace and Security Council is the organ of the African Union in charge of enforcing union decisions. It is patterned somewhat after the United Nations Security Council.
The Economic Community of Central African States is an Economic Community of the African Union for promotion of regional economic co-operation in Central Africa. It "aims to achieve collective autonomy, raise the standard of living of its populations and maintain economic stability through harmonious cooperation".
The United Nations Peacekeeping began in 1948. Its first mission was in the Middle East to observe and maintain the ceasefire during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. Since then, United Nations peacekeepers have taken part in a total of 72 missions around the globe, 14 of which continue today. The peacekeeping force as a whole received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1988.
The African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur is a joint African Union (AU) and United Nations (UN) peacekeeping mission formally approved by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1769 on 31 July 2007, to bring stability to the war-torn Darfur region of Sudan while peace talks on a final settlement continue.
The United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) was a United Nations peacekeeping mission established by the United Nations Security Council on September 25, 2007 to provide a multidimensional presence of up to 350 police and military personnel to eastern Chad and north-eastern Central African Republic
Faustin-Archange Touadéra is a Central African politician and academic who has been President of the Central African Republic since March 2016. He was previously Prime Minister of the country from January 2008 to January 2013. In the December 2015–February 2016 presidential election, he was elected as President in a second round of voting against former Prime Minister Anicet Georges Dologuelé.
The Central African Republic conflict is a civil war in the Central African Republic (CAR) involving the government, rebels from the Séléka coalition, and anti-balaka militias.
Bangui Agreements is a 1997 negotiated peace accord in the Central African Republic (CAR). The agreement was drawn up in Bangui to bring an end to the 1990s conflict between government and rebel forces. It was signed by the Patassé government, opposition parties and religious groups. The agreement envisaged several steps to sort out the views of various political factions, reorganize the defense establishment, and bring about reforms in the country which could improve the economy of the country.
An internal conflict in the Central African Republic (CAR) started essentially on 13 April 2013, when the government of President Michel Djotodia officially took over. The fighting was between the government of the Central African Republic's former Séléka coalition of rebel groups, who are mainly from the Muslim minority, and the mainly Christian anti-balaka coalition. The conflict was part of the ongoing Central African Republic Civil War (2012–present). International organisations, such as the United Nations, had warned of a possible genocide. UNSC resolution 2122 authorised the African-led International Support Mission to the Central African Republic (MISCA) to be deployed to the country, and France to lead operations with additional troops sent to bolster its force in the country. Following a summit of Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC), including the attendance of all the country's MPs, Djotodia resigned from the presidency on 10 January 2014. The National Transitional Council chose Bangui mayor Catherine Samba-Panza as interim president on 20 January 2014. A period of lawlessness prevailed during the early days of her presidency with people moving into religiously cleansed neighbourhoods as the UN warned of a genocide. Anti-Balaka attacks continued against Muslim civilians.
European Union Force RCA, commonly referred as EUFOR RCA, is the United Nations-mandated European Union peacekeeping mission in Bangui, capital of the Central African Republic. The goal of the mission is to stabilize the area after more than a year of internal conflict. Agreement about the mission was reached in January 2014, and the first operations started at the end of April. The mission ended its mandate after nearly a year on 15 March 2015.
Operation Sangaris is a military intervention of the French military in the Central African Republic, from late 2013 till 2016. It has been the 7th French military intervention there since the independence of the country in 1960. On 30 October 2016, France announced it officially ended Operation Sangaris.
The following lists events that happened during 2013 in the Central African Republic.
United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic is the UN peacekeeping mission, which started in April 10, 2014 to protect Central African Republic civilians under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. It transforms the 6,000-strong African Union-led peacekeeping force known as MISCA into a UN peacekeeping missions, became operational on September 15, 2014. The UN deployed a transition team to set up MINUSCA and prepare for a seamless transition of authority from MISCA to MINUSCA. As of 2016, it has more than 10,000 troops on the ground. Its role is to:
The Bangui National Forum was a national reconciliation conference organized by the transition government of the Central African Republic (CAR). It took place in Bangui from May 4 to 11, 2015 and was part of the third phase of the Brazzaville process. Following the Brazzaville ceasefire conference of July 2014 and the CAR popular consultations during the first quarter of 2015, the forum resulted in the adoption of a Republican Pact for Peace, National Reconciliation and Reconstruction in the CAR and the signature of a Disarmament, Demobilisation, Rehabilitation and Repatriation (DDRR) agreement among 9 of 10 armed groups.
Noureddine Adam is the leader of the Central African rebel group, the Popular Front for the Rebirth of Central African Republic (FPRC) in the Central African Republic Civil War.
The United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic, more commonly known as MINURCA was a United Nations peacekeeping force in the Central African Republic. The 1350-troop mission was established by the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1159 in March 1998. It was replaced in 2000 after the Central African Republic conducted two peaceful elections, with the entirely civilian composed UN Peace-Building Support Office in the Central African Republic (BONUCA).