Maa Kheru

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mꜣꜥ-ḫrw ("True of Voice")
in hieroglyphs

Maa Kheru (Ancient Egyptian : mꜣꜥ ḫrw) is a phrase meaning "true of voice" or "justified" [1] or "the acclaim given to him is 'right'". [2] The term is involved in ancient Egyptian afterlife beliefs, according to which deceased souls had to be judged morally righteous. Once the soul had passed the test, the Weighing of the Heart, he or she was judged to be mꜣꜥ ḫrw and was allowed to enter the afterlife. [1] The phrase was often used to denote someone who had passed and become a god by placing it at the end of the name of the individual in question. [3]

Ancient Egyptian afterlife beliefs

Ancient Egyptian afterlife beliefs were centered around a variety of complex rituals, that were influenced by many aspects of Egyptian culture. Religion was a major contributor, since it was an important social practice that bound all Egyptians together. For instance, many of the Egyptian gods played roles in guiding the souls of the dead through the afterlife. With the evolution of writing, religious ideals were recorded and quickly spread throughout the Egyptian community. The solidification and commencement of these doctrines were formed in the creation of afterlife texts which illustrated and explained what the dead would need to know in order to complete the journey safely.

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Maat Egyptian deity and concepts of truth, order and justice

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Duat in Egyptian mythology, the realm of the dead

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Ancient Egyptian conception of the soul mythical character

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Babi (mythology) deity

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Mastaba type of ancient Egyptian tomb

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Ushabti funerary figurine used in ancient Egyptian religion

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Ancient Egyptian funerary practices

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Ancient Egyptian offering formula

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Fascination with death

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Divine judgment moral judgement by a deity

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The Spell of the Twelve Caves is an important Ancient Egyptian funerary text, dating to the New Kingdom.

The Books of Breathing are several late ancient Egyptian funerary texts, intended to enable deceased people to continue to exist in the afterlife. The earliest known copy dates to about 350 BC. Other copies come from the Ptolemaic and Roman periods of Egyptian history, as late as the second century AD. It is a simplified form of the Book of the Dead.

Assessors of Maat

The Assessors of Maat were 42 minor ancient Egyptian deities of the Maat charged with judging the souls of the dead in the afterlife by joining the judgment of Osiris in the Weighing of the Heart.

References

  1. 1 2 Allen, James P. (2000). Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. Cambridge University Press. p. 95
  2. Rudolph Anthes, "The Original Meaning of Mꜣꜥ ḫrw", Journal of Near Eastern Studies. Vol. 13, No. 1 (Jan. 1954), p. 50
  3. Grenfell, Alice (1906). "EGYPTIAN MYTHOLOGY AND THE BIBLE" (PDF). The Monist. 16 (2): 169–200. JSTOR   27899648.