Madhya Pradesh

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Madhya Pradesh
Western Group of Temples - Khajuraho 12.jpg
Sanchi Stupa from Eastern gate, Madhya Pradesh.jpg
Rupmati Mahal.jpg
White Marble Rocks at Bhedaghat.jpg
1 of the rock shelter caves at Bhimbetka, Madhya Pradesh.jpg
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Etymology: Madhya (meaning 'central') and Pradesh (meaning 'province or territory')
Location of Madhya Pradesh in India
Coordinates: 23°15′00″N77°25′01″E / 23.25°N 77.417°E / 23.25; 77.417 Coordinates: 23°15′00″N77°25′01″E / 23.25°N 77.417°E / 23.25; 77.417
CountryFlag of India.svg  India
Region Malwa, Bundelkhand, Baghelkhand, Nimar, Mahakoshal and Gird (Gird region also includes Chambal division)
Settlement1 November 1956
Capital Bhopal
Largest city Indore
Districts 52
  Body Government of Madhya Pradesh
   Governor Lalji Tandon (BJP) [1]
   Chief Minister Kamal Nath (INC)
   Legislature Unicameral (250 seats)
   High Court Madhya Pradesh High Court
   State 308,252 km2 (119,017 sq mi)
Area rank 2nd
 (2011) [2]
   State 72,626,809
  Rank 5th
  Density240/km2 (610/sq mi)
GDP (2018–19)
   Total 8.09 lakh crore (US$120 billion)
   Per capita 90,998 (US$1,300)
Time zone UTC+05:30 (IST)
ISD code 91-07xxx
ISO 3166 code IN-MP
HDI (2017)Increase2.svg 0.594 [4]
medium · 26th
Literacy (2011)70.6% [2]
Sex ratio (2011)931 [5]
Official language Hindi [6]
Language Hindi devnagari.png Hindi
SongMadhya Pradesh Gaan
Dance Maanch
Animal Swamp deer (Cervus duvaucelii branderi) male.jpg Barasingha
Bird Asian Paradise-flycatcher (Female).jpg Indian Paradise Flycatcher
Fish Tor tambroid 160811-61602 ffi.JPG Mahseer [7]
Flower ShoshanTzachor-2-wiki-Zachi-Evenor.jpg White Lily
Fruit Mangoes in Paris farmer's market.JPG Mango
Tree Banyantree.jpg Banyan Tree

Madhya Pradesh (MP; /ˌmʌdjəprəˈdɛʃ/ , Hindi:  [ˈmədʱjə pɾəˈdeːʃ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); meaning "Central Province") is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal, and the largest city is Indore, with Jabalpur, Gwalior, Ujjain and Sagar being the other major cities. Nicknamed the "Heart of India" due to its geographical location, Madhya Pradesh is the second largest Indian state by area and the fifth largest state by population with over 75 million residents. It borders the states of Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the southeast, Maharashtra to the south, Gujarat to the west, and Rajasthan to the northwest. Its total area is 308,252 km2. Before 2000, when Chhattisgarh was a part of Madhya Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh was the largest state in India and the distance between the two furthest points inside the state, Singoli and Konta, was 1500 km. Konta is presently in Sukma district of Chhattisgarh state.

India Country in South Asia

India, official name, the Republic of India,, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Capital city Primary governing city of a top-level (country) or first-level subdivision (country, state, province, etc) political entity

A capital city is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government. A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the government's offices and meeting places; the status as capital is often designated by its law or constitution. In some jurisdictions, including several countries, the different branches of government are located in different settlements. In some cases, a distinction is made between the official (constitutional) capital and the seat of government, which is in another place.

Bhopal Metropolis and state capital in Madhya Pradesh, India

Bhopal is the capital city of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and the administrative headquarters of both Bhopal district and Bhopal division. Bhopal is known as the City of Lakes for its various natural and artificial lakes and is also one of the greenest cities in India. It is the 17th largest city in India and 131st in the world.


The area covered by the present-day Madhya Pradesh includes the area of the ancient Avanti Mahajanapada, whose capital Ujjain (also known as Avantika) arose as a major city during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE. Subsequently, the region was ruled by the major dynasties of India. By the early 18th century, the region was divided into several small kingdoms which were captured by the British and incorporated into Central Provinces and Berar and the Central India Agency. After India's independence, Madhya Pradesh state was created with Nagpur as its capital: this state included the southern parts of the present-day Madhya Pradesh and northeastern portion of today's Maharashtra. In 1956, this state was reorganised and its parts were combined with the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal to form the new Madhya Pradesh state, the Marathi-speaking Vidarbha region was removed and merged with the then Bombay State. This state was the largest in India by area until 2000, when its southeastern Chhattisgarh region was made as a separate state.

Ujjain Metropolitan City in Madhya Pradesh, India

Ujjain is a city in Ujjain district of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is the fifth largest city in Madhya Pradesh by population and is the administrative centre of Ujjain district and Ujjain division. It is a famous Hindu pilgrimage centre with the Kumbh Mela held here every 12 years.

British Empire States and dominions ruled by the United Kingdom

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the world population at the time, and by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2 (13,700,000 sq mi), 24% of the Earth's total land area. As a result, its political, legal, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was often used to describe the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun was always shining on at least one of its territories.

Central Provinces and Berar

The Central Provinces and Berar was a province of British India and later the Dominion of India which existed from 1936 to 1950. It was formed by the merger of the Central Provinces with the province of Berar, which was territory leased by the British from the Hyderabad State. Through an agreement signed on 5 November 1902, 6th Nizam Mahbub Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VI leased Berar permanently to the British for an annual payment of 25 lakhs Rupees. Lord Curzon decided to merge Berar with the Central Provinces, and this was proclaimed on 17 September 1903.

The economy of Madhya Pradesh is the tenth-largest state economy in India with 8.09 lakh crore (US$120 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of 90,000 (US$1,300). [3] Madhya Pradesh ranks twenty-sixth among Indian states in human development index. [4] Rich in mineral resources, MP has the largest reserves of diamond and copper in India. More than 30% of its area is under forest cover. Its tourism industry has seen considerable growth, with the state topping the National Tourism Awards in 2010–11. [8] In recent years, the state's GDP growth has been above the national average. [9]

The economy of Madhya Pradesh grew at 12% GDP for annual year 2011–12. Madhya Pradesh received an award from President Pranab Mukharjee in January 2013 for improving its tourism, medical and infrastructural growth.

Gross domestic product market value of goods and services produced within a country

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced in a specific time period, often annually. GDP (nominal) per capita does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore using a basis of GDP per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) is arguably more useful when comparing differences in living standards between nations.


Khajuraho (town) city in Madhya Pradesh, India

Khajuraho is a town in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, located in Chhatarpur District. One of the most popular tourist destinations in India, Khajuraho has the country's largest group of medieval Hindu and Jain temples, famous for their erotic sculptures. The Khajuraho Group of Monuments has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1986 and is considered one of the "seven wonders" of India. The town's name, anciently "Kharjuravahaka", is derived from the Sanskrit word kharjur meaning "date palm".

Bateshwar Hindu temples, Madhya Pradesh 8th-century stone temples group near Gwalior and Morena, Madhya Pradesh

Bateshwar Hindu temples are a group of nearly 200 sandstone Hindu temples and their ruins in north Madhya Pradesh in post-Gupta, early Gurjar-Pratihara style of North Indian temple architecture. It is about 35 kilometres (22 mi) north of Gwalior and about 30 kilometres (19 mi) east of Morena town. The temples are mostly small and spread over about 25 acres (10 ha) site. They are dedicated to Shiva, Vishnu and Shakti - representing the three major traditions within Hinduism. The site is within the Chambal River valley ravines, on the north-western slope of a hill near Padavali known for its major medieval era Vishnu temple. The Bateshwar temples were built between the 8th and the 10th-century. The site is likely named after the Bhuteshvar Temple, the largest Shiva temple at the site. It is also referred to as Batesvar temples site or Batesara temples site.

Bhojpur, Madhya Pradesh Place in Madhya Pradesh, India

Bhojpur is a town of historical and religious importance in Raisen District of Madhya Pradesh, India.

Isolated remains of Homo erectus found in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley indicate that Madhya Pradesh might have been inhabited in the Middle Pleistocene era. [10] Painted pottery dated to the later mesolithic period has been found in the Bhimbetka rock shelters. [11] Chalcolithic sites belonging to Kayatha culture (2100–1800 BCE) and Malwa culture (1700–1500 BCE) have been discovered in the western part of the state. [12]

<i>Homo erectus</i> Extinct species of the genus Homo

Homo erectus is a species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch. Its earliest fossil evidence dates to 1.8 million years ago.

Narmada River A river of central India in a rift valley

The Narmada River, also called the Rewa and previously also known as Nerbudda, is a river in central India after the Godavari, and the Krishna. It is also known as "Life Line of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh" for its huge contribution to the state of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh in many ways. Narmada rises from Amarkantak Plateau near Anuppur district. It forms the traditional boundary between North India and South India and flows westwards over a length of 1,312 km (815.2 mi) before draining through the Gulf of Khambhat into the Arabian Sea, 30 km (18.6 mi) west of Bharuch city of Gujarat.

The Middle Pleistocene is a subdivision of the Pleistocene Epoch, from 781,000 to 126,000 years ago. It is preceded by the Calabrian stage, beginning with the Brunhes–Matuyama reversal, and succeeded by the Tarantian stage, taken as beginning with the last interglacial.

The city of Ujjain arose as a major centre in the region, during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE. It served as the capital of the Avanti kingdom Tejas. Other kingdoms mentioned in ancient epics—Malava, Karusha, Dasarna and Nishada—have also been identified with parts of Madhya Pradesh.

The Karusha Kingdom is one of the Yadava kingdoms of the Mahabharata epic. It is placed to the south of Chedi. Karusha king Dantavaktra supported Chedi king Shishupala and was killed by Vasudeva Krishna. Karusha Kingdom is identified as modern Datia district of Madhya Pradesh.

Dasarna Kingdom

Dasarna Kingdom was one of the many kingdoms ruled by Yadava kings in ancient central and western India. It lay to the south of the Chedi and Panchala kingdoms, in northern Madhya Pradesh. The Panchala prince Sikhandi married a princess from Dasarna. Sikhandin was alleged to be 'one of the neuter-gender'. This led to a dispute between the Dasarna king and the Panchala king Drupada.

Chandragupta Maurya united northern India around 320 BCE, establishing the Mauryan Empire, which included all of modern-day Madhya Pradesh. Ashoka the greatest of Mauryan rulers brought the region under firmer control. After the decline of the Maurya empire, the region was contested among the Sakas, the Kushanas, the Satavahanas, and several local dynasties during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE. Heliodorus, the Greek Ambassador to the court of the Shunga king Bhagabhadra erected the Heliodorus pillar near Vidisha.

Ujjain emerged as the predominant commercial centre of western India from the first century BCE, located on the trade routes between the Ganges plain and India's Arabian Sea ports. The Satavahana dynasty of the northern Deccan and the Saka dynasty of the Western Satraps fought for the control of Madhya Pradesh during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE.

The Satavahana king Gautamiputra Satakarni inflicted a crushing defeat upon the Saka rulers and conquered parts of Malwa and Gujarat in the 2nd century CE. [13]

Subsequently, the region came under the control of the Gupta empire in the 4th and 5th centuries, and their southern neighbours, the Vakataka's. The rock-cut temples at Bagh Caves in the Kukshi tehsil of the Dhar district attest to the presence of the Gupta dynasty in the region, supported by the testimony of a Badwani inscription dated to the year of 487 CE. [14] The attacks of the Hephthalites or White Huns brought about the collapse of the Gupta empire, which broke up into smaller states. The king Yasodharman of Malwa defeated the Huns in 528, ending their expansion. Later, Harsha (c. 590–647) ruled the northern parts of the state. Malwa was ruled by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty from the late 8th century to the 10th century. [15] When the south Indian Emperor Govinda III of the Rashtrakuta dynasty annexed Malwa, he set up the family of one of his subordinates there, who took the name of Paramara. [16]

The Medieval period saw the rise of the Rajput clans, including the Paramaras of Malwa and the Chandelas of Bundelkhand. The Chandellas built the majestic Hindu-Jain temples at Khajuraho, which represent the culmination of Hindu temple architecture in Central India. The Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty also held sway in northern and western Madhya Pradesh at this time. It also left some monuments of architectural value in Gwalior. Southern parts of Madhya Pradesh like Malwa were several times invaded by the south Indian Western Chalukya Empire which imposed its rule on the Paramara kingdom of Malwa. [17] The Paramara king Bhoja (c. 1010–1060) was a renowned polymath. The small Gond kingdoms emerged in the Gondwana and Mahakoshal regions of the state. Northern Madhya Pradesh was conquered by the Turkic Delhi Sultanate in the 13th century. After the collapse of the Delhi Sultanate at the end of the 14th century, independent regional kingdoms re-emerged, including the Tomara kingdom of Gwalior and the Muslim Sultanate of Malwa, with its capital at Mandu.

The Malwa Sultanate was conquered by the Sultanate of Gujarat in 1531. In the 1540s, most parts of the state fell to Sher Shah Suri, and subsequently to the Hindu king Hemu. Hemu, who had earlier served as the General of the Suri dynasty, operated from the Gwalior Fort during 1553–56 and became the ruler of Delhi as a Vikramaditya king winning 22 battles continuously from Bengal to Gujrat and defeating Akbar's forces in the Battle of Delhi on 7 October 1556. However, he chose Delhi as his capital after his formal Coronation and left Gwalior. After Hemu's defeat by Akbar at the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556, most of Madhya Pradesh came under the Mughal rule. Gondwana and Mahakoshal remained under the control of Gond kings, who acknowledged Mughal supremacy but enjoyed virtual autonomy.

The Mughal control weakened considerably after the death of Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707. Between 1720 and 1760, the Marathas took control of most of Madhya Pradesh, resulting in the establishment of semi-autonomous states under the nominal control of the Peshwa of Pune: the Holkars of Indore ruled much of Malwa, Puars ruled Dewas and Dhar, the Bhonsles of Nagpur dominated Mahakoshal-Gondwana area, while the Scindias of Gwalior controlled the northern parts of the state. The most notable Maratha rulers of the region were Mahadji Shinde, Ahilyabai Holkar and Yashwantrao Holkar. Besides these, there were several other small states, including Bhopal, Orchha, and Rewa. The Bhopal state, which paid tribute to both the Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad, was founded by Dost Mohammed Khan, a former General in the Mughal army.

After the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the British took control of the entire region. All the sovereign states in the region became princely states of British India, governed by the Central India Agency. The Mahakoshal region became a British province: the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories. In 1861, the British merged the Nagpur Province with the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories to form the Central Provinces.

During the 1857 uprising, rebellions happened in the northern parts of the state, led by leaders like Tatya Tope. However, these were crushed by the British and the princes loyal to them. The state witnessed a number of anti-British activities and protests during the Indian independence movement. [18] Several notable leaders such as Chandra Shekhar Azad, B. R. Ambedkar, Shankar Dayal Sharma and Atal Bihari Vajpayee were born in what is now Madhya Pradesh.

After the independence of India, Madhya Pradesh was created in 1950 from the former British Central Provinces and Berar and the princely states of Makrai and Chhattisgarh, with Nagpur as the capital of the state. The new states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal were formed out of the Central India Agency. In 1956, the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal were merged into Madhya Pradesh, and the Marathi-speaking southern region Vidarbha, which included Nagpur, was ceded to Bombay state. Jabalpur was chosen to be the capital of the state but at the last moment, due to some political pressure, Bhopal was made the state capital. [19] In November 2000, as part of the Madhya Pradesh Reorganization Act, the southeastern portion of the state split off to form the new state of Chhattisgarh.


Location in India

Madhya Pradesh literally means "Central Province", and is located in the geographic heart of India in between the latitude of 21.2°N-26.87°N and longitude of 74°59'E-82°06'E. The state straddles the Narmada River, which runs east and west between the Vindhya and Satpura ranges; these ranges and the Narmada are the traditional boundaries between the north and south of India. The highest point in Madhya Pradesh is Dhupgarh, with an elevation of 1,350 m (4,429 ft). [20]

The state is bordered on the west by Gujarat, on the northwest by Rajasthan, on the northeast by Uttar Pradesh, on the east by Chhattisgarh, and on the south by Maharashtra.

Physical map of Madhya Pradesh village Tumen Ashoknagar India Madhya Pradesh physical.svg
Physical map of Madhya Pradesh village Tumen Ashoknagar


Madhya Pradesh has a subtropical climate. Like most of north India, it has a hot dry summer (April–June), followed by monsoon rains (July–September) and a cool and relatively dry winter. The average rainfall is about 1,371 mm (54.0 in). The southeastern districts have the heaviest rainfall, some places receiving as much as 2,150 mm (84.6 in), while the western and northwestern districts receive 1,000 mm (39.4 in) or less.


According to the 2011 figures, the recorded forest area of the state is 94,689 km2 (36,560 sq mi) constituting 30.72% of the geographical area of the state. [21] It constitutes 12.30% of the forest area of India. Legally this area has been classified into "Reserved Forest" (65.3%), "Protected Forest" (32.84%) and "Unclassified Forest" (0.18%). Per capita forest area is 2,400 m2 (0.59 acres) as against the national average of 700 m2 (0.17 acres). The forest cover is less dense in the northern and western parts of the state, which contain the major urban centres. Variability in climatic and edaphic conditions brings about significant difference in the forest types of the state. In January 2019 1.5 million volunteers in the state planted 66 million trees in 12 hours along the Narmada river. [22]

The major types of soils found in the state are:

Flora and fauna

Madhya Pradesh is home to ten National Parks; Bandhavgarh National Park, Kanha National Park, Satpura National Park, Sanjay National Park, Madhav National Park, Van Vihar National Park, Mandla Plant Fossils National Park, Panna National Park, Pench National Park and Dinosaur National Park, Dhar. [23] [24]

There are also a number of nature reserves, including Amarkantak, Bagh Caves, Balaghat, Bori Natural Reserve, Ken Gharial, Ghatigaon, Kuno Palpur, Narwar, Chambal, Kukdeshwar, Narsinghgarh, Nora Dehi, Pachmarhi, Panpatha, Shikarganj, Patalkot, and Tamia. Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve in Satpura Range, Amarkantak biosphere reserve and Panna National Park are three of the 18 biosphere reserves in India. Most of them are located in eastern Madhya Pradesh near Jabalpur.

Kanha, Bandhavgarh, Pench, Panna, and Satpura National Parks are managed as Project Tiger areas. The National Chambal Sanctuary is managed for conservation of gharial and mugger, river dolphin, smooth-coated otter and a number of turtle species. Ken-gharial and Son-gharial sanctuaries are managed for conservation of gharial and mugger. The barasingha is the state animal and the dudhraj is the state bird of Madhya Pradesh.

Based on composition, the teak and sal forests are the important forest formations in the state. Bamboo-bearing areas are widely distributed.

State symbols of Madhya Pradesh

State animal Barasingha [25] [26] (Rucervus duvaucelii) The barasingha.jpg
State bird Indian paradise flycatcher (Terpsiphone paradisi) [27] Terpsiphone paradisi -near Amaya Lake, Dambulla, Sri Lanka-8.jpg
State tree banyan tree (ficus bengalensis) [28] Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden - Howrah 2011-01-08 9797.JPG
State fish Mahasheer (Tor tor) [27] Tor tor Bhavani.jpg
State Flower Madonna lily (Lilium candidum) [29] Lilium-candidum-001-Zachi-Evenor.jpg


The Narmada is the longest river in Madhya Pradesh. It flows westward through a rift valley, with the Vindhya ranges sprawling along its northern bank and the Satpura range of mountains along the southern. Its tributaries include the Banjar, the Tawa, the Machna, the Shakkar, the Denwa and the Sonbhadra rivers. The Tapti River runs parallel to Narmada, and also flows through a rift valley. The Narmada–Tapti systems carry an enormous volume of water and provide drainage for almost a quarter of the land area of Madhya Pradesh. The Narmada river is considered very sacred and is worshipped throughout the region. It is the main source of water and acts as a lifeline to the state.

The Vindhyas form the southern boundary of the Ganges basin, with the western part of the Ganges basin draining into the Yamuna and the eastern part directly into the Ganges itself. All the rivers, which drain into the Ganges, flow from south to north, with the Chambal, Shipra, Kali Sindh, Parbati, Kuno, Sind, Betwa, Dhasan and Ken rivers being the main tributaries of the Yamuna. Shipra River is one of the most sacred rivers of Hinduism. It is the site of the Simhastha Kumbh Mela, which is held every 12 years. The land drained by these rivers is agriculturally rich, with the natural vegetation largely consisting of grass and dry deciduous forest types, largely thorny. The eastern part of the Ganges basin consists of the Son, the Tons and the Rihand Rivers. Son, which arises in the Maikal hills around Amarkantak, is the largest tributary that goes into the Ganges on the south bank and that does not arise from the Himalayas. Son and its tributaries contribute the bulk of the monsoon flow into the Ganges, because the north bank tributaries are all snow fed. The forests in their basins are much richer than the thorn forests of the northwestern part of Madhya Pradesh.

After the formation of Chhattisgarh State, the major portion of Mahanadi basin now lies in Chhattisgarh. Presently, only 154 km2 basin area of Hasdeo River in Anuppur District lies in Madhya Pradesh.

The Satpuras, in the Gawilgarh and Mahadeo Hills, also contain a watershed, which is south facing. The Wainganga, the Wardha, the Pench, the Kanhan rivers, discharge an enormous volume of water into the Godavari river system. The Godavari basin consists of sub-tropical, semi-moist forests, mainly in the valley of the Indrawati. There are many important multi-state irrigation projects in development, including the Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects.


Madhya Pradesh is divided into the following agro-climatic zones:


Madhya Pradesh is administratively divided into 10 divisions and further 52 districts. [30]




The population of Madhya Pradesh consists of a number of ethnic groups and tribes, castes and communities, including the indigenous tribals and relatively more recent migrants from other states. The scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes constitute a significant portion of the population of the State. The main tribal groups in Madhya Pradesh are Gond, Bhil, Baiga, Korku, Bhadia (or Bhariya), Halba, Kaul, Mariya, Malto and Sahariya. Dhar, Jhabua and Mandla districts have more than 50 percent tribal population. In Khargone, Chhindwara, Seoni, Sidhi, Singrauli and Shahdol districts 30–50 percent population is of tribes. According to the 2011 census, the adivasi population in Madhya Pradesh was 15.34 million, constituting 21.1% of the total population. There were 46 recognised Scheduled Tribes and three of them have been identified as "Special Primitive Tribal Groups" in the State. [33]

Due to the different linguistic, cultural and geographical environment, and its peculiar complications, the diverse tribal world of Madhya Pradesh has been largely cut off from the mainstream of development. Madhya Pradesh ranks very low on the Human Development Index value of 0.375 (2011), which is below the national average. [34] According to the India State Hunger Index (2008) compiled by the International Food Policy Research Institute, the malnutrition situation in Madhya Pradesh was "extremely alarming", receiving a severity rating between Ethiopia and Chad. [35] The state ranks is also the worst performer in India, when it comes to female foeticides. [36] The state's per-capita gross state domestic product (nominal GDP) is the fourth lowest in the country (2010–11). [37]


Languages in Madhya Pradesh (2011) [38]

   Hindi (88.57%)
   Marathi (1.70%)
   Urdu (1.26%)
  Others (8.47%)

The official language of the state is Hindi. In addition Marathi is spoken by a substantial number of the population since the state was home to several important and prestigious Maratha states. The state in fact has the highest concentration of Marathi people outside Maharashtra. Several regional variants are spoken, which are considered by some[ according to whom? ] to be dialects of Hindi, and by others[ according to whom? ] to be distinct but related languages. Among these dialects are Malvi in Malwa, Nimadi in Nimar, Bundeli in Bundelkhand, and Bagheli in Bagelkhand and the southeast, and Rajasthani in the area near to Rajasthan. Each of these languages has dialects of its own. Other languages include Telugu, Bhilodi (Bhili), Gondi, Korku, Kalto (Nahali), and Nihali (Nahali), all spoken by Adivasis.

The following languages are taught in schools in Madhya Pradesh under the Three Language Formula: [39]


According to the census of 2011, 90.9% of the MP residents followed Hinduism, while others are Muslim (6.6%), Jain (0.8%), Buddhists (0.3%), Christians (0.3%), and Sikhs (0.2%). [40]

Religion in Madhya Pradesh (2011) [41]

   Hinduism (90.89%)
   Islam (6.57%)
  Other religion (0.83%)
   Jainism (0.78%)
   Buddhism (0.30%)
   Christianity (0.29%)
  No religion (0.13%)
   Sikhism (0.20%)


Four sites in Madhya Pradesh have been declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO: the Khajuraho Group of Monuments (1986) including Devi Jagadambi temple, Khajuraho, Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi (1989) and the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka (2003). Other architecturally significant or scenic sites include Ajaigarh, Amarkantak, Asirgarh, Bandhavgarh, Bawangaja, Bhopal, Vidisha, Chanderi, Chitrakuta, Dhar, Gwalior, Indore, Nemavar, Jabalpur, Burhanpur, Maheshwar, Mandleshwar, Mandu, Omkareshwar, Orchha, Pachmarhi, Shivpuri, Sonagiri, Mandla and Ujjain.

Madhya Pradesh is noted for its classical and folk music. Some of the noted Hindustani classical music gharanas in Madhya Pradesh include the Maihar gharana, the Gwalior gharana and Senia gharana. Two of the medieval India's most noted singers, Tansen and Baiju Bawra, were born near Gwalior in present-day Madhya Pradesh. Noted Dhrupad exponents Aminuddin Dagar (Indore), Gundecha Brothers (Ujjain) and Uday Bhawalkar (Ujjain) were also born in present-day Madhya Pradesh. [42] The birthplaces of noted playback singers Kishore Kumar (Khandwa) and Lata Mangeshkar (Indore) and singer and composer Aadesh Shrivastava (Jabalpur) are also located in MP. The local styles of folk singing include Faga, Bhartahari, Sanja geet, Bhopa, Kalbelia, Bhat/Bhand/Charan, Vasdeva, Videsia, Kalgi Turra, Nirgunia, Alha, Pandwani Gayan and Garba Garbi Govalan. [43]

The major folk dances of MP are Rai, Karma, Saila, Matki, Gangaur, Badhai, Baredi, Naurata, Ahiri and Bhagoria. [44]


Woman harvesting wheat, Raisen district Woman harvesting wheat, Raisen district, Madhya Pradesh, India ggia version.jpg
Woman harvesting wheat, Raisen district

Madhya Pradesh's gross state domestic product (nominal GDP) for 2013–14 was 4,509 billion (approximately US$ 72,726,000,000). The per-capita figure was US$ 871.45 in 2013–14, the sixth-lowest in the country. [45] Between 1999 and 2008, the annualised growth rate of the state was very low: 3.5%. [46] Subsequently, the state's GDP growth rate has improved significantly, rising to 8% during 2010–11 and 12% during 2011–12. [47]

Madhya Pradesh is also famous for honey production in district Morena.

The state has an agrarian economy. [47] The major crops of Madhya Pradesh are wheat, soybean, gram, sugarcane, rice, maize, cotton, rapeseed, mustard and arhar. [48] Minor Forest Produce (MFP), such as tendu leaves used to roll beedi, sal seed, teak seed, and lak also contribute to state's rural economy.

Madhya Pradesh has 5 Special Economic Zones (SEZs): 3 IT/ITeS (Indore, Gwalior), 1 mineral-based (Jabalpur) and 1 agro-based (Jabalpur). In October 2011, approval was given to 14 proposed SEZs, out of which 10 were IT/ITeS-based. [48] Indore is the major commercial centre of the state. Because of the state's central location, a number of consumer goods companies have established manufacturing bases in MP. [48]

The state has the largest reserves of diamond and copper in India. Other major mineral reserves include those of coal, coalbed methane, manganese and dolomite. [48]

Madhya Pradesh has six Ordnance Factories, four of which are located at Jabalpur (Vehicle Factory, Grey Iron Foundry, Gun Carriage Factory, Ordnance Factory Khamaria) and one each at Katni and Itarsi. The factories are run by the Ordnance Factories Board, and manufacture a variety of products for the Indian Armed Forces.

Madhya Pradesh won the 10th National Award for excellent work in Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005.

The state's tourism industry is growing, fuelled by wildlife tourism and a number of places of historical and religious significance. Sanchi and Khajuraho are frequented by external tourists. Besides the major cities, Bhedaghat, Bhimbetka, Bhojpur, Maheshwar, Mandu, Orchha, Pachmarhi, Kanha, Jabalpur and Ujjain, Tumen Vindhyavasini temple ancient temple. This south facing Ashok Nagar district located in Tuman (Tumvn).



Power generation in MP (31 May 2019) [49]
PowerCapacity (MW)

The state has a total installed power generation capacity of 23434.40 MW as of 31 May 2019. The Madhya Pradesh Electric Board is located at Jabalpur.

The Singrauli region on the eastern end of Madhya Pradesh is a major energy producer enclave for the country. The region has vast reserves of coal mines which is excavated by Northern Coalfields Limited, a subsidiary of Coal India Limited, which is inturn used in local power plants of NTPC, Sasan Power and Hindalco. The area has more than 5700 MW installed capacity for energy production


Road network of Madhya Pradesh [48]
Road typeLength (in km)
National Highways
State Highways
Major District Roads

Bus and train services cover most of Madhya Pradesh. The 99,043-kilometre-long (61,542 mi) road network of the state includes 20 national highways. [48] A 4,948-kilometre-long (3,075 mi) rail network criss-crosses the state, with Jabalpur serving as headquarters for the West Central Railway Zone of the Indian Railways. The Central Railway and the Western Railway also cover parts of the state. Most of the western Madhya Pradesh comes under Ratlam Rail Division of Western Railways, including cities like Indore, Ujjain, Mandsaur, Khandwa, Neemuch and Bairagarh in Bhopal. The state has a total of 20 major railway junctions. The major inter-state bus terminals are located in Bhopal, Indore, Gwalior and Jabalpur. More than 2,000 buses are conducted daily from these four cities. The intra-city transit systems mostly consist of buses, private autos and taxis.

The state does not have a coastline. Most of the sea trade happens through the Kandla and Jawaharlal Nehru Port (Nhava Sheva) in the neighbouring states, which are well-connected to MP by road and rail networks.

Devi Ahilyabai Holkar Airport in Indore is the busiest airport in Madhya Pradesh. Raja Bhoj International Airport in Bhopal, Dumna Airport in Jabalpur, Gwalior Airport and Khajuraho Airport also have scheduled commercial passenger services. Besides these, minor airstrips are located at Chhindwara, Sagar, Ratlam, Mandsaur, Ujjain, Khandwa, Rewa, Guna and Satna.


The state has 51 district hospitals, 333 community health centres, 1,155 primary health centres and 8,860 sub-centres. [50]

The urban infrastructure has improved considerably in the past decade. 22 projects costing above $500 million have been sanctioned under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission for the development of Bhopal, Indore, Jabalpur and Ujjain. [48]

Seven Cities of Madhya Pradesh Bhopal, Indore, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Satna, Ujjain, and Sagar have been selected under Smart cities mission [51] [52]


Dainik Bhaskar, Dainik Jagran, Nava Bharat, Nai Duniya, Rajasthan Patrika, raj express, are the leading Hindi newspapers. Other local newspapers are published in the cities. In English Times of India, Hindustan Times, The Hitavada, Central Chronicle and Free Press have editions from Bhopal with The Hitavada also being in Jabalpur. A Sindhi daily, is published from Bhopal is the only Sindhi newspaper in state.

Government and politics

Madhya Pradesh has a 230-seat state legislative assembly. The state also sends 40 members to the Parliament of India: 29 are elected to the Lok Sabha (Lower House) and 11 to the Rajya Sabha (Upper House). The constitutional head of the state is the Governor, appointed by the President of India. The execution powers lie with the Chief Minister, who is the elected leader of the state legislature. As of December 2018, the current governor is Anandiben Patel, and the chief minister is Kamal Nath of the Indian National Congress (INC).

The dominant political parties in the state are the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Indian National Congress. Unlike in many of the neighboring states, the small or regional parties have not had much success in the state elections. In the November 2018 state elections, the INC became the single largest party with 114 seats, defeating BJP which won 109 seats. Bahujan Samaj Party is the third major party in the state legislature, with 2 seats while others won 5 seats.


Madhya Pradesh state is made up of 52 Districts, which are grouped into 10 divisions. As of 2013, the state has 52 jila (district) panchayats, 376 tehsil, 313 janpad panchayats/blocks, and 23043 gram (village) panchayats. The municipalities in the state include 16 Nagar Nigams, 100 Nagar Palikas and 264 Nagar Panchayats. [53]


According to the 2011 census, Madhya Pradesh had a literacy rate of 70.60%. According to the 2009–10 figures, the state had 105,592 primary schools, 6,352 high schools, and 5,161 higher secondary schools. The state has 208 engineering & architecture colleges, 208 management institutes, and 12 medical colleges. [48]

The state is home to some of the premier educational and research institutions of India including Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Bhopal, IIM Indore, IIT Indore, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology(Bhopal), IIITDM Jabalpur and IIITM Gwalior, Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management, SPA Bhopal, Indian Institute of Forest Management (IIFM) (Bhopal), National Law Institute University (Bhopal), Institute Of Engineering & Science IPS Academy Indore, All India Institute of Medical Sciences Bhopal, Jabalpur Engineering College, Ujjain Engineering College, Madhav Institute of Technology and Science, Gwalior and Shri Govindram Seksaria Institute of Technology and Science. The state also has a veterinary science university (Nanaji Deshmukh Veterinary Science University) with three constituent colleges at Jabalpur, Mhow and Rewa. The first state private university of MP is Jaypee University Of Engineering & Technology, Guna, built as a campus on NH-3. JUET is ranked 86 in top 100 as per NIRF.

There are 500-degree colleges, which are affiliated with one of the universities in the state. These universities include Jawaharlal Nehru Agriculture University, Madhya Pradesh Veterinary Sciences University, Madhya Pradesh Medical Science University, Rajiv Gandhi Technical University (Bhopal), Awadhesh Pratap Singh University (Rewa), Barkatullah University (Bhopal University), Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya (Indore), Rani Durgavati University (Jabalpur), Vikram University (Ujjain), Jiwaji University (Gwalior), Dr Hari Singh Gaur University (Sagar University), Indira Gandhi National Tribal University (Amarkantak, Anuppur) and Makhanlal Chaturvedi National University of Journalism and Communication (Bhopal).

The Professional Examination Board was initialised as Pre Medical Test Board by Government of Madhya Pradesh in the year 1970. After some year in 1981, Pre Engineering Board was constituted. Then after, in the year 1982 both these boards were amalgamated and named as Madhya Pradesh Professional Examination Board (M.P.P.E.B.).



In 2013, state govt declared Malkhamb as the state sport. [54]

Cricket, Kabaddi, hockey, football, basketball, volleyball, cycling, swimming, badminton and table tennis are the popular sports in the state. Traditional games like kho kho, gilli danda, sitoliya, kanche and langdi are popular in the rural areas.

Snooker, a cue sport, generally regarded as having been invented in Jabalpur by British Army officers, is popular in many of the English-speaking and Commonwealth countries, with top professional players attaining multimillion-pound career earnings from the game.

Cricket is the most popular sport in Madhya Pradesh. There are three international cricket stadiums in the state – Nehru Stadium (Indore), Roop Singh Stadium (Gwalior) and Holkar Cricket Stadium (Indore). Madhya Pradesh cricket team's best performances in Ranji Trophy was in 1998–99, when the Chandrakant Pandit-led team ended as the runner-up. Its predecessor, the Indore-based Holkar cricket team, had won the Ranji Trophy four times.

Aishbagh Stadium in Bhopal is the home ground for World Series Hockey team Bhopal Badshahs. The state also has a football team that participates in the Santosh Trophy.

MP United FC is an Indian football that played in the 2nd Division I-League.

On 6 December 2017, the Madhya Pradesh Chief Minister Shivraj Singh Chouhan announced that players from the state would be given government jobs on winning medals in international events.

See also

Related Research Articles

Jabalpur Metropolis in Madhya Pradesh, India

Jabalpur is a tier 2 city in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. It is one of the major cities of Madhya Pradesh. According to the 2011 census, it is the third-largest urban agglomeration in Madhya Pradesh, and the country's 37th-largest urban agglomeration. It is known for the Dhuandhar Falls and the white marble rocks at Bhedaghat. It is generally accepted that the game of Snooker originated here.

Madhya Bharat former country

Madhya Bharat, also known as Malwa Union, was an Indian state in west-central India, created on 28 May 1948 from twenty-five princely states which until 1947 had been part of the Central India Agency, with Jiwajirao Scindia as its Rajpramukh.

Central India Agency

The Central India Agency was created in 1854, by amalgamating the Western Malwa Agency with other smaller political offices which formerly reported to the Governor-General of India. The agency was overseen by a political agent who maintained British relations with the princely states and influence over them on behalf of the Governor-General. The headquarters of the agent were at Indore.

Mahakoshal Historical region of Central India in Madhya Pradesh

Mahakoshal is a region of central India. Mahakoshal lies in the upper or eastern reaches of the Narmada River valley in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. Jabalpur is the largest city in the region. Nimar region lies to the west, in the lower reaches of the Narmada valley.

Amarkantak Hill station in Madhya Pradesh, India

Amarkantak is a pilgrim town and a Nagar Panchayat in Anuppur, Madhya Pradesh, India. The Amarkantak region is a unique natural heritage area and is the meeting point of the Vindhya and the Satpura Ranges, with the Maikal Hills being the fulcrum. This is where the Narmada River, the Son River and Johila River emerge.

There are ten river basins in Madhya Pradesh as ten major rivers originate from the State. As Madhya Pradesh is located in the center of India, most of the rivers are interstate rivers. The rivers namely, Chambal, Sindh, Betwa, Ken flow northward and meet with Yamuna whereas the river Sone falls directly into Ganges. Narmada, Tapi and Mahi rivers flow westward and meet Arabian Sea whereas Wainganga and Pench rivers meet Godavari in the south. Annual run off from these rivers within the state is estimated 81719 hm, out of which about 49743 hm can be harnessed for irrigation purpose. The State can be divided onto six major river basins, the details of which are as follows. :

Tourism in Madhya Pradesh

Tourism in Madhya Pradesh has been an attraction of India because of its location in the centre of the country. It has been home to the cultural heritage of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism etc. Innumerable monuments, but exquisitely carved temples, stupas, forts & palaces are dotted all over the state. Madhya Pradesh has won Best Tourism State National award for 3 consecutive years i.e. 2017, 2016 and 2015.

History of Madhya Pradesh History of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh

The history of the Indian state Madhya Pradesh is divided into three periods. During the ancient period, the region was dominated by the Nanda, Maurya, and Gupta Empires.

Maksi Junction railway Station is a railway station in Maksi, Madhya Pradesh. Stations is a standard broad gauge railway station which belongs to Ratlam Division of Western Railway Zone. It has one line originating and going towards Dewas Junction which connects Ujjain-Sehore-Bhopal WR-CR link line.

Narmada Express

The Narmada Express is a daily express train which runs between Indore Junction BG railway station of Indore City in the Madhya Pradesh and Bilaspur, a town in Chhattisgarh. The name 'Narmada' signifies the largest river of central India, Narmada River. As the train crosses holy river Narmada, the longest and most important river in Madhya Pradesh, so is named as Narmada Express.

Indore Junction railway station

Indore Junction is one of the Railway junctions in Madhya Pradesh and serves Indore, the commercial capital of Central India. The railway station of Indore Junction BG falls under the administrative control of Western Railway Zone of Indian Railways. It consists of 6 main railway platforms. The Ujjain – Indore route and Indore Junction was electrified in 2011. The Station is located 1 km away from the city centre. It is one of the ISO Certified Railway Stations of India.

Amarkantak Express

The Amarkantak Express (12853/12854) is a daily superfast express train which runs between the Bhopal Junction railway station in Bhopal, the capital city of Madhya Pradesh and Durg, a city in Chhattisgarh state in central India. This train replaced the 8225/8226 Bhopal - Bilaspur Mahanadi Express along with the 8291/8292 Bhopal - Raipur Express and the 1235/1236 Bhopal - Jabalpur Express.

The Gambhir River is a river of Madhya Pradesh, India. It originates from Janapav near Mhow. It flows from south to north up to until its joins Shipra River main river in Ujjain city which later joins the Chambal River at the MP-Rajasthan boundary in Mandsaur district.

Narmada Expressway is a proposed eight-lane expressway in the state of Madhya Pradesh. The proposed highway will connect the historic towns of Amarkantak in the eastern end of Madhya Pradesh via Dindori, Shahpura, Jabalpur and Alirajpur in the western end of Madhya Pradesh alongside of Narmada River. The highways measures 1,300 km will connected Gujarat with Chhattisgarh. Later, this road will connect Alirajpur to Ahmedabad.


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Further reading