Maebashi

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Maebashi

前橋市
Maebashi20080227.jpg
A view of Maebashi with Mt. Akagi, from the top of the Prefectural Government building
Flag of Maebashi, Gunma.svg
Flag
Symbol of Maebashi, Gunma.svg
Seal
Maebashi in Gunma Prefecture Ja.svg
Location of Maebashi in Gunma Prefecture
Japan location map with side map of the Ryukyu Islands.svg
Red pog.svg
Maebashi
 
Coordinates: 36°23′22.2″N139°3′48.3″E / 36.389500°N 139.063417°E / 36.389500; 139.063417 Coordinates: 36°23′22.2″N139°3′48.3″E / 36.389500°N 139.063417°E / 36.389500; 139.063417
CountryFlag of Japan.svg  Japan
Region Kantō
Prefecture Gunma
City settledApril 1, 1892
Government
  MayorRyu Yamamoto (since February 2012)
Area
   Core city 311.59 km2 (120.31 sq mi)
Population
 (August 31, 2020)
   Core city 335,352
  Density1,100/km2 (2,800/sq mi)
   Metro
[1] (2015)
1,263,034 (12th)
Time zone UTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)
- Tree Ginkgo & Zelkova
- Flower Rose & Azalea
Phone number027-224-1111
Address2-12-1, Ote-Machi, Maebashi-shi, Gunma-ken 371-8601
Website Official website
Maebashi City Hall Maebashi city office.jpg
Maebashi City Hall

Maebashi (前橋市, Maebashi-shi) is the capital city of Gunma Prefecture, in the northern Kantō region of Japan. [2] As of 31 August 2020, the city had an estimated population of 335,352 in 151,171 households, [3] and a population density of 1100 persons per km2. The total area of the city is 311.59 km2 (120.31 sq mi). It was the most populous city within Gunma Prefecture until Takasaki merged with nearby towns between 2006 and 2009. [4] Maebashi is known to be the "City of Water, Greenery and Poets" because of its pure waters, its rich nature and because it gave birth to several Japanese contemporary poets, such as Sakutarō Hagiwara. [5]

Contents

Geography

Maebashi is located at the foot of Mount Akagi in the northeast corner of the Kantō Plain. It is also surrounded by Mount Haruna and Mount Myōgi. Two rivers run through the city: the Tone River, Japan's second-longest, and the Hirose River. Although it is located inland more than 100 kilometers away from the coast, the elevation of the southern part of the city is only around 100 meters. The highest elevation is 1823 meters above sea level on the south side of Mt. Kurohino, a peak of Mount Akagi. Maebashi is the farthest from the sea (about 120 km) of all Japanese prefectural capitals. The surrounding cities comprise an urban zone of over 1 million people, separated by farmland to the south from the built up areas of Greater Tokyo.

Surrounding municipalities

Gunma Prefecture

Climate

Maebashi has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa). In the winter, the "karakaze", or "dry wind" blows through Maebashi from the north. This is due to the snow clouds coming from the Sea of Japan being blocked by the Echigo Mountain Range between Gunma and Niigata Prefectures. Because of this, the city has a dry winter and is one of the sunniest places in Japan at over 2,210 hours of sunshine per year. [6] In the summer, it is hot since the location is inland, although less hot than coastal Tokyo on average. On July 24, 2001, Maebashi hit 40 °C (104 °F), the fifth-hottest temperature ever in Japan.

Climate data for Maebashi (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1896−present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)22.0
(71.6)
24.6
(76.3)
27.1
(80.8)
32.4
(90.3)
36.5
(97.7)
38.3
(100.9)
40.0
(104.0)
39.8
(103.6)
38.1
(100.6)
33.0
(91.4)
26.6
(79.9)
25.2
(77.4)
40.0
(104.0)
Average high °C (°F)9.1
(48.4)
10.0
(50.0)
13.5
(56.3)
19.3
(66.7)
24.2
(75.6)
26.8
(80.2)
30.5
(86.9)
31.7
(89.1)
27.3
(81.1)
21.7
(71.1)
16.4
(61.5)
11.5
(52.7)
20.2
(68.4)
Daily mean °C (°F)3.7
(38.7)
4.5
(40.1)
7.9
(46.2)
13.4
(56.1)
18.6
(65.5)
22.1
(71.8)
25.8
(78.4)
26.8
(80.2)
22.9
(73.2)
17.1
(62.8)
11.2
(52.2)
6.1
(43.0)
15.0
(59.0)
Average low °C (°F)−0.5
(31.1)
0.0
(32.0)
3.1
(37.6)
8.2
(46.8)
13.6
(56.5)
18.0
(64.4)
22.0
(71.6)
23.0
(73.4)
19.3
(66.7)
13.2
(55.8)
6.9
(44.4)
1.9
(35.4)
10.7
(51.3)
Record low °C (°F)−11.8
(10.8)
−9.0
(15.8)
−7.8
(18.0)
−3.1
(26.4)
0.3
(32.5)
6.0
(42.8)
11.9
(53.4)
13.6
(56.5)
8.4
(47.1)
0.6
(33.1)
−3.5
(25.7)
−7.4
(18.7)
−11.8
(10.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches)29.7
(1.17)
26.5
(1.04)
58.3
(2.30)
74.8
(2.94)
99.4
(3.91)
147.8
(5.82)
202.1
(7.96)
195.6
(7.70)
204.3
(8.04)
142.2
(5.60)
43.0
(1.69)
23.8
(0.94)
1,247.4
(49.11)
Average snowfall cm (inches)8
(3.1)
9
(3.5)
2
(0.8)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.4)
19
(7.5)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm)3.54.48.39.010.614.516.614.013.49.96.13.8114.2
Average relative humidity (%)54525255607073727268625762
Mean monthly sunshine hours 213.1201.2211.0205.2197.4138.5146.3167.7134.9155.6181.0202.02,153.7
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency [7]

Demographics

Per Japanese census data, [8] the population of Maebashi has remained relatively steadily over the past 30 years.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1920 51,015    
1930 53,052+4.0%
1940 52,898−0.3%
1950 68,710+29.9%
1960 240,301+249.7%
1970 273,864+14.0%
1980 311,121+13.6%
1990 335,704+7.9%
2000 341,738+1.8%
2010 340,390−0.4%

Etymology

The Maebashi area was called Umayabashi (厩橋) during the Nara period. This name finds its origins in the fact that there was a bridge (hashi, ) crossing the Tone River and not far from the bridge there was a small refreshment house with a stable (umaya, 駅家), often used by people travelling on the Tōzan-dō (the road connecting the capital to the eastern regions of Japan). The spelling was officially changed into Maebashi (前橋) in 1649 during the Edo period when Maebashi became a castle town and the center of Maebashi Domain, a feudal domain under the Tokugawa shogunate. [9]

History

The town of Maebashi was established within Higashigunma District, Gunma Prefecture on April 1, 1889, with the creation of the modern municipalities system after the Meiji Restoration. Maebashi was raised to city status on April 1, 1892. In 1901, it annexed a portion of Kamikawabuchi village from Seta District.[ citation needed ]

On August 5, 1945, approximately 64.2% of the urban core of the city was destroyed during World War II during air raids which followed the dropping of propaganda leaflets warning of the impending attacks. [10] [11]

In 1951, a portion of Kaigaya Village from Seta District was merged into Maebashi. The city expanded further on April 1, 1954, by annexing the villages of Kamikawabuchi, Shimokawabuchi, Azuma, Minamitachibana, Kaigaya, Haga, Motosōja, and Sōja from Seta District, followed by a portion of Jōnan village in 1957. On April 1, 1960, a portion of Tamamura Town and another portion of Jōnan village were merged into Maebashi, which finally annexed the remainder of Jōnan village in 1967.[ citation needed ]

Maebashi hosted the 1999 IAAF World Indoor Championships.[ citation needed ]

On April 1, 2001, Maebashi was designated a special city (tokureishi) with increased local autonomy. On December 5, 2004, the town of Ōgo, as well as the villages of Kasukawa and Miyagi (all from Seta District), were merged into Maebashi. On May 5, 2009, the village of Fujimi (Seta District) was merged into Maebashi. Seta District was dissolved as a result of this merger. [12]

Maebashi became a core city (Chūkakushi) on April 1, 2009.[ citation needed ]

Government

Maebashi has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city council of 38 members. Maebashi contributes eight members to the Gunma Prefectural Assembly. In terms of national politics, the city is part of Gunma 1st district of the lower house of the Diet of Japan.

Economy

A map showing Maebashi Metropolitan Employment Area. Maebashi Metropolitan Employment Area 2010.svg
A map showing Maebashi Metropolitan Employment Area.

As of 2010, Greater Maebashi, Maebashi Metropolitan Employment Area, has a GDP of US$59.8 billion. [13] [14] The air conditioning system and compressor manufacturing company Sanden Corporation as well as the tofu and tofu products company Sagamiya Foods have manufacturing sites in the city. [15] The Gunma Bank is headquartered in Maebashi.

Education

Universities

Primary and secondary schools

Maebashi has 54 public elementary schools and 21 public middle schools operated by the city government, and two private elementary and two private middle schools. The city has nine public high schools operated by the Gunma Prefectural Board of Education and one by the city government. There are five private high schools and one private combined middle/high school.

International schools:

Transportation

Railway

JR logo (east).svg JR EastJōetsu Line

JR logo (east).svg JR EastRyōmō Line

Highway

Sports

Thespakusatsu Gunma at Shoda Shoyu Stadium Gunma was originally formed in Kusatsu, but plays in Maebashi due to J.League stadium requirements.

Local attractions

Festivals

Noted people from Maebashi

Twin towns – sister cities

Maebashi is twinned with: [18]

Related Research Articles

Gunma Prefecture Prefecture of Japan

Gunma Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located in the Kantō region of Honshu. Gunma Prefecture has a population of 1,937,626 and has a geographic area of 6,362 km2. Gunma Prefecture borders Niigata Prefecture and Fukushima Prefecture to the north, Nagano Prefecture to the southwest, Saitama Prefecture to the south, and Tochigi Prefecture to the east.

Shibukawa, Gunma City in Kantō, Japan

Shibukawa is a city in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. As of 31 August 2020, the city had an estimated population of 76,098 in 32,439 households, and a population density of 320 inhabitants per square kilometre (830/sq mi). The total area of the city is 240.27 square kilometres (92.77 sq mi). Shibukawa is the location of Ikaho Onsen, a popular hot spring resort.

Fujioka, Gunma City in Kantō, Japan

Fujioka is a city located in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 August 2020, the city had an estimated population of 64,539 in 27,616 households, and a population density of 360 persons per km². The total area of the city is 180.29 square kilometres (69.61 sq mi).

Ōta, Gunma Special city in Kantō, Japan

Ōta is a city located in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. As of 31 August 2020, the city had an estimated population of 224,358 in 109,541 households, and a population density of 1300 persons per km². The total area of the city is 60.97 square kilometres (23.54 sq mi).

Kōzuke Province Former province of Japan

Kōzuke Province was a province of Japan in the area of Japan that is today Gunma Prefecture. Kōzuke bordered by Echigo, Shinano, Musashi and Shimotsuke Provinces. Its abbreviated form name was Jōshū (上州). Under the Engishiki classification system, Kōzuke was ranked as one of the 13 "great countries" (大国) in terms of importance, and one of the 30 "far countries" (遠国) in terms of distance from the capital. The provincial capital is located in what is now the city of Maebashi; however, its exact location remains uncertain. The ichinomiya of the province is located in what is now the city of Tomioka.

Fujimi, Gunma

Fujimi was a village located in Seta District, Gunma Prefecture, Japan.

Ōgo was a town located in Seta District, Gunma Prefecture, Japan.

Miyagi was a village located in Seta District, Gunma Prefecture, Japan.

Kasukawa was a village located in Seta District, Gunma Prefecture, Japan.

Seta was a district located in northeastern Gunma Prefecture, Japan.

Gunma was a town located in Gunma District, Gunma Prefecture, Japan.

Gunma was a district located in Gunma Prefecture, Japan.

Tamamura Town in Kantō, Japan

Tamamura is a town located in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 September 2020, the town had an estimated population of 36,367 in 15685 households, and a population density of 1440 persons per km². The total area of the town is 25.78 square kilometres (9.95 sq mi).

Kamiizumi Nobutsuna

Kamiizumi Nobutsuna, his full name is Kamiizumi Ise-no-kami Fujiwara-no-Nobutsuna (上泉伊勢守藤原信綱), was a samurai in Japan's Sengoku period famous for creating the Shinkage-ryū school of combat. He is also well known as Kamiizumi Isenokami which was his name as a samurai official for a period of time.

Takasaki City in Gunma Prefecture, Japan

Takasaki is a city located in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. As of 31 August 2020, the city had an estimated population of 372,369 in 167,345 households, and a population density of 810 persons per km². The total area of the city is 459.16 square kilometres (177.28 sq mi). Takasaki is famous as the hometown of the Daruma doll, theoretically representing the Buddhist sage Bodhidharma and in modern practice a symbol of good luck. Takaski has been the largest city in Gunma Prefecture since 1990 after beating Maebashi.

Isesaki Special city in Kantō, Japan

Isesaki is a city located in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 September 2020, the city had an estimated population of 213,303 in 91,789 households, and a population density of 1500 persons per km². The total area of the city is 139.44 square kilometres (53.84 sq mi).

Gunma University

Gunma University, abbreviated to Gundai (群大), is a national university in Japan. The main campus is located in Aramaki-machi, Maebashi City, Gunma Prefecture.

Nishigunma District, Gunma

Nishigunma District was formerly a rural district located in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. Parts of the citiesy of Takasaki, Maebashi, Shibukawa, the town of Yoshioka and the villages of Shintō and Takayama were formerly part of the district.

Nawa District, Gunma

Nawa District was formerly a rural district located in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. The district is now divided between the cities of Isesaki and Maebashi, with a remaining portion forming Sawa District and the town of Tamamura

References

  1. "UEA Code Tables". Center for Spatial Information Science, University of Tokyo. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
  2. Japan National Tourism Organization (JNTO), "Maebashi area"; retrieved 2015-5-10.
  3. "Maebashi City official statistics" (in Japanese). Japan.
  4. Takasaki City Office. September 30, 2014. "Demography Study"
  5. Maebashi City Office. March 27, 1989. "Declaration from the Municipal Council" Archived 2014-10-12 at the Wayback Machine
  6. Maebashi Hours of Bright Sunshine
  7. 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値). Japan Meteorological Agency . Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  8. Maebashi population statistics
  9. Maebashi no Rekishi (History of Maebashi) Archived 2018-08-17 at the Wayback Machine (July 24, 2012)
  10. Craven, Wesley; Cate, James, eds. (1953). The Pacific: Matterhorn to Nagasaki. The Army Air Forces in World War II. Volume V. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. pp. 656, 675. OCLC   256469807.
  11. Caidin, Martin (1960). A Torch to the Enemy: The Fire Raid on Tokyo. Bantam War Books. ISBN   0-553-29926-3.
  12. Archived August 21, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  13. Yoshitsugu Kanemoto. "Metropolitan Employment Area (MEA) Data". Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo.
  14. Conversion rates - Exchange rates - OECD Data
  15. "Major Corporations in Gunma Prefecture". Department of Industry and Economy, Gunma Prefecture. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
  16. アクセス. Gunma Korean Elementary and Junior High School. December 11, 2007. Archived from the original on December 11, 2007. Retrieved October 14, 2015. 群馬朝鮮初中級学校 群馬県前橋市荒牧町 2-2
  17. Yagyū, Toshinaga (1957, 1989) Shōden Shinkage-ryū. Kōdansha, reprinted by Shimazu Shobō, ISBN   4-88218-012-X.
  18. "姉妹都市バーミングハム市". city.maebashi.gunma.jp (in Japanese). Maebashi. Retrieved 2020-04-12.