Magadan

Last updated
Magadan

Магадан
Magadan seen from mountain.jpg
Magadan seen from the local mountains
Flag of Magadan.svg
Flag
COA Magadan, Russian Federation.svg
Coat of arms
Anthem: none [2]
Location of Magadan
Magadan
Russia administrative location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Magadan
Location of Magadan
Outline Map of Magadan Oblast.svg
Red pog.svg
Magadan
Magadan (Magadan Oblast)
Coordinates: 59°34′N150°48′E / 59.567°N 150.800°E / 59.567; 150.800 Coordinates: 59°34′N150°48′E / 59.567°N 150.800°E / 59.567; 150.800
Country Russia
Federal subject Magadan Oblast [1]
Founded1929 [3]
Town status sinceJuly 14,[ citation needed ] 1939 [3]
Government
  Body Town Duma [4]
  Head/Mayor [5] Andrey Popov (Head), [6]
Yuri Fyodorovich Grishan (Mayor) [7]
Area
[8]
  Total295 km2 (114 sq mi)
Elevation
70 m (230 ft)
Population
  Total95,982
  Estimate 
(2018) [10]
92,782 (−3.3%)
  Rank 178th in 2010
  Density330/km2 (840/sq mi)
  Subordinated to town of oblast significance of Magadan [1]
   Capital ofMagadan Oblast [11] , town of oblast significance of Magadan [1]
  Urban okrugMagadan Urban Okrug [12]
   Capital ofMagadan Urban Okrug [12]
Time zone UTC+11 (MSK+8   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg [13] )
Postal code(s) [14]
685000–685005, 685007, 685017, 685021, 685024, 685030–685031, 685098–685099, 685700, 685960–685961
Dialing code(s) +7 4132
OKTMO ID44701000001
Town DayJuly 14; observed on the
third Saturday of July [15]
Website www.magadangorod.ru

Magadan (Russian:Магадан,IPA:  [məɡɐˈdan] ) is a port town and the administrative center of Magadan Oblast, Russia, located on the Sea of Okhotsk in Nagayev Bay (within Taui Bay) and serving as a gateway to the Kolyma region.

Contents

History

Magadan was founded in 1930 in the Magadanka River valley, [3] near the settlement of Nagayevo. During the Stalin era, Magadan was a major transit center for prisoners sent to labor camps. From 1932 to 1953, it was the administrative center of the Dalstroy organization—a vast and brutal forced-labor gold-mining operation and forced-labor camp system. The first director of Dalstroy was Eduard Berzin, who between 1932 and 1937 established the infrastructure of the forced labour camps in Magadan. Berzin was executed in 1938 by Stalin, towards the end of the Great Purge. [16]

The town later served as a port for exporting gold and other metals mined in the Kolyma region. [17] Its size and population grew quickly as facilities were rapidly developed for the expanding mining activities in the area. Town status was granted to it on July 14, 1939.[ citation needed ]

Magadan was visited by U.S. Vice President Henry Wallace in May 1944. He took an instant liking to his secret policeman host, admired handiwork done by prisoners, and later glowingly called the town a combination of Tennessee Valley Authority and Hudson's Bay Company. [18] Wallace's collaborative stance towards the Soviet Union discouraged the Democratic Party of the United States from renominating him as vice president later in the summer of 1944, helping lead to the selection of Harry Truman in his place.

Administrative and municipal status

Magadan is the administrative center of the oblast. [1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with the urban-type settlements of Sokol and Uptar, incorporated as the town of oblast significance of Magadan—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. [1] As a municipal division, the town of oblast significance of Magadan is incorporated as Magadan Urban Okrug. [12]

Economy and infrastructure

Lenin Street, Magadan Magadan, Lenin-Street.jpg
Lenin Street, Magadan
Magadan airport Aeroport magadan 1.jpg
Magadan airport

Shipbuilding and fishing are the major industries. The town has a seaport (fully navigable from May to December) and a small international airport, the Sokol Airport. There is also a small domestic airport nearby, Magadan 13. The unpaved Kolyma Highway leads from Magadan to the rich gold-mining region of the upper Kolyma River and then on to Yakutsk.

Magadan is very isolated. The nearest major city accessible by road is Yakutsk, 2,000 kilometers (1,200 mi) away via an unpaved road which is best used in the winter, especially since there is no bridge over the Lena River at Yakutsk. (The two choices are: ferry from Nizhny Bestyakh during the summer, when the rest of the road may not be passable due to standing water, or over the ice in the dead of winter).

The principal sources of income for the local economy are gold mining and fisheries. Recently, gold production has declined. [19] Fishing production, although improving from year to year, is still well below the allocated quotas, apparently as a result of an aging fleet. [20] Other local industries include pasta and sausage plants, and a distillery. [21] Although farming is difficult owing to the harsh climate, there are many public and private farming enterprises.

Culture and religion

Church of the Nativity Magadan-church-winter.jpg
Church of the Nativity

The town has a number of cultural institutions including the Regional Museum of Anthropology, a geological museum, a regional library and a university. The town has the new[ when? ] Orthodox Cathedral Church of the Trinity, Roman Catholic Church of the Nativity (completed in 2002 [22] ) and the Mask of Sorrow memorial, a large sculpture in memory of Stalin's victims, designed by Ernst Neizvestny. The Church of the Nativity ministers to survivors of the labor camps. It is staffed by several priests and nuns.

The town figures prominently in the labour camp literature of Varlam Shalamov and in the eponymous song by Mikhail Krug, and was a focal point of the Long Way Round motorcycle journey made by Ewan McGregor, Charley Boorman and their team in 2004.

Geography

Ecologically situated in the Northeast Siberian taiga, the town's flora is made up of conifer trees, such as firs and larches, and silver birches. [23] The city sits besides the Sea of Okhotsk in Nagayev Bay on both sides, and it is surrounded by mountains to the west and northeast. Permafrost and tundra cover most of the region. The growing season is only one hundred days long. [24]

The city of Magadan is on the same longitude as the suburbs of Greater Western Sydney, Australia, which lie on the eastern end of the 150th meridian east line, bordering the 151st meridian and is on the same latitude as Southern Scandinavia, and the far north of Scotland.

Climate

Magadan beach, July 2011 Laika ac Magadan beach (6457763827).jpg
Magadan beach, July 2011

The climate of Magadan is subarctic (Köppen climate classification Dfc). Winters are prolonged and very cold, with up to six months of sub-zero high temperatures, so that the soil remains permanently frozen. Average temperatures on the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk range from −22 °C (−8 °F) in January to +12 °C (54 °F) in July. Average temperatures in the interior range from −38 °C (−36 °F) in January to +16 °C (61 °F) in July. Due to the wet nature of October and November, a snow pack is built up early, which then lasts throughout the winter even while the influence from the Siberian High lowers precipitation throughout those months.

Climate data for Magadan (Climate ID:25913)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)2.4
(36.3)
3.2
(37.8)
5.8
(42.4)
9.7
(49.5)
22.3
(72.1)
24.5
(76.1)
27.2
(81.0)
26.1
(79.0)
20.2
(68.4)
13.8
(56.8)
6.6
(43.9)
3.6
(38.5)
27.2
(81.0)
Mean maximum °C (°F)−3.8
(25.2)
−5.2
(22.6)
0.6
(33.1)
4.9
(40.8)
13.3
(55.9)
18.9
(66.0)
21.5
(70.7)
20.8
(69.4)
16.2
(61.2)
8.4
(47.1)
1.2
(34.2)
−3.2
(26.2)
23.0
(73.4)
Average high °C (°F)−14.2
(6.4)
−12.5
(9.5)
−8
(18)
−1.6
(29.1)
4.9
(40.8)
11.3
(52.3)
14.8
(58.6)
15.0
(59.0)
10.4
(50.7)
1.7
(35.1)
−7.3
(18.9)
−12.8
(9.0)
0.1
(32.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)−16.4
(2.5)
−15.4
(4.3)
−11.4
(11.5)
−4.6
(23.7)
1.8
(35.2)
7.8
(46.0)
11.8
(53.2)
12.0
(53.6)
7.5
(45.5)
−0.9
(30.4)
−9.8
(14.4)
−14.9
(5.2)
−2.7
(27.1)
Average low °C (°F)−18.5
(−1.3)
−17.8
(0.0)
−14.4
(6.1)
−7.5
(18.5)
−0.5
(31.1)
5.2
(41.4)
9.6
(49.3)
9.7
(49.5)
5.1
(41.2)
−3.1
(26.4)
−12
(10)
−17
(1)
−5.1
(22.8)
Mean minimum °C (°F)−26.2
(−15.2)
−26.3
(−15.3)
−21.5
(−6.7)
−15.3
(4.5)
−4.2
(24.4)
1.3
(34.3)
7.0
(44.6)
5.9
(42.6)
−0.5
(31.1)
−11.2
(11.8)
−19.5
(−3.1)
−23.3
(−9.9)
−28
(−18)
Record low °C (°F)−34.6
(−30.3)
−33.3
(−27.9)
−30.8
(−23.4)
−23.5
(−10.3)
−10.8
(12.6)
−3
(27)
2.0
(35.6)
−1
(30)
−6.3
(20.7)
−21.1
(−6.0)
−26.9
(−16.4)
−37
(−35)
−37
(−35)
Average precipitation mm (inches)14
(0.6)
13
(0.5)
17
(0.7)
33
(1.3)
37
(1.5)
47
(1.9)
64
(2.5)
93
(3.7)
77
(3.0)
80
(3.1)
60
(2.4)
26
(1.0)
561
(22.1)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)0.10.30.32.111162120181020.1100.9
Average snowy days1614151560000.281716107.2
Average relative humidity (%)65646571788286837869666473
Mean monthly sunshine hours 74.4127.1226.3228.0198.4216.0182.9170.5147.0130.281.040.31,822.1
Source 1: Погода и Климат [25]
Source 2: Hong Kong Observatory (sunshine) [26]

Education

Notable people

Twin towns and sister cities

Magadan is twinned with:

Related Research Articles

Kuybyshevsky District, Russia Index of articles associated with the same name

Kuybyshevsky District is the name of several administrative and municipal districts in Russia. The districts are generally named for Valerian Kuybyshev, a Soviet statesman.

Ust-Ilimsk Town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia

Ust-Ilimsk is a town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Angara River. Population: 86,610 (2010 Census); 100,592 (2002 Census); 109,280 (1989 Census); 53,000 (1977).

Susuman Town in Magadan Oblast, Russia

Susuman is a town and the administrative center of Susumansky District in Magadan Oblast, Russia, located on the Berelyokh River, 650 kilometers (400 mi) northwest of Magadan, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 5,855 (2010 Census); 7,833 (2002 Census); 16,818 (1989 Census).

Susumansky District District in Magadan Oblast, Russia

Susumansky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the eight in Magadan Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Susumansky Urban Okrug. It is located in the southeast of the oblast and borders the Sakha Republic in the west and north, Srednekansky District in the east, and Yagodninsky and Tenkinsky Districts in the south. The area of the district is 46,800 square kilometers (18,100 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Susuman. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 9,015, with the population of Susuman accounting for 65.0% of that number.

Tsentralny District, Russia Index of articles associated with the same name

Tsentralny District is the name of several administrative and municipal divisions in Russia. The name literally means "Central".

Srednekansky District District in Magadan Oblast, Russia

Srednekansky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the eight in Magadan Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Srednekansky Urban Okrug. It is located in the central and northern parts of the oblast and borders the Sakha Republic in the north and northwest, Bilibinsky District of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug and Severo-Evensky District in the northeast, Omsukchansky District in the east, Khasynsky District in the south, Yagodninsky District in the southwest, and Susumansky District in the west. The area of the district is 91,818.35 square kilometers (35,451.26 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Seymchan. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 3,228, with the population of Seymchan accounting for 87.3% of that number.

Ust-Srednekan is a rural locality in Srednekansky District of Magadan Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Kolyma River, where it is joined by its tributary the Srednekan, 45 kilometers (28 mi) from Seymchan, the administrative center of the district. Population: 27. Ust-Srednekan has been completely depopulated since 2011, but it has not been officially abolished.

Leninsky District is the name of several administrative and municipal divisions in Russia. The districts are generally named for Vladimir Lenin, the founder of the Soviet state.

Mozhaysky District Index of articles associated with the same name

Mozhaysky District is the name of several administrative and municipal districts in Russia:

Chunsky District District in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia

Chunsky District is an administrative district, one of the thirty-three in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia. Municipally, it is incorporated as Chunsky Municipal District. The area of the district is 25,790 square kilometers (9,960 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Chunsky. Population: 36,516 (2010 Census); 41,829 ; 50,037 (1989 Census). The population of the administrative center accounts for 41.1% of the district's total population.

Khasynsky District District in Magadan Oblast, Russia

Khasynsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the eight in Magadan Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Khasynsky Urban Okrug. It is located in the south of the oblast and borders Yagodninsky and Srednekansky Districts in the north, Omsukchansky and Olsky Districts in the east, the territory of the town of oblast significance of Magadan in the south, and Olsky and Tenkinsky Districts in the west. The area of the district is 19,252.44 square kilometers (7,433.41 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Palatka. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 8,141, with the population of Palatka accounting for 52.1% of that number.

Olsky District District in Magadan Oblast, Russia

Olsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the eight in Magadan Oblast, Russia. It is located in the south of the oblast, consists of two unconnected mainland parts separated by the territories of Khasynsky District and the town of oblast significance of Magadan, and also has jurisdiction over several islands. The area of the district is 75,900 square kilometers (29,300 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Ola. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 10,496, with the population of Ola accounting for 59.2% of that number.

Omsukchansky District District in Magadan Oblast, Russia

Omsukchansky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the eight in Magadan Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Omsukchansky Urban Okrug. It is located in the eastern central part of the oblast. The area of the district is 60,400 square kilometers (23,300 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Omsukchan. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 5,531, with the population of Omsukchan accounting for 75.2% of that number.

Severo-Evensky District District in Magadan Oblast, Russia

Severo-Evensky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the eight in Magadan Oblast, Russia. It is located in the east of the oblast. The area of the district is 102,000 square kilometers (39,000 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Evensk. Population: 2,667 (2010 Census); 3,744 ; 8,275 (1989 Census). The population of Evensk accounts for 67.3% of the district's total population.

Yagodninsky District District in Magadan Oblast, Russia

Yagodninsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the eight in Magadan Oblast, Russia. It is located in the western central part of the oblast. The area of the district is 29,500 square kilometers (11,400 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Yagodnoye. Population: 9,839 (2010 Census); 15,833 ; 50,174 (1989 Census). The population of Yagodnoye accounts for 42.8% of the district's total population.

Yegoryevsky District, Moscow Oblast District in Moscow Oblast, Russia

Yegoryevsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Moscow Oblast, Russia. It is located in the east of the oblast. The area of the district is 1,717.06 square kilometers (662.96 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Yegoryevsk. Population: 102,958 ; 98,063 (2002 Census); 32,229 (1989 Census). The population of Yegoryevsk accounts for 68.1% of the district's total population.

Sysertsky District District in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia

Sysertsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the thirty in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia. Its administrative center is the town of Sysert. The district's population was 77,691 as of the, down from 78,085 (2002 Census); and 78,229 (1989 Census). The population of Sysert accounts for 59.0% of the district's total population.

Verkhnesaldinsky District District in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia

Verkhnesaldinsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the thirty in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Verkhnesaldinsky Urban Okrug. Its administrative center is the town of Verkhnyaya Salda. Population : 3,306 ; 3,669 (2002 Census); 26,470 (1989 Census).

Yamsk is a rural locality and a port in Olsky District of Magadan Oblast, Russia, located some 200 kilometers (120 mi) east of Magadan, the administrative center of the oblast. It sits on a circular bay at the southwestern end of the Shelikhov Gulf, a northeastern extension of the Sea of Okhotsk.

Bayanday is a rural locality and the administrative center of Bayandayevsky District of Ust-Orda Buryat Okrug, Irkutsk Oblast, Russia. Population: 2,672 (2010 Census); 2,874 (2002 Census); 3,383 (1989 Census).

References

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Law #1292-OZ
  2. Article 4 of the Charter of Magadan does not specify any town symbols other than a flag and a coat of arms
  3. 1 2 3 Vazhenin, p. 4
  4. Charter of Magadan, Article 24
  5. Charter of Magadan, Articles 33 and 35.1
  6. Official website of Magadan Town Duma. Andrey Anatolyevich Popov (in Russian)
  7. Official website of Magadan's Mayor Office. Serey Vasilyevich Abramov Archived May 27, 2013, at the Wayback Machine , Mayor of Magadan (in Russian)
  8. Official website of Magadan's Mayor Office. Official Site of Magadan. Обновление материалов генерального плана 1994 г. Пояснительная записка. Archived May 13, 2013, at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  9. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  10. http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2016/bul_dr/mun_obr2016.rar.
  11. Charter of Magadan Oblast, Article 38
  12. 1 2 3 Law #489-OZ
  13. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  14. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  15. Decision #49-D
  16. Kapuscinski, Imperium, 2019, pp. 200-204
  17. Козлов, А. Г. (1989). Магадан. Конспект прошлого. Магаданское книжное издательство. p. 16. ISBN   5-7581-0066-8.
  18. John C. Culver, John Hyde, American Dreamer: The Life and Times of Henry A. Wallace, 1 Sep 2001
  19. Russian gold mine production declined four tonnes in 2006 Archived June 20, 2017, at the Wayback Machine , Mineweb, 31 January 2007
  20. New Russian Fishing Quotas Distribution System, Strategis international market reports [ dead link ], 28 August 2004
  21. Magadan Region from Kommersant, Russia's Daily Online Archived October 25, 2007, at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved 22 January 2007.
  22. "Magadan, Russian Federation: Catholic Parish of the Nativity of Jesus". The Catholic Travel Guide. Retrieved September 7, 2020.
  23. Sakha Republic & Magadan Region is pine trees and rushing rivers by the Lonely Planet
  24. THE SEA OF OKHOTSK by the National Geographic
  25. "КЛИМАТ МАГАДАНА". Погода и Климат. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
  26. "Climatological Normals of Magadan". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved October 17, 2011.

Sources