Magnus II, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg

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Magnus II
Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg
Reign1571 1573
Predecessor Francis I
Successor Francis I
Born1543
Died14 May 1603
Ratzeburg
Burial
Ratzeburg, Castle Chapel
Consort Princess Sophia of Sweden
Issue Gustav of Saxe-Lauenburg
House House of Ascania
Father Francis I of Saxe-Lauenburg
Mother Sybille of Saxe-Freiberg
ReligionLutheran

Magnus II of Saxe-Lauenburg (1543 – 14 May 1603, Ratzeburg) was the eldest surviving son of Duke Francis I of Saxe-Lauenburg and Sybille of Saxe-Freiberg (Freiberg, *2 May 1515 18 July 1592*, Buxtehude), daughter of Duke Henry IV the Pious. In 1571 Magnus II ascended the throne after his father Francis I resigned due to indebtedness. Two years later Francis I, helped by his other son Francis (II), deposed Magnus II and re-ascended. Magnus' violent and judicial attempts to regain the duchy failed. In 1588 he was imprisoned for the remainder of his life.

Ratzeburg Place in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany

Ratzeburg is a town in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is surrounded by four lakes—the resulting isthmuses between the lakes form the access lanes to the town. Ratzeburg is the capital of the Kreis (district) of Lauenburg.

Buxtehude Place in Lower Saxony, Germany

Buxtehude, officially the Hanseatic City of Buxtehude, is a town on the Este River in Northern Germany, belonging to the district of Stade in Lower Saxony. It is part of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region and attached to the city's S-Bahn rapid transit network. Buxtehude is a medium-sized town and the second largest municipality in the Stade district (Landkreis). It lies on the southern border of the Altes Land in close proximity to the city-state of Hamburg. To the west lie the towns of Horneburg and Stade and to the south there are a number of incorporated villages featuring mostly upscale housing, e.g. Ottensen and Apensen.

Henry IV, Duke of Saxony Duke of Saxony

Henry IV the Pious, Duke of Saxony was a Duke of Saxony from the House of Wettin. Succeeding George, Duke of Saxony, a fervent Catholic who sought to extinguish Lutheranism by any means possible, Henry established the Lutheran church as the state religion in his domains.

Contents

Life

In 1550 Francis I sought to exercise influence to compel the cathedral chapter of the neighbouring Prince-Bishopric of Ratzeburg to elect his seven-year-old son Magnus as the next prince-bishop. However, the capitular canons refused. Magnus then spent his youth at the Swedish royal court of the House of Vasa. He befriended his cousin Prince Eric and, after his ascension to the throne as King Eric XIV, Magnus fared well.

According to both Anglican and Catholic canon law, a cathedral chapter is a college of clerics (chapter) formed to advise a bishop and, in the case of a vacancy of the episcopal see in some countries, to govern the diocese during the vacancy. These chapters are made up of canons and other officers, while in the Church of England chapters now includes a number of lay appointees; in the Roman Catholic Church their creation is the purview of the pope. They can be "numbered", in which case they are provided with a fixed "prebend", or "unnumbered", in which case the bishop indicates the number of canons according to the rents. In some Church of England cathedrals there are two such bodies, the lesser and greater chapters, which have different functions. The smaller body usually consists of the residentiary members and is included in the larger one.

Prince-bishop bishop who is a territorial Prince of the Church

A prince-bishop is a bishop who is also the civil ruler of some secular principality and sovereignty. Thus the principality or prince-bishopric ruled politically by a prince-bishop could wholly or largely overlap with his diocesan jurisdiction, since some parts of his diocese, even the city of his residence, could be exempt from his civil rule, obtaining the status of free imperial city. If the episcopal see is an archbishopric, the correct term is prince-archbishop; the equivalent in the regular (monastic) clergy is prince-abbot. A prince-bishop is usually considered an elected monarch.

House of Vasa dynasty

The House of Vasa was an early modern royal house founded in 1523 in Sweden, ruling Sweden 1523–1654, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1587–1668, and the Tsardom of Russia 1610–1613. Its agnatic line became extinct with the death of King John II Casimir of Poland in 1672.

Eric XIV waged war against their common cousin King Frederick II of Denmark. Magnus advanced in this conflict, which became the Scandinavian Seven Years' War (1563–1570), to the Swedish supreme command in 1566. Magnus married Eric's half-sister Princess Sophia of Sweden in a discreet ceremony on the eve of Eric's own marriage on 4 July 1568. However, Eric came to dismiss the rather unsuccessful Magnus as supreme commander. Later Magnus swung over to Eric's half-brothers Charles and John, and Magnus invaded Stockholm with them on 29 September of that year, overthrowing Eric.

Frederick II of Denmark King of Denmark and Norway

Frederick II was King of Denmark and Norway and Duke of Schleswig from 1559 until his death.

Denmark Constitutional monarchy in Europe

Denmark, officially the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and is bordered to the south by Germany. The Kingdom of Denmark also comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, Jutland, and an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand, Funen and the North Jutlandic Island. The islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2 (16,573 sq mi), land area of 42,394 km2 (16,368 sq mi), and the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2 (853,509 sq mi), and a population of 5.8 million.

Princess Sophia of Sweden Swedish princess

Princess Sophia of Sweden, also Sofia Gustavsdotter Vasa, was a Swedish princess, daughter of King Gustav Vasa of Sweden and Margareta Leijonhufvud. She was formally Duchess consort of Saxe-Lauenburg by her marriage to Duke Magnus II of Saxe-Lauenburg.

On this occasion Magnus took Katarina Stenbock, the step-mother of his wife Sophia, and her half-sister Princess Elizabeth of Sweden by boat from the royal palace of Stockholm. About 1570 Magnus prevented Katarina's plans to remarry with his brother Francis.

Princess Elizabeth of Sweden Swedish princess

Princess Elizabeth of Sweden, was a Swedish princess, and a duchess consort of Mecklenburg-Gadebusch by marriage to Christopher, Duke of Mecklenburg-Gadebusch. She was a daughter of King Gustav I of Sweden and his second spouse, Queen Margaret.

As a Swedish commander, and with Sophia's dowry at his disposal, Magnus had gained a considerable fortune and pursued a new prize. His father Francis I agreed to resign in favour of Magnus in 1571, in return for which Magnus promised to redeem the pawned ducal demesnes. Rather than redeeming the estates, however, Magnus, further alienated ducal possessions, for instance selling the expectancy to the pawned estates of the bailiwick (Amt) of Tremsbüttel to Duke Adolphus of Holstein-Gottorp.

A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter. Dowry contrasts with the related concepts of bride price and dower. While bride price or bride service is a payment by the groom or his family to the bride's parents, dowry is the wealth transferred from the bride's family to the groom or his family, ostensibly for the bride. Similarly, dower is the property settled on the bride herself, by the groom at the time of marriage, and which remains under her ownership and control. Dowry is an ancient custom, and its existence may well predate records of it. Dowries continue to be expected and demanded as a condition to accept a marriage proposal in some parts of the world, mainly in parts of Asia, Northern Africa and the Balkans. In some parts of the world, disputes related to dowry sometimes result in acts of violence against women, including killings and acid attacks. The custom of dowry is most common in cultures that are strongly patrilineal and that expect women to reside with or near their husband's family (patrilocality). Dowries have long histories in Europe, South Asia, Africa and other parts of the world.

Demesne Type of property

In the feudal system, the demesne was all the land which was retained by a lord of the manor for his own use and occupation or support, under his own management, as distinguished from land sub-enfeoffed by him to others as sub-tenants. In England, royal demesne is the land held by the Crown, and ancient demesne is the legal term for the land held by the king at the time of the Domesday Book.

Tremsbüttel Place in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany

Tremsbüttel is a municipality in the district of Stormarn, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.

This ignited a conflict between Magnus on the one hand and his father and brothers, Francis (II) and Maurice, as well as the estates of the duchy. Opposition to Magnus was also driven by a temperament notoriously prone to drink and the infliction of violence on dissenters and inferiors.

Estates of the realm broad social orders of the hierarchically conceived society recognised in the Middle Ages and Early Modern period in Christian Europe

The estates of the realm, or three estates, were the broad orders of social hierarchy used in Christendom from the medieval period to early modern Europe. Different systems for dividing society members into estates developed and evolved over time.

In October 1573 Francis I deposed Magnus and re-ascended the ducal throne. The following year Magnus hired, among others, Dutch troops to take Saxe-Lauenburg by force. He invaded, ravaged and plundered Ratzeburg in early October but withdrew when his brother Francis (II), an experienced military commander, and Duke Adolphus of Holstein-Gottorp, Circle Colonel (Kreisobrist) of the Circle of Lower Saxony, arrived with troops. [1] In return Saxe-Lauenburg had to cede the bailiwick of Steinhorst to Holstein-Gottorp in 1575.

Magnus fled to his estates in Uppland in 1574, there displaying violence, wantonness and brutality. So next year his brother-in-law, the new King John III of Sweden, enfeoffed Magnus with Sonnenburg castle in Orissaare on Ösel island, recently conquered from Denmark. Magnus fell out with Klaus von Ungern, then the local Danish stadholder in Arensburg, the Danish part of Ösel. Magnus claimed the Danish island Mön as part of his estates and occupied it. Further, he robbed burghers in Pernau. His atrocities also included abuse of his wife Sophia.

The Danes complained, meanwhile Magnus fell into John's disfavour for his mistreatment of Sophia, who separated from him and stayed with their son Gustav in Sweden. In 1578 Magnus started a second attempt to conquer Saxe-Lauenburg, but was repelled by his brother Francis (II), whom - for his military success - their father rewarded with the rank of viceregent. [2]

In 1581 - shortly before he died and after consultations with his son, the Prince-Archbishop Henry of Bremen and Emperor Rudolph II, but not negotiated with his other sons Magnus and Maurice - Francis I made his third son Francis II, whom he considered the ablest, his sole successor, violating the rules of primogeniture. [3]

The violation of primogeniture, however, gave grounds for the estates to consider the upcoming duke as illegitimate. [4] Francis II, though, only officiated as administrator of Saxe-Lauenburg, while Magnus II appealed to Rudolph II to endow him with the throne. On 31 January 1585 Rudolph II finally ruled in favour of Francis II, as agreed with Francis I in 1581.

Meanwhile, Francis II had won over his brother Maurice by sharing rule with him and with the estates. On 16 December 1585 Francis II accepted, by the constitutional act of the "Eternal Union" (German : Ewige Union), the establishment of the representatives of Saxe-Lauenburg's nobility and cities, Lauenburg upon Elbe and Ratzeburg, as the estates of the duchy; a permanent institution with a crucial say in government matters. In return the estates accepted Francis II as legitimate and rendered him homage as duke in 1586.

Francis II lured Magnus into a trap in Hamburg and captured him later in 1588. Magnus remained imprisoned for the rest of his life, mostly in the castle of Ratzeburg, where he died in 1603. [5]

Marriage and issue

On 4 July 1568 Magnus II married Sophia of Sweden (October 29, 1547 - March 17, 1611). After 1574 they lived in Sweden. Their marriage was unhappy and in 1578 Sophia's brother, King John III of Sweden, expelled Magnus from the kingdom. Sophia and Magnus II had one son.

Ancestry

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References

Notes

  1. Cordula Bornefeld, "Die Herzöge von Sachsen-Lauenburg", in: Die Fürsten des Landes: Herzöge und Grafen von Schleswig, Holstein und Lauenburg [De slevigske hertuger; German], Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen (ed.) on behalf of the Gesellschaft für Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte, Neumünster: Wachholtz, 2008, pp. 373-389, here p. 380. ISBN   978-3-529-02606-5
  2. Cordula Bornefeld, "Die Herzöge von Sachsen-Lauenburg", in: Die Fürsten des Landes: Herzöge und Grafen von Schleswig, Holstein und Lauenburg [De slevigske hertuger; German], Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen (ed.) on behalf of the Gesellschaft für Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte, Neumünster: Wachholtz, 2008, pp. 373-389, here p. 381. ISBN   978-3-529-02606-5
  3. Cordula Bornefeld, "Die Herzöge von Sachsen-Lauenburg", in: Die Fürsten des Landes: Herzöge und Grafen von Schleswig, Holstein und Lauenburg [De slevigske hertuger; German], Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen (ed.) on behalf of the Gesellschaft für Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte, Neumünster: Wachholtz, 2008, pp. 373-389, here p. 380. ISBN   978-3-529-02606-5
  4. Cordula Bornefeld, "Die Herzöge von Sachsen-Lauenburg", in: Die Fürsten des Landes: Herzöge und Grafen von Schleswig, Holstein und Lauenburg [De slevigske hertuger; German], Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen (ed.) on behalf of the Gesellschaft für Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte, Neumünster: Wachholtz, 2008, pp. 373-389, here p. 380. ISBN   978-3-529-02606-5
  5. Cordula Bornefeld, "Die Herzöge von Sachsen-Lauenburg", in: Die Fürsten des Landes: Herzöge und Grafen von Schleswig, Holstein und Lauenburg [De slevigske hertuger; German], Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen (ed.) on behalf of the Gesellschaft für Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte, Neumünster: Wachholtz, 2008, pp. 373-389, here p. 381. ISBN   978-3-529-02606-5
Magnus II, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg
Born: 1543 Died: 14 May 1603 in Ratzeburg
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Francis I
Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg
1571–1573
Succeeded by
Francis I