Garrygala (circa 1924-2004)
Kara Kala (Кара Кала)
Alexandrov (1890?-circa 1924)
Ganlygala (Middle Ages-1890?)
Magtymguly (formerly Garrygala, Kara-Kala, Russian : Кара-Кала) is a city (Turkmen: şäher) in far south-western Turkmenistan in Balkan Province. It lies west of Aydere and is the administrative capital of Magtymguly District. In 1972 it had a population of 5700 inhabitants, rising to 8412 in 1989. It is located in the foothills of the Kopet Dag mountain range, and it lies on the Sumbar River, a tributary of the Atrek River.
The ruins of a vast fortress on the river bank are located in Magtymguly. The fortress was used as a base by the Armenian Kings Tigranes I to Tigranes VI. A small museum devoted to the poet Magtymguly Pyragy is located in Magtymguly.
Atanyyazow explains that Turkmen originally called the fortress, which he asserts was built here by Shah of Persia Mohammad, "Ganlygala" ("bloody fortress", from gan "blood" and gala "fortress") because of the amount of blood shed in fighting over it. At the end of the 19th century, under Russian influence the settlement was called Aleksandrov, but in the Soviet period it was renamed Garrygala in Turkmen (Russian : Кара Кала). Following Turkmenistan's independence, on 4 June 2004, by Presidential Decree No. 4066, Garrygala city and district were renamed in honor of Magtymguly Pyragy.
The history of Turkmenistan is largely shrouded in mystery, its past since the arrival of Indo-European Iranian tribes around 2000 BC is often the starting point of the area's discernible history. Early tribes were nomadic or semi-nomadic due to the arid conditions of the region as the steppe culture in Central Asia was an extension of a larger Eurasian series of horse cultures which spanned the entire spectrum of language families including the Indo-Europeans and Turko-Mongol groups. Some of the known early Iranian tribes included the Massagatae, Scythians/Sakas, and early Soghdians. Turkmenistan was a passing point for numerous migrations and invasions by tribes which gravitated towards the settled regions of the south including ancient Mesopotamia, Elam, and the Indus Valley Civilization.
Balkan Region is the westernmost of five regions of Turkmenistan. Clockwise from north it borders Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan (north); two provinces of Turkmenistan (east), Iran (south) and the Caspian Sea (west). The capital city is Balkanabat, formerly known as Nebit Dag. The boundaries of the region are identical to those of the former Krasnovodsk Oblast' , a Soviet-era province of the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic. This oblast was liquidated and restored many times in the mid- to late nineteen-hundreds and in 1988 it was abolished for good. However, the administrative boundaries of the region were restored in 1991 when Balkan Region was established.
Magtymguly Pyragy, born Magtymguly, was a Turkmen spiritual leader, philosophical poet, and sufi, who is considered to be the father of the Turkmen literature and the most famous figure in Turkmen literary history.
Balkanabat (Балканабат), formerly Nebit-Dag and Neftedag, is the capital city of Balkan Province, the largest province in the Turkmenistan. It is located at, at an elevation of 17 metres.
The districts of Turkmenistan are territorial entities below the provinces of Turkmenistan. They may be counties, cities, or boroughs of cities. The heads of the districts are appointed by the President of Turkmenistan.
Hazar is a port city with district status located on the Cheleken Peninsula of the Caspian Sea. It is part of, and as a city with district status, directly subordinate to, Balkan Province of western Turkmenistan.
Esenguly is a city in and administrative center of Esenguly District, Balkan Province, Turkmenistan. In 1989 its population was 5,823.
Garabogaz is a city subordinate to Turkmenbashy District, Balkan province, Turkmenistan, on the shore of the Caspian Sea. Until 2002, the municipality had the status of a town and was named Bekdaş[bekˈdɑʃ].
Etrek is a city and administrative center of Etrek District in Balkan Province, Turkmenistan. It is located on the Atrek River bordering on Iran. The city's and district's name was changed to Etrek in December 1999 by Parliamentary Resolution HM-63.
Turkmen State University named for Magtymguly is one of the leading universities in Turkmenistan, located in the capital city Ashgabat. It is named after Magtymguly Pyragy, a Turkmen poet. Its current rector is Gurtnyýaz Nurlyýewiç Hanmyradow.
Gurbansoltan eje adyndaky, until 2004 called Ýylanly, is a city and capital of Gurbansoltan Eje District in Daşoguz Province, Turkmenistan.
Baýramaly is a city in and the seat of Baýramaly District, Mary Province, Turkmenistan. It lies about 27 km east of the provincial capital Mary, along the main railway line from Ashgabat to Tashkent. In 2009, its population was estimated at 88,486.
Ýolöten is a city and capital of Ýolöten District, Mary Province, Turkmenistan. The city is located in the delta of the Murghab River, 55 kilometers southeast of Mary. It was granted the status of a city in 1939.
Geok Tepe is a city in and the administrative center of Gökdepe District, Ahal province, Turkmenistan, 45 kilometres (28 mi) north-west of Ashgabat. The city is built around a former fortress of the Turkmens which bore the same name. "Geok Tepe" is a Russian transliteration of the Turkic name Gökdepe, meaning "Blue Hill", from the Turkmen gök "blue" and depe "hill" or "summit". The city lies along the M37 highway.
The list of Turkmenistan-related articles is below
Galaýmor, called in Russian Kala-I-Mor, is a village and rural council in Serhetabat District, Mary Province, Turkmenistan.
Magtymguly Avenue, transliterated from Russian as Makhtumkuli, is an avenue in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. It is considered to be the longest and most prominent avenue in the capital
Görogly, previously called Tagta, is a city subordinate to a district and the administrative center of Görogly District, Daşoguz Province, Turkmenistan. It is located 20 kilometers south of the city of Daşoguz.
Nyýazow, previously called Andreyevsk and Täzebazar, and in Russian referred to as "Niyazovsk" or "Nyyazovsk", is a city subordinate to a district and the administrative center of Saparmyrat Nyýazow District, Daşoguz Province, Turkmenistan.
Türkmenbaşy şäherçesi is a town and the administrative center of Türkmenbaşy District, Balkan Province, Turkmenistan. It is east of the city of Türkmenbaşy, Turkmenistan, with which it should not be confused. Türkmenbaşy şäherçesi was previously called Janga.