Mahdist War

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Mahdist War
Bataille d'Ondurman 2.jpg
Depiction of the Battle of Omdurman (1898)
Date1881 (1881)–1899 (1899)
Result Allied victory
Sudan becomes Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, a condominium of the British Empire and Khedivate of Egypt;
Kassala temporally occupied by Italy

Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom

Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg  Italy [1]

Flag of Congo Free State.svg  Congo Free State
Ethiopian Pennants.svg  Ethiopia (1885–1889)
Flag of the Mahdi movement in Sudan.svg Mahdist Sudan
Commanders and leaders
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Charles Gordon  
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Garnet Wolseley
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Herbert Kitchener
Flag of Egypt (1882-1922).svg Tewfik Pasha
Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg Oreste Baratieri
Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg Giuseppe Arimondi
Flag of Congo Free State.svg Louis-Napoléon Chaltin
Ethiopian Pennants.svg Yohannes IV  
Ethiopian Pennants.svg Ras Alula
Ethiopian Pennants.svg Tekle Haimanot
Flag of the Mahdi movement in Sudan.svg Muhammad Ahmad  
Flag of the Mahdi movement in Sudan.svg Abdallahi ibn Muhammad  
Flag of the Mahdi movement in Sudan.svg Al-Zubayr Rahma Mansur
Flag of the Mahdi movement in Sudan.svg Osman Diqna
Flag of the Mahdi movement in Sudan.svg Hamdan Abu 'Anja

The Mahdist War (Arabic : الثورة المهديةath-Thawra al-Mahdiyya; 1881–99) was a war of the late 19th century between the Mahdist Sudanese of the religious leader Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah, who had proclaimed himself the "Mahdi" of Islam (the "Guided One"), and the forces of the Khedivate of Egypt, initially, and later the forces of Britain. Eighteen years of war resulted in the nominally joint-rule state of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899–1956), a de jure condominium of the British Empire and the Kingdom of Egypt in which Britain had de facto control over the Sudan. The Sudanese launched several unsuccessful invasions of their neighbours, expanding the scale of the conflict to include not only Britain and Egypt but the Italian Empire, the Congo Free State and the Ethiopian Empire.


The British participation in the war is called the Sudan campaign. Other names for this war include the "Mahdist Revolt", the "Anglo–Sudan War" and the "Sudanese Mahdist Revolt".


Following the invasion by Muhammad Ali in 1819, Sudan was governed by an Egyptian administration. Because of the heavy taxes it imposed and because of the bloody start of the Turkish-Egyptian rule in Sudan, this colonial system was resented by the Sudanese people.

Throughout the period of Turco-Egyptian rule, many segments of the Sudanese population suffered extreme hardship because of the system of taxation imposed by the central government. Under this system, a flat tax was imposed on farmers and small traders and collected by government-appointed tax collectors from the Sha'iqiyya tribe of northern Sudan. In bad years, and especially during times of drought and famine, farmers were unable to pay the high taxes. Fearing the brutal and unjust methods of the Sha'iqiyya, many farmers fled their villages in the fertile Nile Valley to the remote areas of Kordofan and Darfur. These migrants, known as "jallaba" after their loose-fitting style of dress, began to function as small traders and middlemen for the foreign trading companies that had established themselves in the cities and towns of central Sudan.[ citation needed ] The jallaba were also known to be slave trading tribes.

By the middle 19th century the Ottoman Imperial subject administration in Egypt was in the hands of Khedive Ismail. Khedive Ismail's spending had put Egypt into huge debt, and when his financing of the Suez Canal started to crumble, the United Kingdom stepped in and repaid his loans in return for controlling shares in the canal. As the most direct route to India, the jewel in the British Crown, control over the Suez Canal was of paramount strategic importance, and British commercial and imperial interests dictated the need to seize or otherwise control it. Thus an ever-increasing British role in Egyptian affairs seemed necessary. With Khedive Ismail's spending and corruption causing instability, in 1873 the British government supported a program whereby an Anglo-French debt commission assumed responsibility for managing Egypt's fiscal affairs. This commission eventually forced Khedive Ismail to abdicate in favor of his son Tawfiq in 1877, leading to a period of political turmoil.

Also in 1873, Ismail had appointed General Charles "Chinese" Gordon Governor of the Equatorial Provinces of Sudan. For the next three years, General Gordon fought against a native chieftain of Darfur, Al-Zubayr Rahma Mansur.

Upon Ismail's abdication in 1877, Gordon found himself with dramatically decreased support. Exhausted by years of work, he resigned his post in 1880 and left early the next year. His policies were soon abandoned by the new governors, but the anger and discontent of the dominant Arab minority was left unaddressed.[ citation needed ]

Although the Egyptians were fearful of the deteriorating conditions, the British refused to get involved, as Foreign Secretary Earl Granville declared, "Her Majesty’s Government are in no way responsible for operations in the Sudan".

The maximum extent of the Mahdist state, shown within the pre-2011 borders of the Sudan The Mahdist State, 1881-98, modern Sudan.png
The maximum extent of the Mahdist state, shown within the pre-2011 borders of the Sudan


Mahdi uprising

Muhammad Ahmad, the self-proclaimed Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad al-Mahdi 1.jpg
Muhammad Ahmad, the self-proclaimed Mahdi
This banner is a declaration of faith and allegiance into Allah, and was carried into battle by the Sudanese Mahdist Army. The color of the banner identifies the fighting unit. From Omdurman, 1898. The Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, Glasgow, UK. Given by Miss Victoria MacBean, 1929. Banner, declaration of faith and allegiance to Allah. Sudanese Mahdist Army, Omdurman, 1889. The Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum. Given by Miss Victoria MacBean.jpg
This banner is a declaration of faith and allegiance into Allah, and was carried into battle by the Sudanese Mahdist Army. The color of the banner identifies the fighting unit. From Omdurman, 1898. The Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, Glasgow, UK. Given by Miss Victoria MacBean, 1929.

Among the forces historians see as the causes of the uprising are ethnic Sudanese anger at the foreign Turkish Ottoman rulers, Muslim revivalist anger at the Turks' lax religious standards and willingness to appoint non-Muslims such as the Christian Charles Gordon to high positions, and Sudanese Sufi resistance to "dry, scholastic Islam of Egyptian officialdom." [2] Another widely reported potential source of frustration was the Turco-Egyptian abolition of the slave trade, one of the main sources of income in Sudan at the time. [3]

In the 1870s, a Muslim cleric named Muhammad Ahmad preached renewal of the faith and liberation of the land, and began attracting followers. Soon in open revolt against the Egyptians, Muhammad Ahmad proclaimed himself the Mahdi, the promised redeemer of the Islamic world. In August 1881 the then-governor of the Sudan, Raouf Pasha, sent two companies of infantry each with one machine gun to arrest him. The captains of the two companies were each promised promotion if their soldiers were the ones to return the Mahdi to the governor. Both companies disembarked from the steamer that had brought them up the Nile to Aba Island and approached the Mahdi's village from separate directions. Arriving simultaneously, each force began to fire blindly on the other, allowing the Mahdi's scant followers to attack and destroy each force in turn at the Battle of Aba. [4]

The Mahdi then began a strategic retreat to Kordofan, where he was at a distance from the seat of government in Khartoum. This movement, couched as a triumphal progress, incited many of the Arab tribes to rise in support of the Jihad the Mahdi had declared against the "Turkish oppressors." Another Egyptian expedition dispatched from Fashoda was ambushed and slaughtered on the night of 9 December 1881. [5]

The Mahdi also legitimized his movement by drawing deliberate parallels to the life of the Prophet Muhammad. He called his followers Ansar, after the people who greeted the Prophet in Medina, and he called his flight from the British, the hijrah, after the Prophet's flight from the Quraysh. The Mahdi also appointed commanders to represent three of the four Righteous Caliphs; [6] for example, he announced that Abdullahi ibn Muhammad, his eventual successor, represented Abu Bakr Al Sidiq, the Prophet's successor.

The Egyptian administration in the Sudan, now thoroughly concerned by the scale of the uprising, assembled a force of 4,000 troops under Yusef Pasha. This force approached the Mahdist gathering, whose members were poorly clothed, half starving, and armed only with sticks and stones. However, supreme overconfidence led the Egyptian army into camping within sight of the Mahdist 'army' without posting sentries. The Mahdi led a dawn assault on 7 June 1882, which slaughtered the army to a man. The rebels gained vast stores of arms and ammunition, military clothing and other supplies. [7]

Hicks expedition

With the Egyptian government now passing largely under British control (see: History of modern Egypt and Anglo-Egyptian War (1882)), the European powers became increasingly aware of the troubles in the Sudan. The British advisers to the Egyptian government gave tacit consent for another expedition. Throughout the summer of 1883, Egyptian troops were concentrated at Khartoum, eventually reaching the strength of 7,000 infantry, 1,000 cavalry, 20 machine guns, and artillery. This force was placed under the command of a retired British Indian Staff Corps officer William Hicks and twelve European officers. The force was, in the words of Winston Churchill, "perhaps the worst army that has ever marched to war" [8] —unpaid, untrained, and undisciplined, its soldiers having more in common with their enemies than with their officers.

El Obeid, the city whose siege Hicks had intended to relieve, had already fallen by the time the expedition left Khartoum, but Hicks continued anyway, although not confident of his chances of success. Upon his approach, the Mahdi assembled an army of about 40,000 men and drilled them rigorously in the art of war, equipping them with the arms and ammunition captured in previous battles. On 3 and 4 November 1883, when Hicks' forces actually offered battle, the Mahdist army was a credible military force, which utterly defeated Hicks' army—only about 500 Egyptians survived—at the Battle of El Obeid. [9]

Egyptian evacuation

At this time, the British Empire was increasingly entrenching itself in the workings of the Egyptian government. Egypt was groaning under a barely maintainable debt repayment structure for her enormous European debt. [10] For the Egyptian government to avoid further interference from its European creditors, it had to ensure that the debt interest was paid on time, every time. To this end, the Egyptian treasury, initially crippled by corruption and bureaucracy, was placed by the British almost entirely under the control of a 'Financial Advisor', who exercised the power of veto over all matters of financial policy. The holders of this office—first Sir Auckland Colvin, and later Sir Edgar Vincent [11] —were instructed to exercise the greatest possible parsimony in Egypt's financial affairs. Maintaining the garrisons in the Sudan was costing the Egyptian government over 100,000 Egyptian pounds a year, [12] an unmaintainable expense.

Charles Gordon as Governor of the Sudan Charles Gordon Pasha.jpg
Charles Gordon as Governor of the Sudan

It was therefore decided by the Egyptian government, under some coercion by their British controllers, that the Egyptian presence in the Sudan should be withdrawn and the country left to some form of self-government, likely headed by the Mahdi. The withdrawal of the Egyptian garrisons stationed throughout the country, such as those at Sennar, Tokar and Sinkat, was therefore threatened unless it was conducted in an orderly fashion. The Egyptian government asked for a British officer to be sent to the Sudan to co-ordinate the withdrawal of the garrisons. It was hoped that Mahdist forces would judge an attack on a British subject to be too great a risk, and hence allow the withdrawal to proceed without incident. It was proposed to send Charles 'Chinese' Gordon. Gordon was a gifted officer, who had distinguished himself in several campaigns in the Far East, particularly China (See the Second Opium War). However, he was also renowned for his aggression and rigid personal honour, [13] which, in the eyes of several prominent British officials in Egypt, made him unsuitable for the task. Sir Evelyn Baring (later the Earl of Cromer), the British Consul-general in Egypt, was particularly opposed to Gordon's appointment, only reluctantly being won over by the British press and public. Gordon was eventually given the mission, but he was to be accompanied by the much more level-headed and reliable Colonel John Stewart. It was intended that Stewart, while nominally Gordon's subordinate, would act as a brake on the latter and ensure that the Sudan was evacuated quickly and peacefully.

Gordon left England on 18 January 1884 [14] and arrived in Cairo on the evening of 24 January. [15] Gordon was largely responsible for drafting his own orders, [16] along with proclamations from the Khedive announcing Egypt's intentions to leave the Sudan. Gordon's orders, by his own request, were unequivocal and left little room for misinterpretation.

The Battle of Abu Klea, which took place during the desert expedition to bring relief to Gordon, besieged in Khartoum, 1885 Battle of Abu Klea, William Barnes Wollen.jpg
The Battle of Abu Klea, which took place during the desert expedition to bring relief to Gordon, besieged in Khartoum, 1885

Gordon arrived in Khartoum on 18 February, [17] and immediately became apprised of the vast difficulty of the task. Egypt's garrisons were scattered widely across the country; three—Sennar, Tokar and Sinkat—were under siege, [18] and the majority of the territory between them was under the control of the Mahdi. There was no guarantee that, if the garrisons were to sortie, even with the clear intention of withdrawing, they would not be cut to pieces by the Mahdist forces. Khartoum's Egyptian and European population was greater than all the other garrisons combined, including 7,000 Egyptian troops [19] and 27,000 civilians [20] and the staffs of several embassies. Although the pragmatic approach would have been to secure the safety of the Khartoum garrison and abandon the outlying fortifications and their troops to the Mahdi, Gordon became increasingly reluctant to leave the Sudan until "every one who wants to go down [the Nile] is given the chance to do so," [21] feeling it would be a slight on his honour to abandon any Egyptian soldiers to the Mahdi. He also became increasingly fearful of the Mahdi's potential to cause trouble in Egypt if allowed control of the Sudan, leading to a conviction that the Mahdi must be "crushed," by British troops if necessary, to assure the stability of the region. It is debated [22] whether or not Gordon deliberately remained in Khartoum longer than strategically sensible, seemingly intent on becoming besieged within the town. Gordon's brother, H. W. Gordon, was of the opinion that the British officers could easily have escaped from Khartoum up until 14 December 1884. [23]

Whether or not it was the Mahdi's intention, in March 1884, the Sudanese tribes to the north of Khartoum, who had previously been sympathetic or at least neutral towards the Egyptian authorities, rose in support of the Mahdi. The telegraph lines between Khartoum and Cairo were cut on 15 March, [24] severing communication between Khartoum and the outside world.

Siege of Khartoum

An aerial view of the confluence of the Nile rivers. Khartoum lies between the two rivers, with Omdurman on the west bank slightly downstream. Khartoum 32.53706E 15.60754N.jpg
An aerial view of the confluence of the Nile rivers. Khartoum lies between the two rivers, with Omdurman on the west bank slightly downstream.

Gordon's position in Khartoum was very strong, as the city was bordered to the north and east by the Blue Nile, to the west by the White Nile, and to the south by ancient fortifications looking on to a vast expanse of desert. Gordon had food for an estimated six months, [25] several million rounds of ammunition in store, [26] with the capacity to produce a further 50,000 rounds per week, [27] and 7,000 Egyptian soldiers. [28] But outside the walls, the Mahdi had mustered about 50,000 Dervish soldiers, and as time went on, the chances of a successful breakout became slim. Gordon had enthusiastically supported the idea of recalling the notorious former slaver Pasha Zobeir from exile in Egypt to organize and lead a popular uprising against the Mahdi. [29] When this idea was vetoed by the British government, Gordon proposed a number of alternative means to salvage his situation successively to his British superiors. All were similarly vetoed. Among them were:

Eventually it became impossible for Gordon to be relieved without British troops. An expedition was duly dispatched under Sir Garnet Wolseley, but as the level of the White Nile fell through the winter, muddy 'beaches' at the foot of the walls were exposed. With starvation and cholera rampant in the city and the Egyptian troops' morale shattered, Gordon's position became untenable and the city fell on 26 January 1885, after a siege of 313 days.

Nile campaign

The British Government, reluctantly and late, but under strong pressure from public opinion, sent a relief column under Sir Garnet Wolseley to relieve the Khartoum garrison. This was described in some British papers as the 'Gordon Relief Expedition', a term Gordon strongly objected to. After defeating the Mahdists at the Battle of Abu Klea, the column arrived within sight of Khartoum only to find they were too late: the city had fallen two days earlier, and Gordon and the garrison had been massacred.

Suakin Expedition

Indian Army troops en route to Sudan to help defend remaining Anglo-Egyptian outposts, 1884. Indian Contingent on board 'Czarewitch', 1st Sudan War, 1884 (c).jpg
Indian Army troops en route to Sudan to help defend remaining Anglo-Egyptian outposts, 1884.

The British also sent an expeditionary force under Lieutenant-General Sir Gerald Graham, including an Indian contingent, to Suakin in March 1885. Though successful in the two actions it fought, it failed to change the military situation and was withdrawn. [33] These events temporarily ended British and Egyptian involvement in Sudan, which passed completely under the control of the Mahdists.

Muhammad Ahmad died soon after his victory, on 22 June 1885, and was succeeded by the Khalifa Abdallahi ibn Muhammad, who proved to be an able, albeit ruthless, ruler of the Mahdiyah (the Mahdist state).

Equatoria expedition

Between 1886 and 1889 a British expedition to relieve the Egyptian governor of Equatoria made its way through central Africa. The governor, Emin Pasha, was rescued, but the expedition was not without its failures, such as the disaster that befell the rear column.

Ethiopian campaigns

According to the Hewett Treaty of 3 June 1884, Ethiopia agreed to facilitate the evacuation of Egyptian garrisons in southern Sudan. In September 1884, Ethiopia reoccupied the province of Bogos, which had been occupied by Egypt, and began a long campaign to relieve the Egyptian garrisons besieged by the Mahdists. The bitter campaigning was led by the Emperor Yohannes IV and Ras Alula. The Ethiopians under Ras Alula achieved a victory in the Battle of Kufit on 23 September 1885. [34]

Between November 1885 and February 1886, Yohannes IV was putting down a revolt in Wollo. In January 1886, a Mahdist army invaded Ethiopia, seized Dembea, burned the Mahbere Selassie monastery and advanced on Chilga. King Tekle Haymanot of Gojjam led a successful counteroffensive as far as Gallabat in the Sudan in January 1887. A year later, in January 1888, the Mahdists returned, defeating Tekle Haymanot at Sar Weha and sacking Gondar. [34]

Italian campaign and Anglo-Egyptian reconquest

Troops from the Congo Free State defeating Mahdist troops at the Battle of Rejaf Redjaf 1897.jpg
Troops from the Congo Free State defeating Mahdist troops at the Battle of Rejaf

In the intervening years, Egypt had not renounced her claims over Sudan, and the British authorities considered that claim legitimate. Under strict control by British administrators, Egypt's economy had been rebuilt, and the Egyptian army reformed, this time trained and led by British officers and non-commissioned officers. The situation evolved in a way that allowed Egypt, both politically and militarily, to reconquer Sudan. [35]

Italian Askaris defeating Mahdist troops in Tucruf. Tucruf.jpg
Italian Askaris defeating Mahdist troops in Tucruf.

Since 1890, Italian troops defeated Mahdist troops in the Battle of Serobeti and the First Battle of Agordat. In December 1893, Italian colonial troops and Mahdists fought again in the Second Battle of Agordat; Ahmed Ali campaigned against the Italian forces in eastern Sudan and led about 10–12,000 men east from Kassala, encountering 2,400 Italians and their Eritrean Ascaris commanded by Colonel Arimondi. The Italians won again, and the outcome of the battle constituted "the first decisive victory yet won by Europeans against the Sudanese revolutionaries". [36] A year later, Italian colonial forces seized Kassala after the successful Battle of Kassala.

In 1891 a Catholic priest, Father Joseph Ohrwalder, escaped from captivity in Sudan. In 1895 the erstwhile Governor of Darfur, Rudolf Carl von Slatin, managed to escape from the Khalifa's prison. Besides providing vital intelligence on the Mahdist dispositions, both men wrote detailed accounts of their experiences in Sudan. Written in collaboration with Reginald Wingate, a proponent of the reconquest of Sudan, both works emphasized the savagery and barbarism of the Mahdists, [37] and through the wide publicity they received in Britain, served to influence public opinion in favour of military intervention. [38]

In 1896, when Italy suffered a heavy defeat at the hands of the Ethiopians at Adwa, the Italian position in East Africa was seriously weakened. The Mahdists threatened to retake Kassala, which they had lost to the Italians in 1894. The British government judged it politic to assist the Italians by making a military demonstration in northern Sudan. This coincided with the increased threat of French encroachment on the Upper Nile regions. Lord Cromer, judging that the Conservative-Unionist government in power would favour taking the offensive, managed to extend the demonstration into a full-fledged invasion. [39] In 1897, the Italians gave back to the British the control of Kassala, returning in Italian Eritrea, in order to get international recognition of their colony.

The Battle of Omdurman Battle of Omdurman.jpg
The Battle of Omdurman

Herbert Kitchener, the new Sirdar (commander) of the Anglo-Egyptian Army, received his marching orders on 12 March, and his forces entered Sudan on the 18th. Numbering at first 11,000 men, Kitchener's force was armed with the most modern military equipment of the time, including Maxim machine-guns and modern artillery, and was supported by a flotilla of gunboats on the Nile. Their advance was slow and methodical, while fortified camps were built along the way, and two separate 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) Narrow gauge railways were hastily constructed from a station at Wadi Halfa: the first rebuilt Isma'il Pasha's abortive and ruined former line south along the east bank of the Nile to supply the 1896 Dongola Expedition [lower-alpha 1] and a second, carried out in 1897, was extended along a new line directly across the desert to Abu Hamad—which they captured in the Battle of Abu Hamed on 7 August 1897 [42] —to supply the main force moving on Khartoum. [40] [41] It was not until 7 June 1896 that the first serious engagement of the campaign occurred, when Kitchener led a 9,000 strong force that wiped out the Mahdist garrison at Ferkeh. [43]

The defeated Emir Mahmud with the British Director of Military Intelligence Francis Wingate after the 1898 Battle of Atbara General Kitchener and the Anglo-egyptian Nile Campaign, 1898 HU93853.jpg
The defeated Emir Mahmud with the British Director of Military Intelligence Francis Wingate after the 1898 Battle of Atbara

In 1898, in the context of the scramble for Africa, the British decided to reassert Egypt's claim on Sudan. An expedition commanded by Kitchener was organised in Egypt. It was composed of 8,200 British soldiers and 17,600 Egyptian and Sudanese soldiers commanded by British officers. The Mahdist forces (sometimes called the Dervishes) were more numerous, numbering more than 60,000 warriors, but lacked modern weapons.

After defeating a Mahdist force in the Battle of Atbara in April 1898, the Anglo-Egyptians reached Omdurman, the Mahdist capital, in September. The bulk of the Mahdist army attacked, but was cut down by British machine-guns and rifle fire.

The remnant, with the Khalifa Abdullah, fled to southern Sudan. During the pursuit, Kitchener's forces met a French force under Major Jean-Baptiste Marchand at Fashoda, resulting in the Fashoda Incident. They finally caught up with Abdullah at Umm Diwaykarat, where he was killed, effectively ending the Mahdist regime.

The casualties for this campaign were:

Sudan: 30,000 dead, wounded, or captured
Britain: 700+ British, Egyptian and Sudanese dead, wounded, or captured.


The British set up a new colonial system, the Anglo-Egyptian administration, which effectively established British domination over Sudan. This ended with the independence of Sudan in 1956.

See also

References and notes


  1. This line was so out of the way, badly sited, and hastily rebuilt that it was abandoned in 1904. [40] The Abu Hamad route, however, became the start of the entire subsequent Sudanese rail network. [41] The Cape gauge hastily adopted to use the available rolling stock provided from South Africa meant that the Sudanese system could not (and still cannot) link directly to Egypt's standard-gauge system but required transshipment via steamer from Asyut to Halfa.


  1. Meredith Reid Sarkees, Frank Whelon Wayman (2010). Resort to war: a data guide to inter-state, extra-state, intra-state, and non-state wars, 1816–2007. Washington, DC.
  2. Mortimer, Edward, Faith and Power, Vintage, 1982, p. 77.
  3. Holt, P.M. (1958). The Mahdist State in the Sudan 1881 - 1898: A Study of Its Origin, Development, and Overthrow. Clarendon: Oxford University Press.
  4. Churchill, Winston (1902). The River War. Kessinger. p. 28.
  5. Churchill p. 29
  6. Slatin, Rudolf Carl (1896). Fire and Sword in the Sudan; a Personal Narrative of Fighting and Serving the Dervishes. 1879-1895. London: E. Arnold. pp.  138.
  7. Churchill p. 30
  8. Churchill, Winston (1902). The River War. Kessinger. p. 31.
  9. Churchill p. 33
  10. Milner, Alfred (1898). England in Egypt. Macmillan. p. 60.
  11. Milner p. 86
  12. Cromer, Earl of (1907). Modern Egypt. Macmillan. p. 354.
  13. Cromer, Earl of (1907). Modern Egypt. Macmillan. p. 564.
  14. Strachey, Lytton (1918), Eminent Victorians , pp. 194 & 199; see also, Churchill, p. 39
  15. Cromer, Earl of (1907). Modern Egypt. Macmillan. p. 441.
  16. Cromer, Earl of (1907). Modern Egypt. Macmillan. pp. 442–45.
  17. Cromer, Earl of (1907). Modern Egypt. Macmillan. p. 475.
  18. Churchill, Winston (1902). The River War. Kessinger. p. 37.
  19. Churchill, Winston (1902). The River War. Kessinger. p. 29.
  20. Gordon, Charles (1885). Journals at Khartoum. p. 8. (34,000 total population, including soldiers)
  21. Cromer, Earl of (1907). Modern Egypt. Macmillan. p. 564.
  22. Cromer p. 567
  23. Journals lx
  24. Churchill p. 50
  25. Cromer, Earl of (1902). Modern Egypt. Macmillan. p. 537.
  26. Journals at Khartoum, p. 73 (2,242,000 in store, 3,240,770 expended to 12/03/84–22/09/84)
  27. Journals at Khartoum, p. 44
  28. Churchill, Winston (1902). The River War. Kessinger. p. 50.
  29. Cromer, Earl of (1907). Modern Egypt. Macmillan. p. 489.
  30. Cromer, Earl of (1907). Modern Egypt. Macmillan. p. 572.
  31. 1 2 Churchill p. 46
  32. Churchill, Winston (1902). The River War. Kessinger. p. 46.
  33. Ernest Gambier-Parry, Suakin, 1885 : being a sketch of the campaign of this year (1885), (London : K. Paul, Trench & Co.)
  34. 1 2 Henze, Paul B. (2000), Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia, New York: Palgrave, pp. 155–58CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  35. Churchill, pp. 89–106
  36. Barclay, Glen St John (1973). The rise and fall of the new Roman empire: Italy's bid for world power, 1890–1943 . London.
  37. Salomon, Noah (May 2004). "Undoing the Mahdiyya: British Colonialism as Religious Reform in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 1898–1914". University of Chicago Martin Marty Center. Archived from the original on 5 May 2007. Retrieved 7 November 2007.
  38. Churchill, p. 99
  39. Churchill, p. 101
  40. 1 2 Gleichen, Edward ed. The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan: A Compendium Prepared by Officers of the Sudan Government , Vol. 1, p. 99. Harrison & Sons (London), 1905. Accessed 13 February 2014.
  41. 1 2 Sudan Railway Corporation. "Historical Background Archived 10 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine ". 2008. Accessed 13 February 2014.
  42. T. B. Harbottle, George Bruce (1979). Harbottle's Dictionary of Battles (second ed.). Granada. p. 9. ISBN   0-246-11103-8.
  43. Churchill, p. 137

Further reading

Related Research Articles

Battle of Omdurman Battle between the Mahdists and Anglo-Sudanse in 1898.

At the Battle of Omdurman, an army commanded by the British General Sir Herbert Kitchener defeated the army of Abdullah al-Taashi, the successor to the self-proclaimed Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmad. Kitchener was seeking revenge for the 1885 death of General Gordon. It was a demonstration of the superiority of a highly disciplined army equipped with modern rifles, machine guns, and artillery over a force twice its size armed with older weapons, and marked the success of British efforts to re-conquer the Sudan. However, it was not until the 1899 Battle of Umm Diwaykarat that the final Mahdist forces were defeated.

Muhammad Ahmad Ruler of Sudan

Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah was a Nubian religious leader of the Samaniyya order in Sudan who, as a youth, combined orthodox religious study with a mystical interpretation of Islam. On 29 June 1881, he was proclaimed the Mahdi by his disciples, the messianic redeemer of the Islamic faith. His proclamation came during a period of widespread resentment among the Sudanese population towards the oppressive policies of the Turco-Egyptian rulers and was supported by the messianic belief popular among the various Sudanese religious sects of the time. He led a successful war against Ottoman-Egyptian military rule and achieved a remarkable victory over the British, in the Siege of Khartoum. He then created a vast Islamic state extending from the Red Sea to Central Africa and founded a movement that remained influential in Sudan a century later.

Equatoria Region in South Sudan

Equatoria is a region of southern South Sudan, along the upper reaches of the White Nile. Originally a province of Egypt, it also contained most of northern parts of present-day Uganda, including Lake Albert. It was an idealistic effort to create a model state in the interior of Africa that never consisted of more than a handful of adventurers and soldiers in isolated outposts.

Anglo-Egyptian Sudan Joint British and Egyptian rule between 1899-1956

The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan was a condominium of the United Kingdom and Egypt in the eastern Sudan region of northern Africa between 1899 and 1956, but in practice the structure of the condominium ensured full British control over the Sudan with Egypt having local influence instead. It attained independence as the Republic of the Sudan, which since 2011 has been split into Sudan and South Sudan.

<i>Khartoum</i> (film) 1966 film by Basil Dearden

Khartoum is a 1966 film written by Robert Ardrey and directed by Basil Dearden. It stars Charlton Heston as British Gen. Charles "Chinese" Gordon and Laurence Olivier as Muhammad Ahmed, with a supporting cast that includes Richard Johnson and Ralph Richardson. The film is based on historical accounts of Gordon's defence of the Sudanese city of Khartoum from the forces of the Mahdist army, during the 1884-1885 Siege of Khartoum. The opening and closing are narrated by Leo Genn.

Turkish Sudan 1821–85

Turkish Sudan, also known as Turkiyya, describes the rule of the Eyalet and later Khedivate of Egypt over what is now Sudan and South Sudan. It lasted from 1820, when Muhammad Ali Pasha started his conquest of Sudan, to the fall of Khartoum in 1885 to Muhammad Ahmad, the self-proclaimed Mahdi.

Mahdist State 1880s state in Africa

The Mahdist State, also known as Mahdist Sudan or the Sudanese Mahdiyya, was a religious and political movement launched in 1881 by Muhammad Ahmad bin Abdullah against the Khedivate of Egypt, which had ruled the Sudan since 1821. After four years of struggle, the Mahdist rebels overthrew the Ottoman-Egyptian administration and established their own "Islamic and national" government with its capital in Omdurman. Thus, from 1885 the Mahdist government maintained sovereignty and control over the Sudanese territories until its existence was terminated by the Anglo-Egyptian forces in 1898.

Siege of Khartoum An offense by Mahdist Forces against British and Egyptian troops

The Battle of Khartoum, Siege of Khartoum or Fall of Khartoum was the conquest of Egyptian-held Khartoum by the Mahdist forces led by Muhammad Ahmad. Egypt had held the city for some time, but the siege the Mahdists engineered and carried out from 13 March 1884 to 26 January 1885 was enough to wrest control away from the Egyptian administration. After a ten-month siege, when the Mahdists finally broke into the city, the entire garrison of Egyptian soldiers was killed along with 4,000 Sudanese civilians.

Jaalin tribe an Arabic speaking, Semitic tribe

The Ja'alin, Ja'aliya, Ja'aliyin or Ja'al are an arabised Nubian tribe in Sudan, constituting a large portion of the Sudanese Arabs. They are the largest among the Sudanese Arabs and are also one of the three prominent tribes of indigenous arabised Nubians in Northern Sudan - The others being the Shaigiya and Danagla. They trace their origin to Ibrahim Ja'al, an Abbasid noble, whose clan originally hailed from the Hejaz and married into the local Nubian population. Ja'al was a descendant of al-Abbas, an uncle of prophet Muhammad. The Ja'alin formerly occupied the country on both banks of the Nile from Khartoum to Abu Hamad. The tribe once spoke a now extinct dialect of Nubian as late as the nineteenth century.

Battle of Atbara battle

The Battle of Atbara took place during the Second Sudan War. Anglo-Egyptian forces defeated 15,000 Sudanese rebels, called Mahdists or Dervishes, on the banks of the River Atbara. The battle proved to be the turning point in the conquest of Sudan by a British and Egyptian coalition.

Osman Digna Sudanese military commander

Osman Digna (c. 1840 – 1926) was a follower of Muhammad Ahmad, the self-proclaimed Mahdi, in Sudan, who became his best known military commander during the Mahdist War. He is descendant from Abbasid family. As the Mahdi's ablest general, he played an important role in the fate of General Charles George Gordon and the loss of the Sudan to Egypt. In Britain Osman became a notorious figure, both demonised as a savage and respected as a warrior. Winston Churchill describes him as an "astute" and "prudent" man, calling him "the celebrated, and perhaps immortal, Osman Digna."

Battle of Toski battle

The Battle of Toski (Tushkah) was part of the Mahdist War. It took place on August 3, 1889 in southern Egypt between the Anglo-Egyptian forces and the Mahdist forces of the Sudan.

Nile Expedition Failed rescue mission

The Nile Expedition, sometimes called the Gordon Relief Expedition (1884–85), was a British mission to relieve Major-General Charles George Gordon at Khartoum, Sudan. Gordon had been sent to the Sudan to help Egyptians evacuate from Sudan after Britain decided to abandon the country in the face of a rebellion led by self-proclaimed Mahdi, Mahommed Ahmed. A contingent of Canadians was recruited to help the British navigate their small boats up the Nile River. The Nile Expedition was the first overseas expedition by Canadians in a British imperial conflict, although the Nile Voyageurs were civilian employees and did not wear uniforms.

Khedivate of Egypt 1867–1914 monarchy in Northeastern Africa

The Khedivate of Egypt was an autonomous tributary state of the Ottoman Empire, established and ruled by the Muhammad Ali Dynasty following the defeat and expulsion of Napoleon Bonaparte's forces which brought an end to the short-lived French occupation of Lower Egypt. The Khedivate of Egypt had also expanded to control present-day Sudan, South Sudan, Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria, southern Turkey, and northwestern Saudi Arabia.

Battle of Ginnis Battle of the Mahdist War

The Battle of Ginnis was a minor battle of the Mahdist War that was fought on December 30, 1885, between soldiers of the Anglo-Egyptian Army and Mahdist Sudanese warriors of the Dervish State. The battle was caused by the Mahdist blockade of the Ginnis-Kosha Fort, which British commanders hoped to relieve.

The River Column was a unit of British soldiers during the Mahdist War.

Abd al-Rahman al-Mahdi Imam of the Ansar and Sudanese politician (1885-1959)

Sayyid Abd al-Rahman al-Mahdi, KBE was a Sudanese politician. He was one of the leading religious and political figures during the colonial era in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1898–1955), and continued to exert great authority as leader of the Neo-Mahdists after Sudan became independent. The British tried to exploit his influence over the Sudanese people while at the same time profoundly distrusting his motives. Throughout most of the colonial era of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan the British saw Sayyid Abd al-Rahman al-Mahdi as important as a moderate leader of the Mahdists.

The Battle of Aba, which took place on August 12, 1881, was the opening battle of the Mahdist War. The incident saw Mahdist rebels, led by Muhammad Ahmad, who had proclaimed himself the Mahdi, rout Egyptian troops who had landed on Aba Island.

Battle of Abu Hamed

The Battle of Abu Hamed occurred on 7 August 1897 between a flying column of Anglo-Egyptian soldiers under Major-General Sir Archibald Hunter and a garrison of Mahdist rebels led by Mohammed Zain. The battle was a victory for the Anglo-Egyptian forces, and secured for the British the strategically vital town of Abu Hamed, which was the terminus for trade and transportation across the Nubian Desert.

Anglo-Egyptian conquest of Sudan 1896–1899

The Anglo-Egyptian conquest of Sudan in 1896–1899 was a reconquest of territory lost by the Khedives of Egypt in 1884 and 1885 during the Mahdist War. The British had failed to organise an orderly withdrawal of Egyptian forces from Sudan, and the defeat at Khartoum left only Suakin and Equatoria under Egyptian control after 1885. The conquest of 1896–99 defeated and destroyed the Mahdist state and re-established Anglo-Egyptian rule, which remained until Sudan became independent in 1956.