Maipo (volcano)

Last updated
Maipo
Volcan Maipo et sa Lagune.JPG
Maipo volcano in 2008
Highest point
Elevation 5,264 m (17,270 ft) [note 1]
Coordinates 34°09′39.6″S69°49′58.8″W / 34.161000°S 69.833000°W / -34.161000; -69.833000 Coordinates: 34°09′39.6″S69°49′58.8″W / 34.161000°S 69.833000°W / -34.161000; -69.833000
Geography
Relief Map of Argentina.jpg
Red triangle with thick white border.svg
Maipo
Location on Argentina Chile border
Location Argentina Chile
Parent range Principal Cordillera, Andes
Geology
Mountain type Stratovolcano
Last eruption 1912 [1]
Climbing
First ascent 1883 by Paul Güssfeldt [2]
Easiest route snow/ice climb

Maipo is a stratovolcano in the Andes, lying on the border between Argentina and Chile. It is located 90 km (56 mi) south of Tupungato and about 100 km (62 mi) southeast of Santiago. It has a symmetrical, conical volcanic shape, and is among the southernmost 5,000 metre peaks in the Andes. [3]

Stratovolcano Tall, conical volcano built up by many layers of hardened lava and other ejecta

A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, is a conical volcano built up by many layers (strata) of hardened lava, tephra, pumice and ash. Unlike shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes are characterized by a steep profile with a summit crater and periodic intervals of explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions, although some have collapsed summit craters called calderas. The lava flowing from stratovolcanoes typically cools and hardens before spreading far, due to high viscosity. The magma forming this lava is often felsic, having high-to-intermediate levels of silica, with lesser amounts of less-viscous mafic magma. Extensive felsic lava flows are uncommon, but have travelled as far as 15 km (9.3 mi).

Andes Mountain range in South America

The Andes or Andean Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. The Andes also have the 2nd most elevated highest peak of any mountain range, only behind the Himalayas. The range is 7,000 km (4,300 mi) long, 200 to 700 km wide, and has an average height of about 4,000 m (13,000 ft). The Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina.

Argentina Federal republic in South America

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi), Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, and the largest Spanish-speaking nation. The sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, which is the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.

Maipo is located within the Diamante caldera, a feature measuring 15 km by 20 km that is about half a million years old. It rises about 1,900 m (6,230 ft) above the floor of the caldera. Immediately to the east of the peak, on the eastern side of the caldera floor, is Laguna del Diamante, a lake that formed when lava flows blocked drainage channels from the caldera in 1826. The Diamante Caldera erupted 450 cubic kilometers (108 cu mi) of tephra, 450 ka. [4]

Laguna del Diamante Lake in Argentina

Laguna del Diamante is a lake located in the province of Mendoza, Argentina, in the San Carlos Department, some 198 km from Mendoza. It covers a surface area of about 14.1 km² and is one of the largest freshwater resources in the Province. Nearby is Maipo volcano. The volcano and its reflection in the lake forms diamond-shape image, which gives the lake its name. It is known for its stunning beauty. However, few get the chance to see it because it is passable only in February and only via an off-road vehicle.

The region's climate is transitional between the drier Mediterranean climate of the peaks to the north and the cold, moist climate of Chilean Patagonia. Hence, while less glaciated than Patagonia, it has more permanent snow on the wet, Chilean side than peaks of similar elevation to the north. [3]

Patagonia Region of South America

Patagonia is a sparsely populated region at the southern end of South America, shared by Chile and Argentina. The region comprises the southern section of the Andes Mountains and the deserts, pampas, and grasslands to the east. Patagonia is one of the few regions with coasts on three oceans, with the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Southern Ocean to the south.

See also

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San José (volcano) volcano in the Andes mountains

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Andean Volcanic Belt Volcanic belt in South America

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Timeline of volcanism on Earth

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Monte Burney Stratovolcano in southern Chile

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References

  1. "Maipo". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2015-01-10.
  2. Neate, Jill (1994). "Central Chile". Mountaineering in the Andes (2nd ed.). Expedition Advisory Centre. ISBN   0-907649-64-5.
  3. 1 2 Kelsey, Michael R. (1990). Climbers and Hikers Guide to the World's Mountains (3rd ed.). Kelsey Publishing. ISBN   0-944510-02-7.
  4. "Supplementary Table to P.L. Ward, Thin Solid Films (2009) Major volcanic eruptions and provinces" (PDF). Teton Tectonics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-01-20. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
Notes
Sources
Global Volcanism Program American research program

The Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program (GVP) documents Earth's volcanoes and their eruptive history over the past 10,000 years. The GVP reports on current eruptions from around the world as well as maintaining a database repository on active volcanoes and their eruptions. In this way, a global context for the planet's active volcanism is presented. Smithsonian reporting on current volcanic activity dates back to 1968, with the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena (CSLP). The GVP is housed in the Department of Mineral Sciences, part of the National Museum of Natural History, on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

Smithsonian Institution Group of museums and research centers administered by the United States government

The Smithsonian Institution, also known simply as the Smithsonian, is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States. It was founded on August 10, 1846, "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge". The institution is named after its founding donor, British scientist James Smithson. It was originally organized as the "United States National Museum", but that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967.

Satellite image of Maipo Volcan Maipo NASA.jpg
Satellite image of Maipo