|Comune di Malborghetto Valbruna|
|Frazioni||Bagni di Lusnizza, Malborghetto (sede comunale), Santa Caterina, Ugovizza, Valbruna|
|• Total||120.5 km2 (46.5 sq mi)|
|• Density||8.5/km2 (22/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
Malborghetto Valbruna (Friulian : Malborghet-Valbrune, Slovene : Naborjet-Ovčja ves; German : Malborgeth-Wolfsbach) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in Friuli-Venezia Giulia.
Malborghetto-Valbruna is located about 100 kilometres (62 mi) northwest of Trieste and about 50 kilometres (31 mi) northeast of the regional capital Udine, on the border with Austria. It is one of the three municipalities in the Canal Valley (Val Canale) of the Fella River, between Tarvisio in the east and Pontebba in the west.
In the north, the crest of the Carnic Alps forms the border with the Austrian state of Carinthia and the municipalities of Hermagor-Pressegger See, Sankt Stefan im Gailtal, Feistritz an der Gail, and Hohenthurn. In the south, the Jôf di Montasio massif of the Julian Alps separates it from the Italian municipalities of Chiusaforte and Dogna.
Beside the villages of Malborghetto and Valbruna, the municipal area includes the frazioni of Bagni di Lusnizza (Lusniz, Lužnice, Lusnitz), Santa Caterina (Sante Catarine, Šenkatríja, St. Kathrein), and Ugovizza (Ugovize, Ukve, Uggowitz) as well as the locality of Cucco (Cuc, Kuk, Kúk). Ugovizza-Valbruna station is a stop on the Pontebbana railway line from Udine to Tarvisio, which was largely rebuilt until 2000. Valbruna also has access to the A23 Alpe-Adria Autostrada, running from the Austrian border and the A2 Süd Autobahn to Udine as part of the European route E55.
For centuries, German-, Romance- (Italian- and Friulian-) as well as Slavic- (Slovene)-speaking people settled in the Canal Valley, which from 1077 was ruled by the Carinthian duke Liutold of Eppenstein, while King Henry IV of Germany ceded the adjacent territory of the Imperial March of Verona in the south to the Patriarchate of Aquileia. While the Aquileia territory was gradually conquered by Venice and incorporated into the Domini di Terraferma by 1433, the settlement then named Buonborgeth was part of the Carinthian possession held by the Prince-Bishops of Bamberg. The village, economical relevant for its iron ore and silver deposits at Valbruna as well as for its forestry, received its current name male (evil) due to the constant border quarrels with the Serenissima.
The Austrian Habsburgs, Carinthian dukes since 1335, had a border fortress built at Malborgeth, which was occupied by Venice in 1616, by French Revolutionary troops led by General André Masséna during the War of the First Coalition in 1797, and again by French Imperial forces under Napoleon's stepson Eugène de Beauharnais in 1805. Again attacked by Beauharnais' troops during the War of the Fifth Coalition in 1809, it was defended by an Austrian contingent under the command of Captain Friedrich Hensel from 14 to 17 May. They finally succumbed to the French, but prevented their arrival at the Battle of Aspern-Essling on 21 May, where Austrian Archduke Charles was able to repel Napoleon's forces. The Malborgeth fortress was named Fort Hensel in the honour of the captain, who like most of his men was killed in battle.
After World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Malborghetto and the Canal Valley was adjudicated to the Kingdom of Italy according to the Treaty of Saint-Germain and the 1915 London Pact. In the course of the 1939 South Tyrol Option Agreement between Italy and Nazi Germany, most of the German-speaking population was resettled to Carinthia.
Friuli is an area of Northeast Italy with its own particular cultural and historical identity containing 600,000 Friulians. It comprises the major part of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, i.e. the administrative provinces of Udine, Pordenone, and Gorizia, excluding Trieste.
The province of Udine was a province in the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia of Italy, bordering Austria and Slovenia. Its capital was the city of Udine, which has a population of 99,242 inhabitants. It had a total population of 530,849 inhabitants over an area of 4,907.24 square kilometres (1,894.70 sq mi). The province was abolished on 30 September 2017.
The Julian March or Julian Venetia is an area of southeastern Europe which is currently divided among Croatia, Italy and Slovenia. The term was coined in 1863 by the Italian linguist Graziadio Isaia Ascoli, a native of the area, to demonstrate that the Austrian Littoral, Veneto, Friuli and Trentino shared a common Italian linguistic identity. Ascoli emphasized the Augustan partition of Roman Italy at the beginning of the Empire, when Venetia et Histria was Regio X.
Tarvisio is a comune in the northeastern part of the autonomous Friuli Venezia Giulia region in Italy.
Goriška is a historical region in western Slovenia on the border with Italy. It comprises the northern part of the wider traditional region of the Slovenian Littoral (Primorska). The name Goriška is an adjective referring to the city of Gorizia, its historical and cultural centre.
The Resian dialect is a distinct dialect of Slovene spoken in the Resia Valley, Province of Udine, Italy, close to the border with Slovenia. Because of its remote location outside Slovenia, the dialect has phonetic properties different from standard Slovene, and from most other Slovene dialects. Many, arguably the majority, of its speakers consider it a separate language.
Cervignano del Friuli is a comune in the province of Udine, Italy. It is the most important town of Bassa Friulana. It lies at about 12 kilometres (7 mi) from the Laguna di Grado and at about 18 kilometres (11 mi) from the Adriatic Sea; from the point of view of viability, its position is peculiar since it lies at the junction of the SS14, linking Venice to Trieste, and the SS352, linking Udine to Grado. Nevertheless, it is in Cervignano that the railroad from Austria, passing through Tarvisio and Udine, ends, and is linked to the one from Venice to Trieste.
Sappada is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine, in the Italian region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia.
Chiusaforte is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia.
Dogna is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located about 100 kilometres (62 mi) northwest of Trieste and about 45 kilometres (28 mi) north of Udine. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 235 and an area of 70.0 square kilometres (27.0 sq mi).
Moggio Udinese is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia.
Pontebba is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia.
Resia is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine, in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of northern Italy, bordering on the municipalities of Chiusaforte, Lusevera, Resiutta, and Venzone, and also on two of the Slovenian municipalities. Its residents speak an archaic dialect known as Resian, which is - according to most linguists - a transitory dialect between the Carinthian and Littoral dialects of Slovene language. Although they maintain their own traditional system of family names, which are of Slavic origin, the people of Resia have either Italian or Italianized surnames, similarly to some areas in Venetian Slovenia.
The Predil Pass or Predel Pass is a high mountain pass on the border between Italy and Slovenia.
Carnia is a historical-geographic region in the northeastern Italian area of Friuli. Its 27 municipalities all belong to the Province of Udine, which itself is part of the autonomous Friuli-Venezia Giulia region.
Lago del Predil is a lake near Cave del Predil, part of the Tarvisio municipality in the Province of Udine, in the Italian region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia.
Cave del Predil is a frazione subdivision of the comune of Tarvisio in the Province of Udine, in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of northeastern Italy.
The Patria del Friuli was the territory under the temporal rule of the Patriarch of Aquileia and one of the ecclesiastical states of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1420, the Republic of Venice acquired it, but it continued to be ruled for some time under its own laws and customs.
The Gail Valley dialect is the westernmost Slovene dialect in the Carinthian dialect group, spoken in parts of southern Carinthia in Austria, in the northeasternmost part of the Province of Udine in Italy, and in northeastern Upper Carniola in Slovenia.
Slovene minority in Italy, also known as Slovenes in Italy is the name given to Italian citizens who belong to the autochthonous Slovene ethnic and linguistic minority living in the Italian autonomous region of Friuli – Venezia Giulia. The vast majority of members of the Slovene ethnic minority live in the Provinces of Trieste, Gorizia, and Udine. Estimates of their number vary significantly; the official figures show 24.706 Slovenian speakers in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, as per the 1971 Census, but Slovenian estimates speak of 83,000 to 100,000 people.
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