Malcolm X

Last updated

Malcolm X
Malcolm X NYWTS 2a.jpg
Malcolm X in March 1964
Malcolm Little

(1925-05-19)May 19, 1925
DiedFebruary 21, 1965(1965-02-21) (aged 39)
Cause of death Gunshot wound
Resting place Ferncliff Cemetery
Other namesel-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz
OccupationMinister, activist
Betty Shabazz (m. 1958)
Relatives Malcolm Shabazz (grandson) [1]
Malcolm X Signature.svg

Malcolm X (19251965) was an American Muslim minister and human rights activist who was a popular figure during the civil rights movement. He is best known for his controversial advocacy for the rights of blacks; some consider him a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans, while others accused him of preaching racism and violence.

Islam in the United States

Islam is the third largest religion in the United States after Christianity and Judaism. According to a 2017 study, it is followed by 1.1% of the population, compared with 70.6% who follow Christianity, 22.8% unaffiliated, 1.9% Judaism, 0.7% Buddhism, and 0.7% Hinduism. A 2017 study estimated that 3.45 million Muslims were living in the United States, about 1.1% of the total U.S. population.

Human rights defenders or human rights activists are people who, individually or with others, act to promote or protect human rights. They can be journalists, environmentalists, whistle-blowers, trade unionists, lawyers, teachers, housing campaigners, and so on. They can defend rights as part of their jobs or in a voluntary capacity. As a result of their activities, they can sometimes be the subject of reprisals and attacks of all kinds, including smears, surveillance, harassment, false charges, arbitrary detention, restrictions on the right to freedom of association, and physical attacks.

Civil rights movement Social movement in the United States during the 20th century

The civil rights movement in the United States was a decades-long struggle with the goal of enforcing constitutional and legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already enjoyed. With roots that dated back to the Reconstruction era during the late 19th century, the movement achieved its largest legislative gains in the mid-1960s, after years of direct actions and grassroots protests that were organized from the mid-1950s until 1968. Encompassing strategies, various groups, and organized social movements to accomplish the goals of ending legalized racial segregation, disenfranchisement, and discrimination in the United States, the movement, using major nonviolent campaigns, eventually secured new recognition in federal law and federal protection for all Americans.


Born Malcolm Little in Omaha, Nebraska, he relocated to New York City's Harlem neighborhood in 1943, after spending his teenage years in a series of foster homes following his father's murder and his mother's hospitalization. In New York, Malcolm X engaged in several illicit activities, eventually being sentenced to ten years in prison in 1946 for larceny and breaking and entering. In prison, he joined the Nation of Islam, and quickly became one of the organization's most influential leaders after being paroled in 1952.

Omaha, Nebraska City in Nebraska, United States

Omaha is the largest city in the state of Nebraska and the county seat of Douglas County. Omaha is located in the Midwestern United States on the Missouri River, about 10 miles (15 km) north of the mouth of the Platte River. The nation's 40th-largest city, Omaha's 2018 estimated population was 466,061.

Harlem Neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City

Harlem is a neighborhood in the northern section of the New York City borough of Manhattan. It is bounded roughly by Frederick Douglass Boulevard, St. Nicholas Avenue, and Morningside Park on the west; the Harlem River and 155th Street on the north; Fifth Avenue on the east; and Central Park North on the south. It is part of greater Harlem, an area that encompasses several other neighborhoods and extends west to the Hudson River, north to 155th Street, east to the East River, and south to 96th Street.

Larceny is a crime involving the unlawful taking of the personal property of another person or business. It was an offence under the common law of England and became an offence in jurisdictions which incorporated the common law of England into their own law, where in many cases it remains in force.

During the civil rights movement, Malcolm X served as the public face of the controversial group for a dozen years, where he advocated for black supremacy, the separation of black and white Americans, and rejected the notion of the civil rights movement for its emphasis on racial integration. He also expressed pride in some of the social achievements he made with the Nation, particularly its free drug rehabilitation program. In the 1950s, Malcolm X endured surveillance from the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) for the Nation's supposed links to communism.

Black supremacy or black supremacism is a racial supremacist belief which maintains that black people are superior to people of other races. The term has been used by the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), an American legal advocacy organization, to describe several fringe religious groups in the United States.

Black separatism is a separatist political movement that seeks separate economic and cultural development for those of African descent in societies, particularly in the United States. Black separatism is a subcategory of black nationalism, stemming from the idea of racial solidarity, and implies that blacks should organize themselves on the basis of their common experience of oppression as a result of their blackness, culture, and African heritage. Black separatism in its purest form, as a subcategory of black nationalism, asserts that blacks and whites ideally should form two independent nations. Black separatists also often seek their original cultural homeland. Black separatists generally think that black people are hindered in their advancement in a society dominated by a white majority.

Racial integration Process of ending racial segregation

Racial integration, or simply integration, includes desegregation. In addition to desegregation, integration includes goals such as leveling barriers to association, creating equal opportunity regardless of race, and the development of a culture that draws on diverse traditions, rather than merely bringing a racial minority into the majority culture. Desegregation is largely a legal matter, integration largely a social one.

In the 1960s, Malcolm X began to grow disillusioned with the Nation of Islam, and in particular, with its leader Elijah Muhammad. Expressing many regrets about his time with them, which he had come to regard as largely wasted, he instead embraced Sunni Islam. Malcolm X then began to advocate for racial integration and disavowed racism after completing Hajj, whereby he also became known as el-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz. [upper-alpha 1] After a brief period of travel across Africa, he notably repudiated the Nation of Islam, and founded Muslim Mosque, Inc. (MMI) and the Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU) to emphasize Pan-Africanism.

Elijah Muhammad American religious leader

Elijah Muhammad was a religious leader, who led the Nation of Islam (NOI) from 1934 until his death in 1975. He was a mentor to Malcolm X, Louis Farrakhan and Muhammad Ali, as well as his own son, Warith Deen Mohammed.

Sunni Islam denomination of Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam, followed by nearly 90% of the world's Muslims. Its name comes from the word sunnah, referring to the behaviour of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The differences between Sunni and Shia Muslims arose from a disagreement over the succession to Muhammad and subsequently acquired broader political significance, as well as theological and juridical dimensions.

Hajj Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca

The Hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence. Literally speaking, Hajj means heading to a place for the sake of visiting. In Islamic terminology, Hajj is a pilgrimage made to Kaaba, the ‘House of God’, in the sacred city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia. The rites of Hajj, which according to Islam go back to the time of Prophet Abraham who re-built Kaaba after it had been first built by Prophet Adam, are performed over five or six days, beginning on the eighth and ending on the thirteenth day of Dhu al-Hijjah, the last month of the Islamic calendar. It is one of the five pillars of Islam, alongside Shahadah, Salat, Zakat and Sawm. The Hajj is the second largest annual gathering of Muslims in the world, after the Arba'een Pilgrimage in Karbala, Iraq. The state of being physically and financially capable of performing the Hajj is called istita'ah, and a Muslim who fulfils this condition is called a mustati. The Hajj is a demonstration of the solidarity of the Muslim people, and their submission to God (Allah). The word Hajj means "to attend a journey", which connotes both the outward act of a journey and the inward act of intentions.

Throughout 1964, his conflict with the Nation of Islam intensified, and he was repeatedly sent death threats. On February 21, 1965, Malcolm X was planning to address the OAAU in Manhattan, when he was assassinated by Thomas Hagan, Thomas Johnson, and Norman Butler, three members of the Nation of Islam. The trio were sentenced to indeterminate life sentences, and were required to serve a minimum of 20 years in prison. Conspiracies regarding the assassination, whether it was conceived or aided by leading members of the Nation or with law enforcement agencies, have persisted for decades after the shooting.

Thomas Hagan is a former member of the Nation of Islam and one of the assassins who killed Malcolm X in 1965. For a while he also went by the name Talmadge X Hayer, and his chosen Islamic name is Mujahid Abdul Halim.

Malcolm X was posthumously honored with Malcolm X Day, where he is commemorated in various cities and countries worldwide. Hundreds of streets and schools in the U.S. have been renamed in his honor, while the Audubon Ballroom, the site of his assassination, was in-part redeveloped in 2005 to accommodate the Malcolm X and Dr. Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center.

Malcolm X Day

Malcolm X Day is an American holiday in honor of the civil rights leader Malcolm X which is celebrated either on May 19, or the third Sunday of May. The commemoration has been proposed as an official state holiday in the U.S. state of Illinois in 2015. As of present, only the city of Berkeley, California observes the holiday with city offices and schools closed.

Audubon Ballroom

The Audubon Theatre and Ballroom, generally referred to as the Audubon Ballroom, was a theatre and ballroom located at 3940 Broadway at West 165th Street in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. It was built in 1912 and was designed by Thomas W. Lamb. The theatre was known at various times as the William Fox Audubon Theatre, the Beverly Hills Theater, and the San Juan Theater, and the ballroom is noted for being the site of the assassination of Malcolm X on February 21, 1965. It is currently the Audubon Business and Technology Center and the Shabazz Center.

Malcolm X and Dr. Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center

The Malcolm X and Dr. Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center is a memorial to Malcolm X and Betty Shabazz located at 3940 Broadway and West 165th Street in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, the building which once housed the Audubon Ballroom, where Malcolm X was assassinated on February 21, 1965. It opened on May 19, 2005, the 80th anniversary of Malcolm X's birth.

Early years

1930 United States Census return listing the Little family (lines 59ff.) 1930 census Little.gif
1930 United States Census return listing the Little family (lines 59ff.)

Malcolm Little was born May 19, 1925, in Omaha, Nebraska, the fourth of seven children of Grenada-born Louise Helen Little (née Norton) and Georgia-born Earl Little. [2] Earl was an outspoken Baptist lay speaker, and he and Louise were admirers of Pan-African activist Marcus Garvey. Earl was a local leader of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) and Louise served as secretary and "branch reporter", sending news of local UNIA activities to Negro World ; they inculcated self-reliance and black pride in their children. [3] [4] [5] Malcolm X later said that white violence killed four of his father's brothers. [6]

Because of Ku Klux Klan threatsEarl's UNIA activities were said to be "spreading trouble" [7] the family relocated in 1926 to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and shortly thereafter to Lansing, Michigan. [8] There the family was frequently harassed by the Black Legion, a white racist group. When the family home burned in 1929, Earl accused the Black Legion. [9]

When Malcolm was six, his father died in what was officially ruled a streetcar accident, though his mother Louise believed Earl had been murdered by the Black Legion. Rumors that white racists were responsible for his father's death were widely circulated and were very disturbing to Malcolm X as a child. As an adult, he expressed conflicting beliefs on the question. [10] After a dispute with creditors, Louise received a life insurance benefit (nominally $1,000about $16,000 in 2018 dollars [upper-alpha 2] ) in payments of $18 per month; [11] the issuer of another, larger policy refused to pay, claiming her husband Earl had committed suicide. [12] To make ends meet Louise rented out part of her garden, and her sons hunted game. [13]

In 1937 a man Louise had been datingmarriage had seemed a possibilityvanished from her life when she became pregnant with his child. [14] In late 1938 she had a nervous breakdown and was committed to Kalamazoo State Hospital. The children were separated and sent to foster homes. Malcolm and his siblings secured her release 24 years later. [15] [16]

Malcolm Little excelled in junior high school but dropped out after a white teacher told him that practicing law, his aspiration at the time, was "no realistic goal for a nigger". [17] Later Malcolm X recalled feeling that the white world offered no place for a career-oriented black man, regardless of talent. [17]

From age 14 to 21, Little held a variety of jobs while living with his half-sister Ella Little-Collins in Roxbury, a largely African-American neighborhood of Boston. [18] [19]

After a short time in Flint, Michigan, he moved to New York City's Harlem neighborhood in 1943, where he engaged in drug dealing, gambling, racketeering, robbery, and pimping. [20] According to recent biographies, Little also occasionally had sex with other men, usually for money. [21] [22] [upper-alpha 3] He befriended John Elroy Sanford, a fellow dishwasher at Jimmy's Chicken Shack in Harlem who aspired to be a professional comedian. Both men had reddish hair, so Sanford was called "Chicago Red" after his hometown and Little was known as "Detroit Red". Years later, Sanford became famous as Redd Foxx. [30]

Summoned by the local draft board for military service in World War II, he feigned mental disturbance by rambling and declaring: "I want to be sent down South. Organize them nigger soldiers ... steal us some guns, and kill us [some] crackers". [31] [32] [33] He was declared "mentally disqualified for military service". [31] [32] [33]

In late 1945, Little returned to Boston, where he and four accomplices committed a series of burglaries targeting wealthy white families. [34] In 1946, he was arrested while picking up a stolen watch he had left at a shop for repairs, [35] and in February began serving an eight-to-ten-year sentence at Charlestown State Prison for larceny and breaking and entering. [36]

Nation of Islam period


Between Mr. Muhammad's teachings, my cor­re­spond­ence, my vis­i­tors ... and my reading of books, months passed without my even thinking about being impris­oned. In fact, up to then, I had never been so truly free in my life.

—Malcolm X [37]

When Little was in prison, he met fellow convict John Bembry, [38] a self-educated man he would later describe as "the first man I had ever seen command total respect ... with words". [39] Under Bembry's influence, Little developed a voracious appetite for reading. [40]

At this time, several of his siblings wrote to him about the Nation of Islam, a relatively new religious movement preaching black self-reliance and, ultimately, the return of the African diaspora to Africa, where they would be free from white American and European domination. [41] He showed scant interest at first, but after his brother Reginald wrote in 1948, "Malcolm, don't eat any more pork and don't smoke any more cigarettes. I'll show you how to get out of prison", [42] he quit smoking and began to refuse pork. [43] After a visit in which Reginald described the group's teachings, including the belief that white people are devils, Little concluded that every relationship he'd had with whites had been tainted by dishonesty, injustice, greed, and hatred. [44] Little, whose hostility to religion had earned him the prison nickname "Satan", [45] became receptive to the message of the Nation of Islam. [46]

In late 1948, Little wrote to Elijah Muhammad, the leader of the Nation of Islam. Muhammad advised him to renounce his past, humbly bow in prayer to God, and promise never to engage in destructive behavior again. [47] Though he later recalled the inner struggle he had before bending his knees to pray, [48] Little soon became a member of the Nation of Islam, [47] maintaining a regular correspondence with Muhammad. [49]

In 1950, the FBI opened a file on Little after he wrote a letter from prison to President Truman expressing opposition to the Korean War and declaring himself a Communist. [50] That year, Little also began signing his name "Malcolm X". [51] He explained in his autobiography that the Muslim's "X" symbolized the true African family name that he could never know. "For me, my 'X' replaced the white slavemaster name of 'Little' which some blue-eyed devil named Little had imposed upon my paternal forebears." [52]

Early ministry

After his parole in August 1952, [53] Malcolm X visited Elijah Muhammad in Chicago. [54] In June 1953 he was named assistant minister of the Nation's Temple Number One in Detroit. [55] [upper-alpha 4] Later that year he established Boston's Temple Number 11; [57] in March 1954, he expanded Temple Number 12 in Philadelphia; [58] and two months later he was selected to lead Temple Number 7 in Harlem, [59] where he rapidly expanded its membership. [60]

In 1953, the FBI began surveillance of him, turning its attention from Malcolm X's possible communist associations to his rapid ascent in the Nation of Islam. [61]

During 1955, Malcolm X continued his successful recruitment of members on behalf of the Nation of Islam. He established temples in Springfield, Massachusetts (Number 13); Hartford, Connecticut (Number 14); and Atlanta, Georgia (Number 15). Hundreds of African Americans were joining the Nation of Islam every month. [62]

Besides his skill as a speaker, Malcolm X had an impressive physical presence. He stood 6 feet 3 inches (1.91 m) tall and weighed about 180 pounds (82 kg). [63] One writer described him as "powerfully built", [64] and another as "mesmerizingly handsome ... and always spotlessly well-groomed". [63]

Marriage and family

In 1955, Betty Sanders met Malcolm X after one of his lectures, then again at a dinner party; soon she was regularly attending his lectures. In 1956 she joined the Nation of Islam, changing her name to Betty X. [65] One-on-one dates were contrary to the Nation's teachings, so the couple courted at social events with dozens or hundreds of others, and Malcolm X made a point of inviting her on the frequent group visits he led to New York City's museums and libraries. [66]

Malcolm X proposed during a telephone call from Detroit in January 1958, and they married two days later. [67] [68] They had six daughters: Attallah (b. 1958, named after Attila the Hun); [69] [upper-alpha 5] [upper-alpha 6] Qubilah (b. 1960, named after Kublai Khan); [73] Ilyasah (b. 1962, named after Elijah Muhammad); [74] Gamilah Lumumba (b. 1964, named after Gamal Abdel Nasser and Patrice Lumumba); [75] [76] and twins Malikah and Malaak (b. 1965 after their father's death, and named in his honor). [77]

Hinton Johnson incident

The American public first became aware of Malcolm X in 1957, after Hinton Johnson, [upper-alpha 7] a Nation of Islam member, was beaten by two New York City police officers. [80] [81] On April 26, Johnson and two other passersbyalso Nation of Islam memberssaw the officers beating an African-American man with nightsticks. [80] When they attempted to intervene, shouting, "You're not in Alabama ... this is New York!" [81] one of the officers turned on Johnson, beating him so severely that he suffered brain contusions and subdural hemorrhaging. All four African-American men were arrested. [80] Alerted by a witness, Malcolm X and a small group of Muslims went to the police station and demanded to see Johnson. [80] Police initially denied that any Muslims were being held, but when the crowd grew to about five hundred, they allowed Malcolm X to speak with Johnson. [82] Afterward, Malcolm X insisted on arranging for an ambulance to take Johnson to Harlem Hospital. [83]

Johnson's injuries were treated and by the time he was returned to the police station, some four thousand people had gathered outside. [82] Inside the station, Malcolm X and an attorney were making bail arrangements for two of the Muslims. Johnson was not bailed, and police said he could not go back to the hospital until his arraignment the following day. [83] Considering the situation to be at an impasse, Malcolm X stepped outside the station house and gave a hand signal to the crowd. Nation members silently left, after which the rest of the crowd also dispersed. [83] One police officer told the New York Amsterdam News : "No one man should have that much power." [83] [84] Within a month the New York City Police Department arranged to keep Malcolm X under surveillance; it also made inquiries with authorities in other cities in which he had lived, and prisons in which he had served time. [85] A grand jury declined to indict the officers who beat Johnson. In October, Malcolm X sent an angry telegram to the police commissioner. Soon the police department assigned undercover officers to infiltrate the Nation of Islam. [86]

Increasing prominence

By the late 1950s, Malcolm X was using a new name, Malcolm Shabazz or Malik el-Shabazz, although he was still widely referred to as Malcolm X. [87] His comments on issues and events were being widely reported in print, on radio, and on television, [88] and he was featured in a 1959 New York City television broadcast about the Nation of Islam, The Hate That Hate Produced . [88]

In September 1960, at the United Nations General Assembly in New York City, Malcolm X was invited to the official functions of several African nations. He met Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, Ahmed Sékou Touré of Guinea, and Kenneth Kaunda of the Zambian African National Congress. [89] Fidel Castro also attended the Assembly, and Malcolm X met publicly with him as part of a welcoming committee of Harlem community leaders. [90] Castro was sufficiently impressed with Malcolm X to suggest a private meeting, and after two hours of talking, Castro invited Malcolm X to visit Cuba. [91]

Advocacy and teachings while with Nation

From his adoption of the Nation of Islam in 1952 until he broke with it in 1964, Malcolm X promoted the Nation's teachings. These included the beliefs:

Cassius Clay (in dark suit) watches Elijah Muhammad speak, 1964 Elijah Muhammad and Cassius Clay NYWTS.jpg
Cassius Clay (in dark suit) watches Elijah Muhammad speak, 1964

Many whites and some blacks were alarmed by Malcolm X and the statements he made during this period. He and the Nation of Islam were described as hatemongers, black supremacists, racists, violence-seekers, segregationists, and a threat to improved race relations. He was accused of being antisemitic. [95] One of the goals of the civil rights movement was to end disenfranchisement of African Americans, but the Nation of Islam forbade its members from participating in voting and other aspects of the political process. [96] Civil rights organizations denounced him and the Nation as irresponsible extremists whose views did not represent African Americans. [97] [98] [99]

Malcolm X was equally critical of the civil rights movement. [100] He labeled Martin Luther King Jr. a "chump" and other civil rights leaders "stooges" of the white establishment. [101] [upper-alpha 8] He called the 1963 March on Washington "the farce on Washington", [103] and said he did not know why so many black people were excited about a demonstration "run by whites in front of a statue of a president who has been dead for a hundred years and who didn't like us when he was alive". [104]

While the civil rights movement fought against racial segregation, Malcolm X advocated the complete separation of African Americans from whites. He proposed that African Americans should return to Africa and that, in the interim, a separate country for black people in America should be created. [105] [106] He rejected the civil rights movement's strategy of nonviolence, expressing the opinion that black people should defend and advance themselves "by any means necessary". [107] His speeches had a powerful effect on his audiences, who were generally African Americans in northern and western cities. Many of themtired of being told to wait for freedom, justice, equality and respect [108] felt that he articulated their complaints better than did the civil rights movement. [109] [110]

Effect on Nation membership

Malcolm X photographs Cassius Clay after Clay became the world heavyweight champion (1964). Ali MalcolmX 1964.jpg
Malcolm X photographs Cassius Clay after Clay became the world heavyweight champion (1964).

Malcolm X is widely regarded as the second most influential leader of the Nation of Islam after Elijah Muhammad. [111] He was largely credited with the group's dramatic increase in membership between the early 1950s and early 1960s (from 500 to 25,000 by one estimate; [upper-alpha 9] from 1,200 to 50,000 or 75,000 by another). [113] [upper-alpha 10]

He inspired the boxer Cassius Clay (later known as Muhammad Ali) to join the Nation, [115] and the two became close; [116] In January 1964, Clay brought Malcolm X and his family to Miami to watch him train for his fight against Sonny Liston. [117] When Malcolm X left the Nation of Islam, he tried to convince Clay to join him in converting to Sunni Islam, but Clay instead broke ties with himwhich Clay later described as one of his greatest regrets. [upper-alpha 11]

Malcolm X mentored and guided Louis X (later known as Louis Farrakhan), who eventually became the leader of the Nation of Islam. [119] Malcolm X also served as a mentor and confidant to Elijah Muhammad's son, Wallace D. Muhammad; the son told Malcolm X about his skepticism toward his father's "unorthodox approach" to Islam. [120] Wallace Muhammad was excommunicated from the Nation of Islam several times, although he was eventually readmitted. [121]

Disillusionment and departure

During 1962 and 1963, events caused Malcolm X to reassess his relationship with the Nation of Islam, and particularly its leader, Elijah Muhammad.

Lack of Nation of Islam response to LAPD violence

In late 1961, there were violent confrontations between Nation of Islam members and police in South Central Los Angeles, and numerous Muslims were arrested. They were acquitted, but tensions had been raised. Just after midnight on April 27, 1962, two LAPD officers shoved and beat several Muslims outside Temple Number 27 without provocation. A large crowd of angry Muslims came outside from the mosque. The officers attempted to intimidate the crowd. One officer was disarmed by the crowd; his partner was shot in the elbow by a third officer. More than 70 backup officers arrived. They raided the mosque and randomly beat Nation of Islam members. Police officers shot seven Muslims, including William X Rogers, who was hit in the back and paralyzed for life, and Ronald Stokes, a Korean War veteran, who was shot from behind while raising his hands over his head to surrender, killing him. [122] [123]

A number of Muslims were indicted after the event, but no charges were made against the police. Furthermore, the coroner ruled that Stokes's killing was justified. To Malcolm X, the desecration of the mosque and the violence demanded action, and he used what Farrakhan later called his "gangsterlike past" to rally the more hardened of the Nation of Islam members to take violent action against the police. Malcolm X sought Elijah Muhammad's approval but was denied. Malcolm X was stunned by this response. Malcolm X also spoke of the Nation of Islam starting to work with civil rights organizations, local black politicians, and religious groups, another initiative blocked by Muhammad. Louis X saw this as an important turning point in the deteriorating relationship between Malcolm X and Muhammad. [122] [123]

Sexual misbehavior by Elijah Muhammad

Rumors were circulating that Muhammad was conducting extramarital affairs with young Nation secretarieswhich would constitute a serious violation of Nation teachings. After first discounting the rumors, Malcolm X came to believe them after he spoke with Muhammad's son Wallace and with the women making the accusations. Muhammad confirmed the rumors in 1963, attempting to justify his behavior by referring to precedents set by Biblical prophets. [124]

Nation of Islam response to his remarks on Kennedy assassination

Malcolm X before a 1964 press conference Malcolm X March 26 1964 cropped retouched.jpg
Malcolm X before a 1964 press conference

On December 1, 1963, when asked for a comment about the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, Malcolm X said that it was a case of "chickens coming home to roost". He added that "chickens coming home to roost never did make me sad; they've always made me glad." [125] The New York Times wrote, "in further criticism of Mr. Kennedy, the Muslim leader cited the murders of Patrice Lumumba, Congo leader, of Medgar Evers, civil rights leader, and of the Negro girls bombed earlier this year in a Birmingham church. These, he said, were instances of other 'chickens coming home to roost'." [125] The remarks prompted a widespread public outcry. The Nation of Islam, which had sent a message of condolence to the Kennedy family and ordered its ministers not to comment on the assassination, publicly censured their former shining star. [126] Malcolm X retained his post and rank as minister, but was prohibited from public speaking for 90 days. [127]

Media attention to Malcolm X over Muhammad

Malcolm X had by now become a media favorite, and some Nation members believed he was a threat to Muhammad's leadership. Publishers had shown interest in Malcolm X's autobiography, and when Louis Lomax wrote his 1963 book about the Nation, When the Word Is Given, he used a photograph of Malcolm X on the cover. He also reproduced five of his speeches, but featured only one of Muhammad'sall of which greatly upset Muhammad and made him envious. [128]

Departure from Nation of Islam

On March 8, 1964, Malcolm X publicly announced his break from the Nation of Islam. He was still a Muslim, he said, but felt that the Nation had "gone as far as it can" because of its rigid teachings. He said he was planning to organize a black nationalist organization to "heighten the political consciousness" of African Americans. He also expressed a desire to work with other civil rights leaders, saying that Elijah Muhammad had prevented him from doing so in the past. [129]

Activity after leaving Nation of Islam

Malcolm X's only meeting with Martin Luther King Jr., March 26, 1964 MLK and Malcolm X USNWR cropped.jpg
Malcolm X's only meeting with Martin Luther King Jr., March 26, 1964

After leaving the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X founded Muslim Mosque, Inc. (MMI), a religious organization, [130] [131] and the Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU), a secular group that advocated Pan-Africanism. [132] [133] On March 26, 1964, he met Martin Luther King Jr. for the first and only timeand only long enough for photographs to be takenin Washington, D.C., as both men attended the Senate's debate on the Civil Rights bill. [upper-alpha 12] [upper-alpha 13] In April, Malcolm X gave a speech titled "The Ballot or the Bullet", in which he advised African Americans to exercise their right to vote wisely but cautioned that if the government continued to prevent African Americans from attaining full equality, it might be necessary for them to take up arms. [136] [137]

In the weeks after he left the Nation of Islam, several Sunni Muslims encouraged Malcolm X to learn about their faith. He soon converted to the Sunni faith. [138] [139]

Pilgrimage to Mecca

In April 1964, with financial help from his half-sister Ella Little-Collins, Malcolm X flew to Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, as the start of his Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca obligatory for every Muslim who is able to do so. He was delayed in Jeddah when his U.S. citizenship and inability to speak Arabic caused his status as a Muslim to be questioned. [140] [141] He had received Abdul Rahman Hassan Azzam's book The Eternal Message of Muhammad with his visa approval, and he contacted the author. Azzam's son arranged for his release and lent him his personal hotel suite. The next morning Malcolm X learned that Prince Faisal had designated him as a state guest. [142] Several days later, after completing the Hajj rituals, Malcolm X had an audience with the prince. [143]

Malcolm X later said that seeing Muslims of "all colors, from blue-eyed blonds to black-skinned Africans," interacting as equals led him to see Islam as a means by which racial problems could be overcome. [144]


Malcolm X, after his 1964 pilgrimage to Mecca Malcolm X NYWTS 4.jpg
Malcolm X, after his 1964 pilgrimage to Mecca

Malcolm X had already visited the United Arab Republic (a short-lived political union between Egypt and Syria), Sudan, Nigeria, and Ghana in 1959 to make arrangements for a tour of Africa by Elijah Muhammad. [145] After his journey to Mecca in 1964, he visited Africa a second time. He returned to the United States in late May [146] and flew to Africa again in July. [147] During these visits he met officials, gave interviews, and spoke on radio and television in Egypt, Ethiopia, Tanganyika, Nigeria, Ghana, Guinea, Sudan, Senegal, Liberia, Algeria, and Morocco. [148] In Cairo, he attended the second meeting of the Organization of African Unity as a representative of the OAAU. [149] By the end of this third visit, he had met with essentially all of Africa's prominent leaders; [150] Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, and Ahmed Ben Bella of Algeria had all invited Malcolm X to serve in their governments. [150] After he spoke at the University of Ibadan, the Nigerian Muslim Students Association bestowed on him the honorary Yoruba name Omowale ("the son who has come home"). [151] He later called this his most treasured honor. [152]

France and United Kingdom

On November 23, 1964, on his way home from Africa, Malcolm X stopped in Paris, where he spoke in the Salle de la Mutualité. [153] [154] A week later, on November 30, Malcolm X flew to the United Kingdom, and on December 3 took part in a debate at the Oxford Union Society. The motion was taken from a statement made earlier that year by U.S. presidential candidate Barry Goldwater: "Extremism in the Defense of Liberty is No Vice; Moderation in the Pursuit of Justice is No Virtue". [155] Malcolm X argued for the affirmative, and interest in the debate was so high that it was televised nationally by the BBC. [156] [157]

On February 5, 1965, Malcolm X flew to Britain again, [158] and on February 8 he addressed the first meeting of the Council of African Organizations in London. [159] The next day he tried to return to France, but was refused entry. [160]

On February 12, he visited Smethwick, near Birmingham, where the Conservative Party had won the parliamentary seat in the 1964 general election. The town had become a byword for racial division after Conservative supporters used the slogan, "If you want a nigger for a neighbour, vote Labour." In Smethwick he compared the treatment of ethnic minority residents with the treatment of Jews under Hitler, saying: "I would not wait for the fascist element in Smethwick to erect gas ovens." [161] [162]

Return to United States

After returning to the U.S., Malcolm X addressed a wide variety of audiences. He spoke regularly at meetings held by MMI and the OAAU, and was one of the most sought-after speakers on college campuses. [163] One of his top aides later wrote that he "welcomed every opportunity to speak to college students". [164] He also addressed public meetings of the Socialist Workers Party, speaking at their Militant Labor Forum. [165] He was interviewed on the subjects of segregation and the Nation of Islam by Robert Penn Warren for Warren's 1965 book Who Speaks for the Negro? [166]

Death threats and intimidation from Nation of Islam

Malcolm X guards his family in an iconic Ebony photo. Malcolmxm1carbine3gr.gif
Malcolm X guards his family in an iconic Ebony photo.

Throughout 1964, as his conflict with the Nation of Islam intensified, Malcolm X was repeatedly threatened.

In February, a leader of Temple Number Seven ordered the bombing of Malcolm X's car. [167] In March, Muhammad told Boston minister Louis X (later known as Louis Farrakhan) that "hypocrites like Malcolm should have their heads cut off"; [168] the April 10 edition of Muhammad Speaks featured a cartoon depicting Malcolm X's bouncing, severed head. [169] [170]

On June 8, FBI surveillance recorded a telephone call in which Betty Shabazz was told that her husband was "as good as dead". [171] Four days later, an FBI informant received a tip that "Malcolm X is going to be bumped off." [172] (That same month the Nation sued to reclaim Malcolm X's residence in East Elmhurst, Queens, New York. His family was ordered to vacate [173] but on February 14, 1965the night before a hearing on postponing the evictionthe house was destroyed by fire.) [174]

On July 9, Muhammad aide John Ali (suspected of being an undercover FBI agent) [175] referred to Malcolm X by saying, "Anyone who opposes the Honorable Elijah Muhammad puts their life in jeopardy." [176] In the December 4 issue of Muhammad Speaks, Louis X wrote that "such a man as Malcolm is worthy of death". [177]

The September 1964 issue of Ebony dramatized Malcolm X's defiance of these threats by publishing a photograph of him holding an M1 carbine while peering out a window. [178] [179]


External image
Searchtool.svg "The Violent End of the Man Called Malcolm", LIFE , March 5, 1965. Photos taken moments after the fatal shots were fired, including one of activist Yuri Kochiyama cradling the dying Malcolm X's head. [180]

On February 19, 1965, Malcolm X told interviewer Gordon Parks that the Nation of Islam was actively trying to kill him. On February 21, 1965, he was preparing to address the OAAU in Manhattan's Audubon Ballroom when someone in the 400-person audience yelled, "Nigger! Get your hand outta my pocket!" [181] [182] [183] As Malcolm X and his bodyguards tried to quell the disturbance, [upper-alpha 14] a man rushed forward and shot him once in the chest with a sawed-off shotgun [184] [185] and two other men charged the stage firing semi-automatic handguns. [182] Malcolm X was pronounced dead at 3:30 pm, shortly after arriving at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. [183] The autopsy identified 21 gunshot wounds to the chest, left shoulder, arms and legs, including ten buckshot wounds from the initial shotgun blast. [186]

One gunman, Nation of Islam member Talmadge Hayer (also known as Thomas Hagan), was beaten by the crowd before police arrived. [187] [188] Witnesses identified the other gunmen as Nation members Norman 3X Butler and Thomas 15X Johnson. [189] All three were convicted of murder in March 1966 and sentenced to life in prison. [190] [191] At trial Hayer confessed, but refused to identify the other assailants except to assert that they were not Butler and Johnson. [192] In 1977 and 1978, he signed affidavits reasserting Butler's and Johnson's innocence, naming four other Nation members as participants in the murder or its planning. [193] [194] These affidavits did not result in the case being reopened.

The Audubon Ballroom stage after the murder. Circles on backdrop mark bullet holes. Malcolm X bullet holes2.jpg
The Audubon Ballroom stage after the murder. Circles on backdrop mark bullet holes.

Butler, today known as Muhammad Abdul Aziz, was paroled in 1985 and became the head of the Nation's Harlem mosque in 1998; he maintains his innocence. [195] In prison Johnson, who changed his name to Khalil Islam, rejected the Nation's teachings and converted to Sunni Islam. Released in 1987, he maintained his innocence until his death in August 2009. [196] [197] Hayer, who also rejected the Nation's teachings while in prison and converted to Sunni Islam, [198] is known today as Mujahid Halim. [199] He was paroled in 2010. [200]

A CNN Special Report, Witnessed: The Assassination of Malcolm X, was broadcast on February 17, 2015. It featured interviews with several people who worked with him, including A. Peter Bailey and Earl Grant, as well as the daughter of Malcolm X, Ilyasah Shabazz. [201] [202] [203]


The public viewing, February 2326 at Unity Funeral Home in Harlem, was attended by some 14,000 to 30,000 mourners. [204] For the funeral on February 27, loudspeakers were set up for the overflow crowd outside Harlem's thousand-seat Faith Temple of the Church of God in Christ, [205] [206] and a local television station carried the service live. [207]

Among the civil rights leaders attending were John Lewis, Bayard Rustin, James Forman, James Farmer, Jesse Gray, and Andrew Young. [205] [208] Actor and activist Ossie Davis delivered the eulogy, describing Malcolm X as "our shining black prince ... who didn't hesitate to die, because he loved us so":

There are those who will consider it their duty, as friends of the Negro people, to tell us to revile him, to flee, even from the presence of his memory, to save ourselves by writing him out of the history of our turbulent times. Many will ask what Harlem finds to honor in this stormy, controversial and bold young captainand we will smile. Many will say turn awayaway from this man, for he is not a man but a demon, a monster, a subverter and an enemy of the black manand we will smile. They will say that he is of hatea fanatic, a racistwho can only bring evil to the cause for which you struggle! And we will answer and say to them: Did you ever talk to Brother Malcolm? Did you ever touch him, or have him smile at you? Did you ever really listen to him? Did he ever do a mean thing? Was he ever himself associated with violence or any public disturbance? For if you did you would know him. And if you knew him you would know why we must honor him ... And, in honoring him, we honor the best in ourselves. [209]

Malcolm X was buried at Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York. [207] Friends took up the gravediggers' shovels to complete the burial themselves. [210]

Actor and activist Ruby Dee and Juanita Poitier (wife of Sidney Poitier) established the Committee of Concerned Mothers to raise money for a home for his family and for his children's educations. [211]


Reactions to Malcolm X's assassination were varied. In a telegram to Betty Shabazz, Martin Luther King Jr. expressed his sadness at "the shocking and tragic assassination of your husband". [212] He said,

While we did not always see eye to eye on methods to solve the race problem, I always had a deep affection for Malcolm and felt that he had a great ability to put his finger on the existence and root of the problem. He was an eloquent spokesman for his point of view and no one can honestly doubt that Malcolm had a great concern for the problems that we face as a race. [212]

Elijah Muhammad told the annual Savior's Day convention on February 26, "Malcolm X got just what he preached", but denied any involvement with the murder. [213] "We didn't want to kill Malcolm and didn't try to kill him", Muhammad said. "We know such ignorant, foolish teachings would bring him to his own end." [214]

Writer James Baldwin, who had been a friend of Malcolm X's, was in London when he heard the news of the assassination. He responded with indignation towards the reporters interviewing him, shouting, "You did it! It is because of you—the men that created this white supremacy—that this man is dead. You are not guilty, but you did it ... Your mills, your cities, your rape of a continent started all this." [215]

The New York Post wrote that "even his sharpest critics recognized his brillianceoften wild, unpredictable and eccentric, but nevertheless possessing promise that must now remain unrealized". [216] The New York Times wrote that Malcolm X was "an extraordinary and twisted man" who "turn[ed] many true gifts to evil purpose" and that his life was "strangely and pitifully wasted". [217] Time called him "an unashamed demagogue" whose "creed was violence." [218]

Outside of the U.S., and particularly in Africa, the press was sympathetic. [219] The Daily Times of Nigeria wrote that Malcolm X would "have a place in the palace of martyrs". [220] The Ghanaian Times likened him to John Brown, Medgar Evers, and Patrice Lumumba, and counted him among "a host of Africans and Americans who were martyred in freedom's cause". [221] [222] In China, the People's Daily described Malcolm X as a martyr killed by "ruling circles and racists" in the United States; his assassination, the paper wrote, demonstrated that "in dealing with imperialist oppressors, violence must be met with violence". [222] The Guangming Daily , also published in Beijing, stated that "Malcolm was murdered because he fought for freedom and equal rights". [223] in Cuba, El Mundo described the assassination as "another racist crime to eradicate by violence the struggle against discrimination". [219]

In a weekly column he wrote for the New York Amsterdam News , King reflected on Malcolm X and his assassination:

Malcolm X came to the fore as a public figure partially as a result of a TV documentary entitled, The Hate that Hate Produced. That title points to the nature of Malcolm's life and death.

Malcolm X was clearly a product of the hate and violence invested in the Negro's blighted existence in this nation. ...

In his youth, there was no hope, no preaching, teaching or movements of non-violence. ...

It is a testimony to Malcolm's personal depth and integrity that he could not become an underworld Czar, but turned again and again to religion for meaning and destiny. Malcolm was still turning and growing at the time of his brutal and meaningless assassination. ...

Like the murder of Lumumba, the murder of Malcolm X deprives the world of a potentially great leader. I could not agree with either of these men, but I could see in them a capacity for leadership which I could respect, and which was just beginning to mature in judgment and statesmanship. [224]

Allegations of conspiracy

Louis Farrakhan in 2005 Louis Farrakhan, smiling.jpg
Louis Farrakhan in 2005

Within days, the question of who bore responsibility for the assassination was being publicly debated. On February 23, James Farmer, the leader of the Congress of Racial Equality, announced at a news conference that local drug dealers, and not the Nation of Islam, were to blame. [225] Others accused the NYPD, the FBI, or the CIA, citing the lack of police protection, the ease with which the assassins entered the Audubon Ballroom, and the failure of the police to preserve the crime scene. [226] [227] Earl Grant, one of Malcolm X's associates who was present at the assassination, later wrote:

[A]bout five minutes later, a most incredible scene took place. Into the hall sauntered about a dozen policemen. They were strolling at about the pace one would expect of them if they were patrolling a quiet park. They did not seem to be at all excited or concerned about the circumstances.

I could hardly believe my eyes. Here were New York City policemen, entering a room from which at least a dozen shots had been heard, and yet not one of them had his gun out! As a matter of absolute fact, some of them even had their hands in their pockets. [228]

In the 1970s, the public learned about COINTELPRO and other secret FBI programs established to infiltrate and disrupt civil rights organizations during the 1950s and 1960s. [229] John Ali, national secretary of the Nation of Islam, was believed to have been an FBI undercover agent. [175] Malcolm X had confided to a reporter that Ali exacerbated tensions between him and Elijah Muhammad and that he considered Ali his "archenemy" within the Nation of Islam leadership. [175] Ali had a meeting with Talmadge Hayer, one of the men convicted of killing Malcolm X, the night before the assassination. [230]

The Shabazz family are among those who have accused Louis Farrakhan of involvement in Malcolm X's assassination. [231] [232] [233] [234] [235] In a 1993 speech Farrakhan seemed to acknowledge the possibility that the Nation of Islam was responsible:

Was Malcolm your traitor or ours? And if we dealt with him like a nation deals with a traitor, what the hell business is it of yours? A nation has to be able to deal with traitors and cutthroats and turncoats. [236] [237]

In a 60 Minutes interview that aired during May 2000, Farrakhan stated that some things he said may have led to the assassination of Malcolm X. "I may have been complicit in words that I spoke", he said. "I acknowledge that and regret that any word that I have said caused the loss of life of a human being." [238] A few days later Farrakhan denied that he "ordered the assassination" of Malcolm X, although he again acknowledged that he "created the atmosphere that ultimately led to Malcolm X's assassination". [239]

No consensus has been reached on who was responsible for the assassination. [240] In August 2014, an online petition was started using the White House online petition mechanism to call on the government to release without alteration any files they still held relating to the murder of Malcolm X. [241] In January 2019, members of the families of Malcolm X, John F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King Jr., and Robert F. Kennedy were among dozens of Americans who signed a public statement calling for a truth and reconciliation commission to persuade Congress or the Justice Department to review the assassinations of all four leaders during the 1960s. [242] [243]


Except for his autobiography, Malcolm X left no published writings. His philosophy is known almost entirely from the many speeches and interviews he gave from 1952 until his death. [244] Many of those speeches, especially from the last year of his life, were recorded and have been published. [245]

Beliefs of the Nation of Islam

The white liberal differs from the white con­serv­a­tive only in one way: the liberal is more deceitful than the conservative.

—Malcolm X [246]

While he was a member of the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X taught its beliefs, and his statements often began with the phrase "The Honorable Elijah Muhammad teaches us that ..." [247] It is virtually impossible now to discern whether Malcolm X's personal beliefs at the time diverged from the teachings of the Nation of Islam. [248] [upper-alpha 15] After he left the Nation in 1964, he compared himself to a ventriloquist's dummy who could only say what Elijah Muhammad told him to say. [247] [upper-alpha 16]

Malcolm X taught that black people were the original people of the world, [92] and that white people were a race of devils who were created by an evil scientist named Yakub. [93] The Nation of Islam believed that black people were superior to white people and that the demise of the white race was imminent. [94] When questioned concerning his statements that white people were devils, Malcolm X said: "history proves the white man is a devil." [251] "Anybody who rapes, and plunders, and enslaves, and steals, and drops hell bombs on people ... anybody who does these things is nothing but a devil." [252]

Malcolm X said that Islam was the "true religion of black mankind" and that Christianity was "the white man's religion" that had been imposed upon African Americans by their slave-masters. [253] He said that the Nation of Islam followed Islam as it was practiced around the world, but the Nation's teachings varied from those of other Muslims because they were adapted to the "uniquely pitiful" condition of black people in the United States. [254] He taught that Wallace Fard Muhammad, the founder of the Nation, was God incarnate, [255] and that Elijah Muhammad was his Messenger, or Prophet. [upper-alpha 17]

While the civil rights movement fought against racial segregation, Malcolm X advocated the complete separation of blacks from whites. The Nation of Islam proposed the establishment of a separate country for African Americans in the southern [105] or southwestern United States [258] as an interim measure until African Americans could return to Africa. [106] Malcolm X suggested the United States government owed reparations to black people for the unpaid labor of their ancestors. [259] He also rejected the civil rights movement's strategy of nonviolence, advocating instead that black people should defend themselves. [107]

Independent views

The common goal of 22 million Afro-Americans is respect as human beings. ... We can never get civil rights in America until our human rights are first restored. We will never be recognized as citizens there until we are first recognized as humans. ... Just as the violation of human rights of our brothers and sisters in South Africa and Angola is an international issue and has brought the racists of South Africa and Portugal under attack from all other independent governments at the United Nations, once the miserable plight of the 22 million Afro-Americans is also lifted to the level of human rights our struggle then becomes an international issue, and the direct concern of all other civilized governments. We can then take the racist American Government before the World Court and have the racists in it exposed and condemned as the criminals that they are.

—Malcolm X [260]

After leaving the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X announced his willingness to work with leaders of the civil rights movement, [129] though he advocated some changes to their policies. He felt that calling the movement a struggle for civil rights would keep the issue within the United States while changing the focus to human rights would make it an international concern. The movement could then bring its complaints before the United Nations, where Malcolm X said the emerging nations of the world would add their support. [261]

Malcolm X argued that if the U.S. government was unwilling or unable to protect black people, black people should protect themselves. He said that he and the other members of the OAAU were determined to defend themselves from aggressors, and to secure freedom, justice and equality "by whatever means necessary". [262]

Malcolm X at a 1964 press conference Malcolm X NYWTS.jpg
Malcolm X at a 1964 press conference

Malcolm X stressed the global perspective he gained from his international travels. He emphasized the "direct connection" between the domestic struggle of African Americans for equal rights with the independence struggles of Third World nations. [263] He said that African Americans were wrong when they thought of themselves as a minority; globally, black people were the majority. [264]

In his speeches at the Militant Labor Forum, which was sponsored by the Socialist Workers Party, Malcolm X criticized capitalism. [165] After one such speech, when he was asked what political and economic system he wanted, he said he did not know, but that it was no coincidence the newly independent countries in the Third World were turning toward socialism. [265] When a reporter asked him what he thought about socialism, Malcolm X asked whether it was good for black people. When the reporter told him it seemed to be, Malcolm X told him, "Then I'm for it." [265] [266]

Although he no longer called for the separation of black people from white people, Malcolm X continued to advocate black nationalism, which he defined as self-determination for the African-American community. [267] In the last months of his life, however, Malcolm X began to reconsider his support for black nationalism after meeting northern African revolutionaries who, to all appearances, were white. [268]

After his Hajj, Malcolm X articulated a view of white people and racism that represented a deep change from the philosophy he had supported as a minister of the Nation of Islam. In a famous letter from Mecca, he wrote that his experiences with white people during his pilgrimage convinced him to "rearrange" his thinking about race and "toss aside some of [his] previous conclusions". [269] In a conversation with Gordon Parks, two days before his assassination, Malcolm said:

[L]istening to leaders like Nasser, Ben Bella, and Nkrumah awakened me to the dangers of racism. I realized racism isn't just a black and white problem. It's brought bloodbaths to about every nation on earth at one time or another.

Brother, remember the time that white college girl came into the restaurantthe one who wanted to help the [Black] Muslims and the whites get togetherand I told her there wasn't a ghost of a chance and she went away crying? Well, I've lived to regret that incident. In many parts of the African continent I saw white students helping black people. Something like this kills a lot of argument. I did many things as a [Black] Muslim that I'm sorry for now. I was a zombie thenlike all [Black] MuslimsI was hypnotized, pointed in a certain direction and told to march. Well, I guess a man's entitled to make a fool of himself if he's ready to pay the cost. It cost me 12 years.

That was a bad scene, brother. The sickness and madness of those daysI'm glad to be free of them. [270]


Mural on Philadelphia row houses Mural Malcolm X - Ella Baker - Martin Luther King - Frederick Douglass.jpg
Mural on Philadelphia row houses

Malcolm X has been described as one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history. [271] [272] [273] He is credited with raising the self-esteem of black Americans and reconnecting them with their African heritage. [274] He is largely responsible for the spread of Islam in the black community in the United States. [275] [276] [277] Many African Americans, especially those who lived in cities in the Northern and Western United States, felt that Malcolm X articulated their complaints concerning inequality better than did the mainstream civil rights movement. [109] [110] One biographer says that by giving expression to their frustration, Malcolm X "made clear the price that white America would have to pay if it did not accede to black America's legitimate demands". [278]

In the late 1960s, increasingly radical black activists based their movements largely on Malcolm X and his teachings. The Black Power movement, [63] [279] the Black Arts Movement, [63] [280] and the widespread adoption of the slogan "Black is beautiful" [281] can all trace their roots to Malcolm X.

In 1963 Malcolm X began a collaboration with Alex Haley on his life story, The Autobiography of Malcolm X . [128] He told Haley, "If I'm alive when this book comes out, it will be a miracle." [282] Haley completed and published it some months after the assassination. [283]

During the late 1980s and early 1990s, there was a resurgence of interest in his life among young people. Hip-hop groups such as Public Enemy adopted Malcolm X as an icon, [284] and his image was displayed in hundreds of thousands of homes, offices, and schools, [285] as well as on T-shirts and jackets. [286] This wave peaked in 1992 with the release of the film Malcolm X , [287] an adaptation of The Autobiography of Malcolm X.

In 1998 Time named The Autobiography of Malcolm X one of the ten most influential nonfiction books of the 20th century. [288]

Portrayals in film and on stage

Portrait of Malcolm X by Robert Templeton, from the collection Lest We Forget: Images of the Black Civil Rights Movement Malcolm X portrait by Robert Templeton.jpg
Portrait of Malcolm X by Robert Templeton, from the collection Lest We Forget: Images of the Black Civil Rights Movement

Denzel Washington played the title role in the 1992 motion picture Malcolm X [289] named one of the ten best films of the 1990s by both critic Roger Ebert and director Martin Scorsese. [290] Washington had previously played the part of Malcolm X in the 1981 Off-Broadway play When the Chickens Came Home to Roost. [291] Other portrayals include:

Memorials and tributes

The house that once stood at 3448 Pinkney Street in North Omaha, Nebraska, was the first home of Malcolm Little with his birth family. The house was torn down in 1965 by new owners who did not know of its connection with Malcolm X. [303] The site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984. [304] [305] [306]

In Lansing, Michigan, a Michigan Historical Marker was erected in 1975 on Malcolm Little's childhood home. [307] The city is also home to El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz Academy, a public charter school with an Afrocentric focus. The school is located in the building where Little attended elementary school. [308]

In cities around the world, Malcolm X's birthday (May 19) is commemorated as Malcolm X Day. The first known celebration of Malcolm X Day took place in Washington, D.C., in 1971. [309] The city of Berkeley, California, has recognized Malcolm X's birthday as a citywide holiday since 1979. [310]

Malcolm X Boulevard in New York City Malcolm X Blvd street sign.jpg
Malcolm X Boulevard in New York City

Many cities have renamed streets after Malcolm X. In 1987, New York mayor Ed Koch proclaimed Lenox Avenue in Harlem to be Malcolm X Boulevard. [311] The name of Reid Avenue in Brooklyn, New York, was changed to Malcolm X Boulevard in 1985. [312] [313] In 1997, Oakland Avenue in Dallas, Texas, was renamed Malcolm X Boulevard. [314] Main Street in Lansing, Michigan, was renamed Malcolm X Street in 2010. [315] In 2016, Ankara, Turkey, renamed the street on which the U.S. is building its new embassy after Malcolm X. [316] [317] [upper-alpha 18]

Dozens of schools have been named after Malcolm X, including Malcolm X Shabazz High School in Newark, New Jersey, [319] Malcolm Shabazz City High School in Madison, Wisconsin, [320] and Malcolm X College in Chicago, Illinois. [321] Malcolm X Liberation University, based on the Pan-Africanist ideas of Malcolm X, was founded in 1969 in North Carolina. [322]

In 1996, the first library named after Malcolm X was opened, the Malcolm X Branch Library and Performing Arts Center of the San Diego Public Library system. [323]

The U.S. Postal Service issued a Malcolm X postage stamp in 1999. [324] In 2005, Columbia University announced the opening of the Malcolm X and Dr. Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center. The memorial is located in the Audubon Ballroom, where Malcolm X was assassinated. [325] Collections of Malcolm X's papers are held by the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture and the Robert W. Woodruff Library. [326] [327] [328]

Published works

Related Research Articles

Nation of Islam African American political and religious movement

The Nation of Islam, abbreviated NOI, is an African American political and religious movement, founded in Detroit, Michigan, United States, by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad on July 4, 1930. Its stated goals are to improve the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of African Americans in the United States and all of humanity. Critics have described the organization as being black supremacist and antisemitic. The Southern Poverty Law Center tracks the NOI as a hate group. Its official newspaper is The Final Call. In 2007, the core membership was estimated to be between 20,000 and 50,000.

Louis Farrakhan leader of the Nation of Islam

Louis Farrakhan Sr., formerly known as Louis X, is an American black nationalist and minister who is the leader of the religious group Nation of Islam (NOI). Previously, he served as the minister of mosques in Boston and Harlem and had been appointed National Representative of the Nation of Islam by former NOI leader Elijah Muhammad.

Qubilah Bahiyah Shabazz is the second daughter of Malcolm X and Betty Shabazz. In 1965, she witnessed the assassination of her father by three gunmen from the Nation of Islam. She was arrested in 1995 in connection with an alleged plot to kill Louis Farrakhan, by then the leader of the organization who she believed was responsible for the assassination of her father. She has maintained her innocence. She accepted a plea agreement under which she was required to undergo psychological counseling and treatment for drug and alcohol abuse to avoid a prison sentence.

Betty Shabazz American educator and civil rights advocate

Betty Shabazz, also known as Betty X, was an American educator and civil rights advocate. She was the wife of Malcolm X.

Muslim Mosque, Inc. organization

Muslim Mosque, Inc. (MMI) was an Islamic organization formed by Malcolm X after he left the Nation of Islam. MMI was a relatively small group that collapsed after its founder was assassinated.

The Ballot or the Bullet

"The Ballot or the Bullet" is the title of a public speech by human rights activist Malcolm X. In the speech, which was delivered on April 3, 1964, at Cory Methodist Church in Cleveland, Ohio, Malcolm X advised African Americans to judiciously exercise their right to vote, but he cautioned that if the government continued to prevent African Americans from attaining full equality, it might be necessary for them to take up arms. It was ranked 7th in the top 100 American speeches of the 20th century by 137 leading scholars of American public address.

Organization of Afro-American Unity Organization founded by Malcolm X in 1964

The Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU) was a Pan-Africanist organization founded by Malcolm X in 1964. The OAAU was modeled on the Organisation of African Unity, which had impressed Malcolm X during his visit to Africa in April and May 1964. The purpose of the OAAU was to fight for the human rights of African Americans and promote cooperation among Africans and people of African descent in the Americas.

The Hayer affidavits are two affidavits made by Talmadge Hayer—also known by the name Thomas Hagan—one of the convicted assassins of Malcolm X. The statements give Hayer's account of his involvement in the planning and execution of the murder.

Ilyasah Shabazz daughter of Malacolm X

Ilyasah Shabazz is the third daughter of Malcolm X and Betty Shabazz. She is an author, most notably of a memoir, Growing Up X, community organizer, social activist, and motivational speaker.

Tribe of Shabazz

According to the Nation of Islam the Tribe of Shabazz was a supposed ancient Black nation that migrated into central Africa, led by a leader named Shabazz. The concept is found primarily in the writings of Wallace Fard Muhammad and Elijah Muhammad. According to the Autobiography of Malcolm X, all the races except the white race were by-products of the Tribe of Shabazz.

Masjid Malcolm Shabazz

Masjid Malcolm Shabazz, formerly known as Mosque No. 7, is a Sunni Muslim mosque in Harlem, New York. It was formerly a Nation of Islam mosque where Malcolm X preached until he left it for Sunni Islam in 1964.

Louis Lomax American journalist

Louis Emanuel Lomax was an African-American journalist and author. He was also the first African-American television journalist.

<i>The Hate That Hate Produced</i> 1959 television film

The Hate That Hate Produced is a television documentary about Black Nationalism in America, focusing on the Nation of Islam and, to a lesser extent, the United African Nationalist Movement. It was produced in 1959 by Mike Wallace and Louis Lomax.

<i>The Autobiography of Malcolm X</i> autobiography of African-American Muslim minister and human rights activist

The Autobiography of Malcolm X was published in 1965, the result of a collaboration between human rights activist Malcolm X and journalist Alex Haley. Haley coauthored the autobiography based on a series of in-depth interviews he conducted between 1963 and Malcolm X's 1965 assassination. The Autobiography is a spiritual conversion narrative that outlines Malcolm X's philosophy of black pride, black nationalism, and pan-Africanism. After the leader was killed, Haley wrote the book's epilogue. He described their collaborative process and the events at the end of Malcolm X's life.

Russell John Rickford is an American scholar and author. An associate professor in the History Department at Cornell University, he has written the only in-depth biography on Betty Shabazz. Rickford is an expert on the black radical tradition and on black liberal culture after World War II, and lectures on American social and political history, among other subjects.

African-American Muslims, also colloquially known as Black Muslims, are a religious minority among both the larger African American and Muslim population of the United States. They are represented in various self-described Muslim sects such as the Nation of Islam. The history of African American Muslims is similar to the broader African-American history, and, too, goes back to the Revolutionary and Antebellum Eras.

Attallah Shabazz is the eldest daughter of Malcolm X and Betty Shabazz. She is an actress, author, ambassador, and motivational speaker.

Louise Little (activist)

Louise Helen Norton Little was a Grenadian-American activist. Little was born in La Digue, St. Andrew, Grenada, to Edith Langdon. Edith was the daughter of Jupiter and Mary Jane Langdon, "liberated Africans" who were captured from what is now Nigeria, subsequently freed from the slave ship by the Royal Navy and then settled in the Grenadian village of La Digue. When she was 11 years old, Edith, one of six children of the Langdons, was raped by a "significantly older" Scottish man named Edward Norton, resulting in Louise, her only child.



  1. Arabic: الحاجّ مالك الشباز; Arabic pronunciation:  [al-ħad͡ʒː malik aʃːabaːz] . This name includes the honorific El-Hajj, given on completion of the Hajj to Mecca. Malise Ruthven (1997). Islam: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 147. ISBN   978-0-19-285389-9.
  2. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  3. The accuracy of these accounts has been questioned by some people who met Malcolm X later in life or never knew him, including Ta-Nehisi Coates, [23] Maulana Karenga, [24] Ilyasah Shabazz, [25] and Raymond Winbush. [26] For further information, see Phelps, [27] Polk, [28] and Street et al. [29]
  4. Nation of Islam Temples were numbered according to the order in which they were established. [56]
  5. Attallah Shabazz has said she was not named after Attila, rather her name is Arabic for "the gift of God". [70] [71]
  6. "People have to understand the [Autobiography of Malcolm X] was written at a time when indeed African Americans were likening themselves to warriors to underscore our revolutionary fervor. And Attallah was close to Attila the Hun, the warrior. But I'm named Attallah, which in Arabic means 'Gift of God.' I've never been Attila." [72]
  7. Some sources, including The Autobiography of Malcolm X, give the name Johnson Hinton, but Benjamin Karim (one of Malcolm X's top aides) and former Newsweek editor and Malcolm X biographer Peter Goldman both give the name Hinton Johnson. [78] [79]
  8. King expressed mixed feelings toward Malcolm X. "He is very articulate ... but I totally disagree with many of his political and philosophical views ... I don't want to seem to sound self-righteous ... or that I think I have the only truth, the only way. Maybe he does have some of the answer ... I have often wished that he would talk less of violence, because violence is not going to solve our problem. And in his litany of articulating the despair of the Negro without offering any positive, creative alternative, I feel that Malcolm has done himself and our people a great disservice ... [U]rging Negroes to arm themselves and prepare to engage in violence, as he has done, can reap nothing but grief." [102]
  9. "Estimates of the Black Muslim membership vary from a quarter of a million down to fifty thousand. Available evidence indicates that about one hundred thousand Negroes have joined the movement at one time or another, but few objective observers believe that the Black Muslims can muster more than twenty or twenty-five thousand active temple people." [112]
  10. "The common response of Malcolm X to questions about numbers'Those who know aren't saying, and those who say don't know'was typical of the attitude of the leadership." [114]
  11. "Turning my back on Malcolm was one of the mistakes that I regret most in my life. I wish I'd been able to tell Malcolm that I was sorry, that he was right about so many things. But he was killed before I got the chance ... I might never have become a Muslim if it hadn't been for Malcolm. If I could go back and do it over again, I would never have turned my back on him." [118]
  12. "There was no time for substantive discussions between the two. They were photographed greeting each other warmly, smiling and shaking hands." [134]
  13. "Camera shutters clicked. The next day, the Chicago Sun-Times, the New York World-Telegram and Sun, and other dailies carried a picture of Malcolm and Martin shaking hands." [135]
  14. In his Epilogue to The Autobiography of Malcolm X, Haley wrote that Malcolm X said, "Hold it! Hold it! Don't get excited. Let's cool it, brothers." (p. 499.) According to a transcript of an audio recording, Malcolm's only words were, "Hold it!", repeated ten times. (DeCaro, p. 274.)
  15. "'I'll be honest with you,' Malcolm X said to me. 'Everybody is talking about differences between the Messenger and me. It is absolutely impossible for us to differ.'" [249]
  16. On a radio program in December 1964, Malcolm X said "all of my former statements were prefaced by 'the Honorable Elijah Muhammad teaches thus and so.' They weren't my statements, they were his statements, and I was repeating them." [250]
  17. Malcolm X told Lewis Lomax that "The Messenger is the Prophet of Allah." [256] On another occasion, he said, "We never refer to the Honorable Elijah Muhammad as a prophet." [257]
  18. English-language sources disagreed whether the street was being renamed Malcolm X Road [316] or Malcolm X Avenue, [317] perhaps because of translation issues. The state media agency's English-language announcement said merely that "the street ... will bear the name of Malcolm X". [318]


  1. Harrison, Isheka N. (July 2010). "Malcolm X's Grandson Working on Memoirs in Miami". South Florida Times. Retrieved June 9, 2016.
  2. Watson, Clarence; Akhtar, Salman (2012). "Ideology and Identity: Malcolm X". In Akhtar, Salman. The African American Experience: Psychoanalytic Perspectives. Lanham, Md.: Jason Aronson. p. 120. ISBN   978-0-7657-0835-9.
  3. Marable, Malcolm X, pp. 20–30.
  4. Perry, pp. 2–3.
  5. Vincent, Ted (March–April 1989). "The Garveyite Parents of Malcolm X". The Black Scholar . 20 (2): 10–13. JSTOR   41067613. (Subscription required (help)).
  6. Malcolm X, Autobiography, pp. 3–4.
  7. DeCaro, pp. 43–44.
  8. Natambu, p. 3.
  9. Natambu, p. 4.
  10. Marable, Malcolm X, p. 29.
  11. Marable, Malcolm X, p. 32
  12. Natambu, p. 10.
  13. Marable, Malcolm X, p. 32.
  14. Marable, Malcolm X, p. 35.
  15. Marable, Malcolm X, pp. 35–36, 265
  16. Perry, pp. 33–34, 331.
  17. 1 2 Perry, p. 42.
  18. Natambu, pp. 21–29, 55–56.
  19. Perry, pp. 32–48, 58–61.
  20. Perry, pp. 62–81.
  21. Marable, Malcolm X, pp. 65–66.
  22. Perry, pp. 77, 82–83.
  23. Coates, Ta-Nehisi (April 11, 2011). "The Sexuality of Malcolm X". The Atlantic . Retrieved September 7, 2017.
  24. Karenga, Maulana, "The Meaning and Measure of Malcolm X: Critical Remembrance and Rightful Reading", Boyd et al., By Any Means Necessary, p. 18.
  25. Martin, Michel (April 20, 2011). "Malcolm X's Daughter Disputes Claims in New Bio on Father". Tell Me More . NPR . Retrieved September 7, 2017.
  26. Winbush, Raymond A., "Speculative Nonfiction: Manning Marable's Malcolm X", Ball and Burroughs, A Lie of Reinvention, pp. 105–117.
  27. Phelps, Christopher (August 2017). "The Sexuality of Malcolm X". Journal of American Studies . 51 (3): 659–690. doi:10.1017/S0021875816001341.
  28. Polk, Khary (Summer 2013). "Malcolm X, Sexual Hearsay, and Masculine Dissemblance". Biography . 36 (3): 568–584. doi:10.1353/bio.2013.0029. JSTOR   24570210.
  29. Street, Joe; Washington, Margaret; Hall, Simon; McLaughlin, Malcolm; Bailey, Peter (February 2013). "Roundtable – Manning Marable, Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention". Journal of American Studies. 47 (1): 23–47. doi:10.1017/S0021875812002605.
  30. Marable, Malcolm X, pp. 51–52.
  31. 1 2 Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 124.
  32. 1 2 Carson, p. 108.
  33. 1 2 Lord, Lewis; Thornton, Jeannye; Bodipo-Memba, Alejandro (November 15, 1992). "The Legacy of Malcolm X". U.S. News & World Report . p. 5. Archived from the original on January 14, 2012. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  34. Natambu, pp. 106–109.
  35. Perry, p. 99.
  36. Marable, Malcolm X, pp. 67–68.
  37. Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 199.
  38. Natambu, p. 121.
  39. Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 178; ellipsis in original.
  40. Perry, pp. 108–110, 118.
  41. Natambu, pp. 127–128, 132–138.
  42. Natambu, pp. 128–129.
  43. Perry, p. 113.
  44. Natambu, pp. 134–135.
  45. Perry, pp. 104–106.
  46. Natambu, p. 136.
  47. 1 2 Natambu, pp. 138–139.
  48. Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 196.
  49. Perry, p. 116.
  50. Marable, Malcolm X, p. 95.
  51. Marable, Malcolm X, p. 96.
  52. Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 229.
  53. Marable, Malcolm X, p. 98.
  54. Perry, pp. 142, 144–145.
  55. Natambu, p. 168.
  56. Perry, pp. 141–142.
  57. Perry, p. 147.
  58. Perry, p. 152.
  59. Perry, p. 153.
  60. Perry, pp. 161–164.
  61. Carson, p. 95.
  62. Marable, Malcolm X, pp. 122–123.
  63. 1 2 3 4 Marable, "Rediscovering Malcolm's Life", p. 301.
  64. Lincoln, p. 189.
  65. Rickford, pp. 36–45, 50–51.
  66. Rickford, pp. 61–63.
  67. Shabazz, Betty, "Malcolm X as a Husband and Father", Clarke, pp. 132–134.
  68. Rickford, pp. 73–74.
  69. Rickford, pp. 109–110.
  70. Hopkins, Ellen (November 30, 1989). "Yolanda King and Attallah Shabazz: Their Fathers' Daughters". Rolling Stone . Retrieved June 19, 2016.
  71. Miller, Russell (November 23, 1992). "X Patriot". New York . Retrieved June 19, 2016.
  72. Barboza, pp. 205–206.
  73. Rickford, p. 122.
  74. Rickford, p. 123.
  75. Assensoh and Alex-Assensoh, p. xxi.
  76. Rickford, p. 197.
  77. Rickford, p. 286.
  78. Karim, pp. 47–48.
  79. Abdullah, Zain (Autumn 2012). "Narrating Muslim Masculinities: The Fruit of Islam and the Quest for Black Redemption". Spectrum: A Journal on Black Men. 1 (1): 169. doi:10.2979/spectrum.1.1.141. (Subscription required (help)).
  80. 1 2 3 4 Marable, Malcolm X, p. 127.
  81. 1 2 Perry, p. 164.
  82. 1 2 Perry, p. 165.
  83. 1 2 3 4 Marable, Malcolm X, p. 128.
  84. Perry, p. 166.
  85. Marable, Malcolm X, p. 132.
  86. Marable, Malcolm X, pp. 134–135.
  87. Marable, Malcolm X, pp. 135, 193.
  88. 1 2 Perry, pp. 174–179.
  89. Natambu, pp. 231–233.
  90. Marable, Malcolm X, p. 172.
  91. Lincoln, p. 18.
  92. 1 2 Lomax, When the Word Is Given, p. 55.
  93. 1 2 Perry, p. 115.
  94. 1 2 Lomax, When the Word Is Given, p. 57.
  95. Lomax, When the Word Is Given, p. 172.
  96. Natambu, p. 260.
  97. Marable, Malcolm X, p. 162.
  98. Natambu, pp. 215–216.
  99. "The Black Supremacists". Time. August 10, 1959. Retrieved October 2, 2014. (Subscription required (help)).
  100. Lomax, When the Word Is Given, pp. 79–80.
  101. Perry, p. 203.
  102. Haley, Alex (January 1965). "The Playboy Interview: Martin Luther King". Playboy . Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  103. Cone, p. 113.
  104. "Timeline". Malcolm X: Make It Plain, American Experience . PBS. May 19, 2005. Archived from the original on May 26, 2005. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
  105. 1 2 Lomax, When the Word Is Given, pp. 149–152.
  106. 1 2 Malcolm X, End of White World Supremacy, p. 78.
  107. 1 2 Lomax, When the Word Is Given, pp. 173–174.
  108. Natambu, p. 182.
  109. 1 2 Cone, pp. 99–100.
  110. 1 2 West, Cornel (1984). "The Paradox of the Afro-American Rebellion". In Sayres, Sohnya; Stephanson, Anders; Aronowitz, Stanley; Jameson, Fredric. The 60s Without Apology. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. p. 51. ISBN   978-0-8166-1336-6.
  111. Cone, p. 91.
  112. Lomax, When the Word Is Given, pp. 15–16.
  113. Marable, Malcolm X, p. 123.
  114. Clegg, p. 115.
  115. Natambu, pp. 296–297.
  116. Remnick, David (1999) [1998]. King of the World: Muhammed Ali and the Rise of an American Hero. New York: Vintage Books. p. 165. ISBN   978-0-375-70229-7.
  117. Rickford, p. 165.
  118. Ali, p. 85.
  119. Manning, Malcolm X.
  120. Marsh, p. 101.
  121. Marsh, pp. 58–59, 67.
  122. 1 2 Branch, pp. 3–20.
  123. 1 2 Marable, Malcolm X, pp. 205–210.
  124. Perry, pp. 230–234.
  125. 1 2 "Malcolm X Scores U.S. and Kennedy". The New York Times. December 2, 1963. p. 21. Retrieved June 19, 2018. (Subscription required (help)).
  126. Natambu, pp. 288–290.
  127. Perry, p. 242.
  128. 1 2 Perry, p. 214.
  129. 1 2 Handler, M. S. (March 9, 1964). "Malcolm X Splits with Muhammad". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved June 19, 2018. (Subscription required (help)).
  130. Perry, pp. 251–252.
  131. Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks, pp. 18–22.
  132. Perry, pp. 294–296.
  133. Malcolm X, By Any Means Necessary, pp. 33–67.
  134. Cone, p. 2.
  135. Perry, p. 255.
  136. Perry, pp. 257–259.
  137. Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks, pp. 23–44.
  138. Marable, Malcolm X, pp. 300–301.
  139. Perry, p. 261.
  140. Perry, pp. 262–263.
  141. DeCaro, p. 204.
  142. Perry, pp. 263–265.
  143. Perry, p. 267.
  144. Malcolm X, Autobiography, pp. 388–393; quote from pp. 390–391.
  145. Lomax, When the Word Is Given, p. 62.
  146. Natambu, p. 303.
  147. Carson, p. 305.
  148. Natambu, pp. 304–305.
  149. Marable, Malcolm X, pp. 360–362.
  150. 1 2 Natambu, p. 308.
  151. Perry, p. 269.
  152. Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 403.
  153. Bethune, Lebert, "Malcolm X in Europe", Clarke, pp. 226–231.
  154. Malcolm X, By Any Means Necessary, pp. 113–126.
  155. Perlstein, Rick (August 2008). "1964 Republican Convention: Revolution from the Right". Smithsonian Magazine . Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  156. Bethune, "Malcolm X in Europe", Clarke, pp. 231–233.
  157. Malcolm X (December 3, 1964). "Malcolm X Oxford Debate". Malcolm X: A Research Site. Retrieved October 2, 2014.
  158. Carson, p. 349.
  159. Perry, p. 351.
  160. Natambu, p. 312.
  161. Kundnani, Arun (February 10, 2005). "Black British History: Remembering Malcolm's Visit to Smethwick". Independent Race and Refugee News Network. Institute of Race Relations . Retrieved October 2, 2014.
  162. Jeffries, Stuart (October 15, 2014). "Britain's Most Racist Election: The Story of Smethwick, 50 Years On". The Guardian . Retrieved April 17, 2016.
  163. Terrill, p. 9.
  164. Karim, p. 128.
  165. 1 2 Perry, pp. 277–278.
  166. Robert Penn Warren Center for the Humanities. "Malcolm X". Robert Penn Warren's Who Speaks for the Negro? Archive. Retrieved March 11, 2015.
  167. Karim, pp. 159–160.
  168. Kondo, p. 170.
  169. Friedly, p. 169.
  170. Majied, Eugene (April 10, 1964). "On My Own". Muhammad Speaks . Nation of Islam . Retrieved October 2, 2014.
  171. Carson, p. 473.
  172. Carson, p. 324.
  173. Perry, pp. 290–292.
  174. Perry, pp. 352–356.
  175. 1 2 3 Lomax, To Kill a Black Man, p. 198.
  176. Evanzz, p. 248.
  177. Evanzz, p. 264.
  178. Lord; Thornton; Bodipo-Memba (November 15, 1992). "The Legacy of Malcolm X". U.S. News & World Report. p. 3. Archived from the original on January 14, 2012. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  179. Massaquoi, Hans J. (September 1964). "Mystery of Malcolm X". Ebony . pp. 38–40, 42, 44–46. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
  180. Ross, Janell (May 19, 2016). "Google Commemorates a Very Controversial Civil-Rights Figure, Yuri Kochiyama". The Washington Post . Retrieved May 20, 2016.
  181. Karim, p. 191.
  182. 1 2 Evanzz, p. 295.
  183. 1 2 Kihss, Peter (February 22, 1965). "Malcolm X Shot to Death at Rally Here". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved June 19, 2018. (Subscription required (help)).
  184. Marable, Malcolm X, pp. 436–437.
  185. Perry, p. 366.
  186. Marable, Malcolm X, p. 450.
  187. Perry, pp. 366–367.
  188. Talese, Gay (February 22, 1965). "Police Save Suspect From the Crowd". The New York Times. p. 10. Retrieved June 19, 2018. (Subscription required (help)).
  189. Kondo, p. 97.
  190. Buckley, Thomas (March 11, 1966). "Malcolm X Jury Finds 3 Guilty". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved June 19, 2018. (Subscription required (help)).
  191. Roth, Jack (April 15, 1966). "3 Get Life Terms in Malcolm Case". The New York Times. p. 36. Retrieved June 19, 2018. (Subscription required (help)).
  192. Kondo, p. 110.
  193. Bush, Roderick (1999). We Are Not What We Seem: Black Nationalism and Class Struggle in the American Century. New York: New York University Press. p. 179. ISBN   978-0-8147-1317-4.
  194. Friedly, pp. 112–129.
  195. "Malcolm X Killer Heads Mosque". BBC News. March 31, 1998. Retrieved October 2, 2014.
  196. Jacobson, Mark (October 1, 2007). "The Man Who Didn't Shoot Malcolm X". New York . Retrieved October 2, 2014.
  197. Marable, Malcolm X, p. 474.
  198. Fanelli, James (May 18, 2008). "Quiet Life of an 'X'-Assassin". The New York Post . Retrieved June 20, 2018.
  199. Rickford, p. 489.
  200. Marable, Malcolm X, pp. 474–475.
  201. "Witnessed: The Assassination of Malcolm X". CNN. February 2015. Retrieved June 13, 2015.
  202. Telusma, Blue (February 17, 2015). "Must Watch TV: 'Witnessed, The Assassination of Malcolm X'". The Grio . Retrieved June 13, 2015.
  203. Crockett Jr., Stephen A. (February 17, 2015). "CNN Hopes to Answer What Really Happened the Night Malcolm X Was Killed". The Root . Retrieved September 24, 2017.
  204. Perry, p. 374. Alex Haley, in his Epilogue to The Autobiography of Malcolm X, says 22,000 (p. 519).
  205. 1 2 Rickford, p. 252.
  206. DeCaro, p. 291.
  207. 1 2 Arnold, Martin (February 28, 1965). "Harlem Is Quiet as Crowds Watch Malcolm X Rites". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved June 19, 2018. (Subscription required (help)).
  208. DeCaro, p. 290.
  209. Davis, Ossie (February 27, 1965). "Malcolm X's Eulogy". The Official Website of Malcolm X. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  210. Rickford, p. 255.
  211. Rickford, pp. 261–262.
  212. 1 2 King Jr., Martin Luther (February 26, 1965). "Telegram from Martin Luther King Jr. to Betty al-Shabazz". The Martin Luther King Jr. Research and Education Institute. Archived from the original on February 1, 2016. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
  213. Evanzz, p. 301.
  214. Clegg, p. 232.
  215. DeCaro, p. 285.
  216. Rickford, p. 247.
  217. "Malcolm X". The New York Times. February 22, 1965. p. 20. Retrieved June 19, 2018. (Subscription required (help)).
  218. "Death and Transfiguration". Time. March 5, 1965. Retrieved October 2, 2014. (Subscription required (help)).
  219. 1 2 Rickford, p. 248.
  220. Evanzz, p. 305.
  221. Kenworthy, E. W. (February 26, 1965). "Malcolm Called a Martyr Abroad". The New York Times. p. 15. Retrieved June 19, 2018. (Subscription required (help)).
  222. 1 2 "How World Saw Malcolm X's Death" (PDF). New York Amsterdam News . March 13, 1965. Retrieved January 15, 2018.
  223. Evanzz, p. 306.
  224. King Jr., Martin Luther (March 13, 1965). "The Nightmare of Violence" (PDF). New York Amsterdam News. Retrieved January 15, 2018.
  225. Perry, p. 371.
  226. Marable, "Rediscovering Malcolm's Life", pp. 305–306.
  227. Perry, p. 372.
  228. Grant, Earl, "The Last Days of Malcolm X", Clarke, p. 96.
  229. Kondo, pp. 7–39.
  230. Evanzz, p. 294.
  231. Rickford, pp. 437, 492–495.
  232. Evanzz, pp. 298–299.
  233. Friedly, p. 253.
  234. Kondo, pp. 182–183, 193–194.
  235. Marable, "Rediscovering Malcolm's Life", p. 305.
  236. Rickford, p. 492.
  237. Wartofsky, Alona (February 17, 1995). "Brother Minister: The Martyrdom of Malcolm X". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 2, 2014.
  238. "Farrakhan Admission on Malcolm X". 60 Minutes . CBS News. May 14, 2000. Retrieved October 2, 2014.
  239. "Farrakhan Responds to Media Attacks". The Final Call . May 15, 2000. Retrieved October 2, 2014.
  240. Natambu, pp. 315–316.
  241. "Release Government Files on Malcolm X Assassination". The Boston Globe. January 10, 2015. Retrieved November 11, 2017. (Subscription required (help)).
  242. Jackman, Tom (January 25, 2019). "Kennedy, King, Malcolm X relatives and scholars seek new assassination probes". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
  243. Simkin, John (January 2019). "Kennedy and King Family Members and Advisors Call for Congress to Reopen Assassination Probes". Spartacus Educational . Retrieved January 26, 2019.
  244. Kelley, Robin D. G. (1999). "Malcolm X". Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience . New York: Basic Civitas Books. p. 1233.
  245. Terrill, pp. 15–16.
  246. X, Malcolm. "God's Judgement of White America". Archived from the original on April 8, 2016. Retrieved April 2, 2016.
  247. 1 2 Lomax, When the Word Is Given, pp. 80–81.
  248. Terrill, p. 184.
  249. Lomax, When the Word Is Given, p. 91.
  250. Malcolm X, Last Speeches, p. 104.
  251. Lomax, When the Word Is Given, p. 67.
  252. Lomax, When the Word Is Given, p. 171.
  253. Lomax, When the Word Is Given, pp. 24, 137–138.
  254. Malcolm X, Speeches at Harvard, p. 119.
  255. DeCaro, pp. 166–167.
  256. Lomax, When the Word Is Given, p. 80.
  257. Malcolm X, Last Speeches, p. 46.
  258. Lincoln, p. 95.
  259. Lincoln, p. 96.
  260. Malcolm X, "The Negro's Fight", The Egyptian Gazette , August 25, 1964. Reprinted as "Racism: The Canver That Is Destroying America" in Clarke, pp. 302–306.
  261. Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks, pp. 33–35.
  262. Malcolm X, By Any Means Necessary, pp. 43, 47.
  263. Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks, p. 90.
  264. Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks, p. 117.
  265. 1 2 Cone, p. 284.
  266. Perry, p. 277.
  267. Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks, pp. 38–41.
  268. Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks, pp. 212–213.
  269. Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 391.
  270. Parks, Gordon, "Malcolm X: The Minutes of Our Last Meeting", Clarke, p. 122.
  271. Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amhert, N.Y.: Prometheus Books. p. 333. ISBN   978-1-57392-963-9.
  272. Marable, Manning; Frazier, Nishani; McMillian, John Campbell (2003). Freedom on My Mind: The Columbia Documentary History of the African American Experience. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 251. ISBN   978-0-231-10890-4.
  273. Salley, Columbus (1999). The Black 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential African-Americans, Past and Present. New York: Citadel Press. p. 88. ISBN   978-0-8065-2048-3.
  274. Cone, pp. 291–292.
  275. Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2002). The Heart of Islam: Enduring Values for Humanity. New York: HarperCollins. p. 97. ISBN   978-0-06-073064-2.
  276. Perry, p. 379.
  277. Turner, Richard Brent (2004). "Islam in the African-American Experience". In Bobo, Jacqueline; Hudley, Cynthia; Michel, Claudine. The Black Studies Reader. New York: Routledge. p. 445. ISBN   978-0-415-94554-7.
  278. Perry, p. 380.
  279. Sales, p. 187.
  280. Woodard, Komozi (1999). A Nation Within a Nation: Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones) & Black Power Politics. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press. p. 62. ISBN   978-0-8078-4761-9.
  281. Cone, p. 291.
  282. Haley, "Epilogue", Autobiography, p. 471.
  283. Perry, p. 375.
  284. Sales, p. 5.
  285. Marable, "Rediscovering Malcolm's Life", pp. 301–302.
  286. Sales, p. 3.
  287. Sales, p. 4.
  288. Gray, Paul (June 8, 1998). "Required Reading: Nonfiction Books". Time. Retrieved March 28, 2016. (Subscription required (help)).
  289. Canby, Vincent (November 18, 1992). "'Malcolm X,' as Complex as Its Subject". The New York Times. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  290. Anderson, Jeffrey M. "The Best Films of the 1990s". Combustible Celluloid. Archived from the original on January 24, 2001. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
  291. Rich, Frank (July 15, 1981). "The Stage: Malcolm X and Elijah Muhammad". The New York Times. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  292. Canby, Vincent (May 21, 1977). "Ali's Latest Victory Is 'The Greatest'". The New York Times. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  293. O'Connor, John J. (February 9, 1978). "TV: 6‐Hour 'King,' Drama of Civil Rights Drive". The New York Times. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  294. Goodman, Walter (May 3, 1989). "An Imaginary Meeting of Dr. King and Malcolm X". The New York Times. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  295. Maslin, Janet (February 25, 1979). "TV: End of 'Roots II' Delineates 60's". The New York Times. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  296. "The Deification of Morgan Freeman: An Incomplete Filmography". The New York Times. August 28, 2011. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  297. Henahan, Donal (September 29, 1986). "Opera: Anthony Davis's 'X (The Life and Times of Malcolm X)'". The New York Times. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  298. Romano, Frederick V. (2004). The Boxing Filmography: American Features, 1920–2003. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company. pp. 138–139. ISBN   978-0-7864-1793-3.
  299. Gallo, Phil (August 30, 2000). "Review: 'Ali: An American Hero'". Variety . Retrieved June 9, 2016.
  300. Mitchell, Elvis (December 25, 2001). "Master of the Boast, King of the Ring, Vision of the Future". The New York Times. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  301. Lowry, Brian (January 30, 2013). "Review: 'Betty & Coretta'". Variety. Retrieved June 9, 2016.
  302. Scott, A. O. (December 24, 2014). "A 50-Mile March, Nearly 50 Years Later". The New York Times. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  303. McMorris, Robert (March 11, 1989). "Empty Lot Holds Dreams for Rowena Moore". Omaha World-Herald . Retrieved October 2, 2014.
  304. "National Register of Historic Places – Nebraska, Douglas County". National Register of Historic Places. Retrieved October 2, 2014.
  305. "NRHP: Malcolm X House Site". Nebraska State Historical Society . Retrieved June 20, 2018.
  306. "Nebraska Historical Marker: Malcolm X". Nebraska State Historical Society. Retrieved June 20, 2018.
  307. "Malcolm X Homesite". Michigan Historical Markers. Retrieved June 20, 2018.
  308. Yancey, Patty (2000). "We Hold on to Our Kids, We Hold on Tight: Tandem Charters in Michigan". In Fuller, Bruce. Inside Charter Schools: The Paradox of Radical Decentralization. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. p. 67. ISBN   978-0-674-00325-5.
  309. Gay, Kathlyn (2007). African-American Holidays, Festivals and Celebrations. Detroit: Omnigraphics. p. 284. ISBN   978-0-7808-0779-2.
  310. Thaai, Walker (May 20, 2005). "Berkeley Honors Controversial Civil Rights Figure". San Jose Mercury News .
  311. Rickford, p. 443.
  312. Rickford, p. 419.
  313. Barron, James (January 18, 2009). "'Not Much of a Block,' but It's Named for a King". The New York Times. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  314. Scoville, Jen (December 1997). "The Big Beat". Texas Monthly . Archived from the original on December 29, 2004. Retrieved October 2, 2014.
  315. Vela, Susan (September 14, 2010). "Malcolm X, Cesar Chavez Get Nods for Lansing Street, Plaza Names". Lansing State Journal .
  316. 1 2 Harvey, Benjamin (October 14, 2018). "Turkey Names Street Leading to U.S. Embassy 'Malcolm X Road'". Bloomberg News . Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  317. 1 2 Kent, Lauren (October 15, 2018). "Turkey renames street of new US Embassy to Malcolm X Avenue". CNN. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  318. Calik, Burcu (October 13, 2018). "Turkey: New US Embassy street to be named 'Malcolm X'". Anadolu Agency . Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  319. Lee, Felicia R. (May 15, 1993). "Newark Students, Both Good and Bad, Make Do". The New York Times. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  320. Hunt, Lori Bona (February 26, 1991). "Malcolm X's Widow Sees Signs of Hope". Milwaukee Journal .
  321. Witkowsky, Kathy (Spring 2000). "A Day in the Life". National CrossTalk. Retrieved October 2, 2014.
  322. Belvin, Brent (October 6, 2004). "Master's Thesis: Malcolm X Liberation University: An Experiment in Independent Black Education". North Carolina State University. Retrieved October 2, 2014.
  323. Flynn, Pat (January 7, 1996). "Big Crowd Welcomes New Library Warmly". The San Diego Union-Tribune .
  324. Marable, "Rediscovering Malcolm's Life", pp. 303–304.
  325. "Malcolm X and Dr. Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center Launches". Columbia University. May 17, 2005. Retrieved October 2, 2014.
  326. Marable, Malcolm X, p. 564.
  327. Hendrick, Bill (September 2, 1999). "A Revelation in Letters: Educated, Tender Malcolm X". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved October 2, 2014. (Subscription required (help)).
  328. Eakin, Emily (January 8, 2003). "Malcolm X Trove to Schomburg Center". The New York Times. Retrieved June 19, 2018.

Works cited

Further reading