Malibu, California

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Malibu, California
City of Malibu
Aerial view of Downtown Malibu and surrounding neighborhoods
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The 'Bu [1] [2] [3]
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Location of Malibu in Los Angeles County, California
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Location in California
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Location in the United States
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Location in North America
Coordinates: 34°02′N118°45′W / 34.03°N 118.75°W / 34.03; -118.75 Coordinates: 34°02′N118°45′W / 34.03°N 118.75°W / 34.03; -118.75
Country United States
State California
County Los Angeles
Incorporated (city) March 28, 1991 (1991-03-28) [4]
Named for Chumash: Humaliwo, "The Surf Sounds Loudly" [5]
   Mayor Jefferson "Zuma Jay" Wagner
  Total19.83 sq mi (51.35 km2)
  Land19.79 sq mi (51.27 km2)
  Water0.03 sq mi (0.09 km2)  0.22%
105 ft (32 m)
(2016) [9]
  Density650.65/sq mi (251.22/km2)
Time zone UTC−8 (Pacific)
  Summer (DST) UTC−7 (PDT)
ZIP Codes
90263–90265 [10]
Area code(s) 310/424
FIPS code 06-45246
GNIS feature IDs 1668257, 2410913
Primary Airport Los Angeles International Airport
LAX (Major/International)
State Routes California 1.svg California 23.svg
County Routes Los Angeles County N1.svg Los Angeles County N9.svg
Sign of historical Malibu coast of 27 miles (43 km) from Point Mugu east to Tuna Canyon Malibu, Western Malibu, (Californie).jpeg
Sign of historical Malibu coast of 27 miles (43 km) from Point Mugu east to Tuna Canyon
Dawn in the Santa Monica Mountains HALLOWEENDAWN CA18.jpg
Dawn in the Santa Monica Mountains
Malibu lagoon Malibu lagoon.jpg
Malibu lagoon

Malibu ( /ˈmælɪb/ ) (Spanish: Malibú) is a beach city in western Los Angeles County, California, situated about 30 miles (48 km) west of Downtown Los Angeles. It is known for its Mediterranean climate and its 21-mile (34 km) strip of the Malibu coast, incorporated in 1991 into the City of Malibu. The area is known for being the home of Hollywood movie stars, people in the entertainment industry, and other affluent residents. Most Malibu residents live within a few hundred yards of Pacific Coast Highway (State Route 1), which traverses the city, with some residents living up to a mile away from the beach up narrow canyons. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 12,645.

Los Angeles County, California County in California, United States

Los Angeles County, officially the County of Los Angeles, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U.S. state of California, is the most populous county in the United States, with more than 10 million inhabitants as of 2018. As such, it is the largest non–state level government entity in the United States. Its population is larger than that of 41 individual U.S. states. It is the third-largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a Nominal GDP of over $700 billion—larger than the GDPs of Belgium, Norway, and Taiwan. It has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and, at 4,083 square miles (10,570 km2), it is larger than the combined areas of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the U.S. Its county seat, Los Angeles, is also California's most populous city and the nation's second largest city with about 4 million people.

Downtown Los Angeles Neighborhood of Los Angeles in Los Angeles, California

Downtown Los Angeles (DTLA) is the central business district of Los Angeles, California, as well as a diverse residential neighborhood of some 58,000 people. A 2013 study found that the district is home to over 500,000 jobs. It is also part of Central Los Angeles.

Affluence refers to an individual's or household's economical and financial advantage in comparison to a given reference group. It may be assessed through either income or wealth.


Nicknamed "the 'Bu" by surfers and locals, [1] [2] [3] beaches along the Malibu coast include Surfrider Beach, Zuma Beach, Malibu Beach, Topanga Beach, Point Dume Beach, County Line, and Dan Blocker Beach. State parks and beaches on the Malibu coast include Malibu Creek State Park, Leo Carrillo State Beach and Park, [11] Point Mugu State Park, [12] and Robert H. Meyer Memorial State Beach, [13] with individual beaches: El Pescador, La Piedra and El Matador. The many parks within the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area lie along the ridges above the city along with local parks that include Malibu Bluffs Park [14] (formerly Malibu Bluffs State Park), Trancas Canyon Park, Las Flores Creek Park, and Legacy Park. [15]

Zuma Beach

Zuma Beach is a county beach located at 30000 Pacific Coast Highway (PCH) in Malibu, California. One of the largest and most popular beaches in Los Angeles County, California, Zuma is known for its long, wide sands and excellent surf. It consistently ranks among the healthiest beaches for clean water conditions in Los Angeles County. The origin of the name of the beach may be related to the origin of the name of nearby [promontory] Point Dume. Point Dume was named by George Vancouver in 1793 in honor of Padre Francisco Dumetz of Mission San Buenaventura. The name was misspelled on Vancouver's map as "Dume" and was never corrected. On a plat map of the Rancho Topanga Malibu Sequit finally confirmed to new owner Matthew Keller in August 1870, the point is marked on the map as "Point Zuma or Duma".

Point Dume

Point Dume is a promontory on the coast of Malibu, California that juts out into the Pacific Ocean. The point, a long bluff, forms the northern end of the Santa Monica Bay. Point Dume Natural Area affords a vista of the Palos Verdes Peninsula and Santa Catalina Island. Zuma Beach lies to its immediate northwest.

County Line Beach, Malibu

County Line Beach is beach park located in Solromar, an unincorporated community of Ventura County. This stretch of sandy beach is easily accessible from the adjacent Pacific Coast Highway and is a popular surf spot. The beach lies within the south coast portion of the Ventura County amidst a mostly rugged coastline that is some of the most striking and diverse coastal terrain in the County. The beach lies at the mouth of a canyon in the Santa Monica Mountains that hug the shore along the Ventura County's south coast.

Signs around the city proclaim "21 miles of scenic beauty", referring to the incorporated city limits. The city updated the signs in 2017 from the historical 27-mile (43 km) length of the Malibu coast spanning from Tuna Canyon on the southeast to Point Mugu in Ventura County on the northwest. [16] For many residents of the unincorporated canyon areas, Malibu has the closest commercial centers and they are included in the Malibu ZIP Codes. The city is bounded by Topanga on the east, the Santa Monica Mountains (Agoura Hills, Calabasas, and Woodland Hills) to the north, the Pacific Ocean to the south, and Solromar in Ventura County to the west.

Ventura County, California County in California, United States

Ventura County is a county in the southern part of the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 823,318. The largest city is Oxnard, and the county seat is the city of Ventura.

Topanga, California Census-designated place in California

Topanga is a census-designated place (CDP) in western Los Angeles County, California, United States. Located in the Santa Monica Mountains, the community lies in Topanga Canyon. The narrow southern portion of Topanga at the coast is in between the city of Malibu and the city of Los Angeles neighborhood of Pacific Palisades. Topanga has an estimated population of 11,101 as of 2019. The ZIP code is 90290 and the area code is primarily 310, with 818 only at the north end of the canyon. It is in the 3rd County Supervisorial district.

Santa Monica Mountains mountain range in Southern California, United States

The Santa Monica Mountains is a coastal mountain range in Southern California, paralleling the Pacific Ocean. It is part of the Transverse Ranges. Because of its proximity to densely populated regions, it is one of the most visited natural areas in California. Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area is located in this mountain range.


Malibu is named for the Ventureño Chumash settlement of Humaliwo, which translates to "The Surf Sounds Loudly." This pre-colonial village was situated next to Malibu Lagoon and is now part of the State Park. [17] [18]

Ventureño is a member of the extinct Chumashan languages, a group of Native American languages previously spoken by the Chumash people along the coastal areas of Southern California from as far north as San Luis Obispo to as far south as Malibu. Ventureño was spoken from as far north as present-day Ventura to as far south as present-day Malibu and the Simi Hills, California. Dialects probably also included Castac and Alliklik.

The Chumash are a Native American people who historically inhabited the central and southern coastal regions of California, in portions of what is now San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Ventura and Los Angeles counties, extending from Morro Bay in the north to Malibu in the south. They also occupied three of the Channel Islands: Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and San Miguel; the smaller island of Anacapa was likely inhabited seasonally due to the lack of a consistent water source.

Malibu Lagoon State Beach

Malibu Lagoon State Beach is a state protected beach of California, United States, and a unit of the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area. Also known as Surfrider Beach, it has a long-standing reputation as a premier surfing beach. Located in Malibu, California, it was dedicated as the first World Surfing Reserve on October 9, 2010. The 110-acre (45 ha) site was established as a California state park in 1951.


Adamson House, a historic house and gardens, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Adamson House.JPG
Adamson House, a historic house and gardens, listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
"Malibu Coast, Spring" by Granville Redmond, c. 1929 Granville Redmond Malibu Coast Spring.jpg
"Malibu Coast, Spring" by Granville Redmond, c. 1929

Malibu was originally settled by the Chumash, Native Americans whose territory extended loosely from the San Joaquin Valley to San Luis Obispo to Malibu, as well as several islands off the southern coast of California. They named it "Humaliwo" [19] or "the surf sounds loudly". The city's name derives from this, as the "Hu" syllable is not stressed.

San Joaquin Valley Valley in California

The San Joaquin Valley is the area of the Central Valley of the U.S. state of California that lies south of the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta and is drained by the San Joaquin River. It comprises seven counties of Northern and one of Southern California, including, in the north, all of San Joaquin and Kings counties, most of Stanislaus, Merced, and Fresno counties, and parts of Madera and Tulare counties, along with a majority of Kern County, in Southern California. Although a majority of the valley is rural, it does contain cities such as Fresno, Bakersfield, Stockton, Modesto, Turlock, Tulare, Porterville, Visalia, Merced, and Hanford.

The village of Humaliwo was located next to Malibu Lagoon and was an important regional center in prehistoric times. The village, which is identified as CA-LAN-264, was occupied from approximately 2,500 BCE. It was the second-largest Chumash coastal settlement by the Santa Monica Mountains, with just Muwu (Point Mugu) being more populated. A total of 118 individuals were baptized in Humaliwo. Humaliwo was considered an important political center, but there were also additional minor settlements in today's Malibu. One village, known as Ta’lopop, was located few miles up Malibu Canyon from Malibu Lagoon. Research have shown that Humaliwo (Malibu) had ties to other villages in pre-colonial times, including Hipuk (in Westlake Village), Lalimanux (by Conejo Grade) and Huwam (in Bell Canyon). [20] [21]

Point Mugu, California Unincorporated community in California, United States

Point Mugu, California is a cape or promontory within Point Mugu State Park on the Pacific Coast in Ventura County, near the city of Port Hueneme and the city of Oxnard. The park has 5 miles (8 km) of shoreline and more than 70 miles (110 km) of hiking trails. The name is believed to be derived from the Chumash Indian term "Muwu", meaning "beach", which was first mentioned by Cabrillo in his journals in 1542. It is also a name applied to the nearby NAS Point Mugu, a test range facility known by various names over the years, including Pacific Missile Test Center and Naval Air Missile Test Center.

Westlake Village, California City in California

Westlake Village is a city in Los Angeles County on its western border with Ventura County. The population was estimated to be at 8,473 in 2014, up from 8,368 at the 2000 census. The headquarters of the Dole Food Company is located in Westlake Village.

Conejo Grade Steep grade on US 101 Highway in Ventura County, California

The Conejo Grade is a 7% grade incline with a summit elevation of 841.1 feet. It is a section of the US 101 Ventura Freeway linking Thousand Oaks and cities of the Conejo Valley, with Camarillo and the cities on the Oxnard Plain. A Caltrans inspection station for trucks is stationed at the upper terminus of the grade.

Explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo is believed to have moored at Malibu Lagoon, at the mouth of Malibu Creek, to obtain fresh water in 1542. The Spanish presence returned with the California mission system, and the area was part of Rancho Topanga Malibu Sequit—a 13,000-acre (53 km2) land grant—in 1802. That ranch passed intact to Frederick Hastings Rindge in 1891. He and his widow, May K. Rindge, guarded their privacy zealously by hiring guards to evict all trespassers and fighting a lengthy court battle to prevent the building of a Southern Pacific railroad line through the ranch. Interstate Commerce Commission regulations would not support a railroad condemning property in order to build tracks that paralleled an existing line, so Frederick H. Rindge decided to build his own railroad through his property first. He died, and May K. Rindge followed through with the plans, building the Hueneme, Malibu and Port Los Angeles Railway. The line started at Carbon Canyon, just inside the ranch's property eastern boundary, and ran 15 miles westward, past Pt. Dume. [22] [23] [24] [25]

Few roads even entered the area before 1929, when the state won another court case and built what is now known as the Pacific Coast Highway. By then May Rindge was forced to subdivide her property and begin selling and leasing lots. The Rindge house, known as the Adamson House [26] (a National Register of Historic Places site and California Historical Landmark), is now part of Malibu Creek State Park and is situated between Malibu Lagoon State Beach [27] and Surfrider Beach, beside the Malibu Pier [28] that was used to provide transportation to/from the ranch, including construction materials for the Rindge railroad, and to tie up the family's yacht. [25] [29]

In 1926, in an effort to avoid selling land to stave off insolvency, May K. Rindge created a small ceramic tile factory. At its height, Malibu Potteries employed over 100 workers, and produced decorative tiles which furnish many Los Angeles-area public buildings and Beverly Hills residences. The factory, located one-half-mile east of the pier, was ravaged by a fire in 1931. [30] Although the factory partially reopened in 1932, it could not recover from the effects of the Great Depression and a steep downturn in Southern California construction projects. A distinct hybrid of Moorish and Arts and crafts designs, Malibu tile is considered highly collectible. Fine examples of the tiles may be seen at the Adamson House and Serra Retreat, a fifty-room mansion that was started in the 1920s as the main Rindge home on a hill overlooking the lagoon. The unfinished building was sold to the Franciscan Order in 1942 [31] and is operated as a retreat facility, [32] Serra Retreat. It burned in the 1970 fire and was rebuilt using many of the original tiles.

Most of the Big Rock Drive area was purchased in 1936 by William Randolph Hearst, who considered building an estate on the property. He sold the lower half of his holdings there in 1944 to Art Jones. Jones was one of the prominent early realtors in Malibu, starting with the initial leases of Rindge land in Malibu Colony. He was also the owner/part-owner of the Malibu Inn, Malibu Trading Post and the Big Rock Beach Cafe (which is now Moonshadows restaurant). Philiip McAnany owned 80 acres (32 ha) in the upper Big Rock area, which he had purchased in 1919, and had two cabins there, one of which burned in a brush fire that swept through the area in 1959, and the other in the 1993 Malibu fire. McAnany Way is named after him. [33] [34] [35] [36]

Malibu Colony

Malibu Colony was one of the first areas with private homes after Malibu was opened to development in 1926. As one of Malibu's most famous districts, [37] it is located south of Malibu Road and the Pacific Coast Highway, west of Malibu Lagoon State Beach, and east of Malibu Bluffs Park (formerly a state park). May Rindge had protected the Malibu coast with only a few wealthy Hollywood stars having vacation homes there. Rindge opened up this small area for development in 1926. The long legal battle to protect her beloved Malibu coast had been costly and she eventually died penniless. [38] Long known as a popular private enclave for wealthy celebrities, [39] the Malibu Colony today is a gated community, with multimillion-dollar homes on small lots. The Colony has views of the Pacific Ocean, with coastline views stretching from Santa Monica to Rancho Palos Verdes to the south (known locally as the Queen's Necklace [40] ) and the bluffs of Point Dume to the north.

High technology in Malibu

The first working model of a laser was demonstrated by Theodore Maiman in 1960 in Malibu at the Hughes Research Laboratory [41] (now known as HRL Laboratories LLC). In the 1990s HRL Laboratories developed the FastScat computer code, [42] for frequency domain algorithms and implementation, recognized as perhaps the most accurate code in the world for radar cross-section calculations.[ citation needed ] TRW built a laboratory in Solstice Canyon without any structural steel to test magnetic detectors for satellites and medical devices. [43]


In 1991 most of the old Malibu land grant was incorporated as a city to allow local control of the area (as cities under California law, they are not subject to the same level of county government oversight). Prior to achieving municipal status, the local residents had fought several county-proposed developments, including an offshore freeway, [44] a nuclear power plant, [45] and several plans to replace septic tanks with sewer lines to protect the ocean from seepage that pollutes the marine environment. The incorporation drive gained impetus in 1986, when the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors approved plans for a regional sewer that would have been large enough to serve 400,000 people in the western Santa Monica Mountains. Residents were incensed that they would be assessed taxes and fees to pay for the sewer project, and feared that the Pacific Coast Highway would need to be widened into a freeway to accommodate growth that they did not want. The supervisors fought the incorporation drive and prevented the residents from voting, a decision that was overturned in the courts.

The city councils that were elected in the 1990s were unable to write a Local Coastal Plan (LCP) that preserved enough public access to satisfy the California Coastal Commission, as required by the California Coastal Act. The state Legislature eventually passed a Malibu-specific law that allowed the Coastal Commission to write an LCP for Malibu, thus neutering the city's ability to control many aspects of land use. Because of the failure to adequately address sewage disposal problems in the heart of the city, the local water board ordered Malibu in November 2009 to build a sewage plant for the Civic Center area. The city council has objected to that solution. [46]


The Pacific Coast Highway (PCH) in central Malibu Malibupacificcoasthighway.jpg
The Pacific Coast Highway (PCH) in central Malibu
The Paradise Cove pier in Malibu Paradise cove.JPG
The Paradise Cove pier in Malibu

Malibu is located at 34°1′50″N118°46′43″W / 34.03056°N 118.77861°W / 34.03056; -118.77861 (Malibu, California (GNIS point)) (34.030450, −118.778612). [47] Its City Hall building is located at 23825 Stuart Ranch Road ( 34°02′21″N118°41′35″W / 34.03917°N 118.69306°W / 34.03917; -118.69306 ). The eastern end of the city borders the Topanga CDP, which separates it from the city of Los Angeles.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.8 square miles (51 km2), over 99% of it land.

Malibu's dry brush and steep clay slopes make it prone to fires, floods, and mudslides.

Carbon Beach, Surfrider Beach, Westward Beach, Escondido Beach, Paradise Cove, Point Dume, Pirates Cove, Zuma Beach, Trancas and Encinal Bluffs are places along the coast in Malibu. Point Dume forms the northern end of the Santa Monica Bay, and Point Dume Headlands Park affords a vista stretching to the Palos Verdes Peninsula and Santa Catalina Island. Directly below the park, on the western side of the point, is Pirates Cove. Because of its relative seclusion, Pirate's Cove was previously used as a nude beach, but since nudity is now illegal on all beaches in Los Angeles County, nude sunbathers are subject to fines and/or arrest.

Like all California beaches, Malibu beaches are technically public land below the mean high tide line. Many large public beaches (Zuma Beach, Surfrider Beach) are easily accessible, but such access is sometimes limited for some of the smaller and more remote beaches. Some Malibu beaches are private, such as Paradise Cove, which charges an entrance fee to keep the crowds at bay. [48]


This region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F (22 °C). According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Malibu has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps. [49] The city's climate is influenced by the Pacific Ocean, resulting in far more moderate temperatures than locations further inland experience. Snow in Malibu is extremely rare, but flurries with higher accumulations in the nearby mountains occurred on January 17, 2007.

Climate data for Malibu, California
Record high °F (°C)85
Average high °F (°C)63.5
Average low °F (°C)50.8
Record low °F (°C)34
Average precipitation inches (mm)2.84
Source: The Weather Channel [50]


Historical population
2000 12,575
2010 12,6450.6%
Est. 201612,879 [9] 1.9%
U.S. Decennial Census [51]


The 2010 United States Census reported that Malibu had a population of 12,645. [52] The population density was 637.7 people per square mile (246.2/km²). The racial makeup of Malibu was 11,565 (91.5%) White (87.4% Non-Hispanic White), [53] 148 (1.2%) African American, 20 (0.2%) Native American, 328 (2.6%) Asian, 15 (0.1%) Pacific Islander, 182 (1.4%) from other races, and 387 (3.1%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 769 persons (6.1%).

The Census reported that 12,504 people (98.9% of the population) lived in households, 126 (1.0%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 15 (0.1%) were institutionalized.

There were 5,267 households, out of which 1,379 (26.2%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 2,571 (48.8%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 403 (7.7%) had a female householder with no husband present, 222 (4.2%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 269 (5.1%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 49 (0.9%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 1,498 households (28.4%) were made up of individuals and 501 (9.5%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37. There were 3,196 families (60.7% of all households); the average family size was 2.87.

The population was spread out with 2,366 people (18.7%) under the age of 18, 1,060 people (8.4%) aged 18 to 24, 2,291 people (18.1%) aged 25 to 44, 4,606 people (36.4%) aged 45 to 64, and 2,322 people (18.4%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.0 males.

There were 6,864 housing units at an average density of 346.2 per square mile (133.7/km²), of which 3,716 (70.6%) were owner-occupied, and 1,551 (29.4%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.8%; the rental vacancy rate was 11.9%. 9,141 people (72.3% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 3,363 people (26.6%) lived in rental housing units.

According to the 2010 United States Census, Malibu had a median household income of $133,869, with 10.6% of the population living below the federal poverty line. [53]


As of the census [54] of 2000, there were 12,575 people, 5,137 households, and 3,164 families residing in the city. The population density was 632.9 inhabitants per square mile (244.4/km²). There were 6,126 housing units at an average density of 308.3 per square mile (119.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 91.91% White, 8.49% Asian, 0.90% African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 1.67% from other races, and 2.72% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.48% of the population.

There were 5,137 households out of which 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 6.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 38.4% were non-families. 27.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.86.

In the city, the population was spread out with 19.6% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 32.0% from 45 to 64, and 14.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $102,031, and the median income for a family was $123,293. Males had a median income of $100,000 versus $46,919 for females. The per capita income for the city was $74,336. About 3.2% of families and 7.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.8% of those under age 18 and 1.1% of those age 65 or over.


Malibu Beach Panorama.jpg
A view of Malibu Beach

Natural disasters

View from Malibu Bluffs Park, facing west toward Point Dume Malibu Bluffs State Park IMG 0986 060826 140616.jpg
View from Malibu Bluffs Park, facing west toward Point Dume

The Malibu Coast lies on the fringe of an extensive chaparral and woodland wilderness area, the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area. [55] Various environmental elements collectively create a recipe for natural disasters: the mountainous and geologically unstable terrain; seasonal rainstorms that result in dense vegetation growth; seasonal dry Santa Ana winds; and a naturally dry topography and climate.


The Malibu coast has seen dozens of wildfires: [56]

Looking down on the Corral Canyon brush fire from Latigo Canyon Road Looking down on the Corral Canyon brush fire from Latigo Cyn Rd Malibu CA.jpg
Looking down on the Corral Canyon brush fire from Latigo Canyon Road
The smoke plume from the Woolsey fire, seen from the Pacific Coast Highway. Woolsey Fire evacuation from Malibu on November 9, 2018.jpg
The smoke plume from the Woolsey fire, seen from the Pacific Coast Highway.


One of the most problematic side-effects of the fires that periodically rage through Malibu is the destruction of vegetation, which normally provides some degree of topographical stability to the loosely packed shale and sandstone hills during periods of heavy precipitation. Rainstorms following large wildfires can thus cause a phenomenon known as mudslides, in which water-saturated earth and rock moves quickly down mountainsides, or entire slices of mountainside abruptly detach and fall downward.

After the 1993 wildfire stripped the surrounding mountains of their earth-hugging chaparral, torrential rainstorms in early 1994 caused a massive mudslide near Las Flores Canyon that closed down the main coastal transport artery, Pacific Coast Highway, for months. Thousands of tons of mud, rocks, and water rained down on the Pacific Coast Highway like a sluicebox. The destruction to property and infrastructure was exacerbated by the narrow constriction of the road at that point, with beachside houses abutting the highway with little or no frontage land acting as a buffer to the mudslide. [67] Another large mudslide occurred on Malibu Canyon Road, between the Pepperdine University campus and HRL Laboratories LLC, closing down Malibu Canyon for two months. [68] Yet another behemoth slide occurred on another main canyon road, Kanan-Dume Road about one mile (1.6 km) up the canyon from the Pacific Coast Highway. This last road closure lasted over a period of many months, with Kanan finally fixed by the California Department of Transportation (Cal-Trans) [69] over a year after the road collapse.

Mudslides can and do occur at any time in Malibu, whether a recent fire or rainstorm has occurred or not. Pacific Coast Highway, Kanan-Dume Road, and Malibu Canyon road (as well as many other local roads) have all been prone to many subsequent mudslide-related closures. During any period of prolonged or intense rain, Caltrans snowplows will patrol most canyon roads in the area, clearing mud, rocks, and other fallen debris from the roadways. Such efforts keep most roads passable, but it is nevertheless typical for one or more of the major roads leading into and out of Malibu to be temporarily closed during the rainy season.


Malibu is periodically subjected to intense coastal storms. Occasionally, these storms unearth remnants of the Rindge railroad that was built through Malibu in the early 20th century.

Friday, January 25, 2008, during a storm which was unusually large for the Southern California area, a tornado came ashore and struck a naval base's hangar, ripping off the roof. It was the first tornado to strike Malibu's shoreline in recorded history. [70]


Malibu is within 50 miles (80 km) of the San Andreas Fault, a fault over 800 miles (1,300 km) in length that can produce an earthquake over magnitude 8. Several faults are in the region, making the area prone to earthquakes.

The Northridge earthquake and the 1971 Sylmar earthquake (magnitudes 6.7 and 6.6) shook the area. Smaller earthquakes happen more often.


Municipal government

Malibu is a general law city governed with a five-member City Council including the mayor and mayor pro tem. The City Council hires a city manager to carry out policies and serve as executive officer. Every even-numbered year either two or three members are elected by the people to serve a four-year term. Usually, the City Council meets in April and chooses one of its members as mayor and one as mayor-pro-tem. In 2006, this pattern was deviated from when the council decided to have a cycle of three mayors and mayors pro-tem in the coming two years. Malibu does not have a police force. The Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department provides law enforcement services to Malibu. [71]

County, state, and federal representation

In the state legislature, Malibu is in the 27th Senate District , represented by Democrat Henry Stern, and in the 50th Assembly District , represented by Democrat Richard Bloom. [72]

In the United States House of Representatives, Malibu is in California's 33rd congressional district, which has a Cook PVI of D+16 [73] and is represented by Democrat Ted Lieu. [74]


Malibu residents tend to be politically liberal, like much of Los Angeles County.[ citation needed ] 60% of Malibu voters chose presidential candidate John Kerry in the 2004 election, compared to 39% for incumbent President George W. Bush.


Fire protection is served by the Los Angeles County Fire Department.

The Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department (LASD) operates the Malibu/Lost Hills Station in Calabasas, serving Malibu under contract with the City. [75] [76]

The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services SPA 5 West Area Health Office serves Malibu. [77] The department operates the Simms/Mann Health and Wellness Center in Santa Monica, serving Malibu. [78]

The United States Postal Service operates the Malibu Post Office at 23838 Pacific Coast Highway, [79] the Colony Annex at 23648 Pacific Coast Highway, adjacent to the Malibu Post Office, [80] and the La Costa Malibu Post Office at 21229 Pacific Coast Highway. [81]



The Santa Monica-Malibu Unified School District serves Malibu with three elementary schools: John L. Webster Elementary School (grades K-5, located in central Malibu), Juan Cabrillo Elementary School (grades K-5, located in northwestern Malibu's Malibu Park district), and Point Dume Elementary School (grades K-5, located in northwestern Malibu's Pt. Dume district).

Private schools include: Calmont, [82] Our Lady of Malibu (Catholic), [83] Colin McEwen High School, New Roads, [84] and St. Aidan's School.

Malibu High School (MHS) provides secondary public education for both middle school (grades 6–8) and high school (grades 9–12). MHS is located in the northwestern region of Malibu.

Pepperdine University, a private college affiliated with the Church of Christ, which is located in central Malibu, north of the Malibu Colony at the intersection of the Pacific Coast Highway and Malibu Canyon Road. Malibu is also served by Santa Monica College, a community college in the nearby city of Santa Monica to the south.


Exterior of the Malibu branch of the LA County library Malibu branch LA County Library.jpg
Exterior of the Malibu branch of the LA County library

Malibu Public Library, a 16,530 square feet (1,536 m2) branch of the County of Los Angeles Public Library, is in the Malibu Civic Center Complex. The branch has an adult reading area, a children's reading area, a 125-person meeting room, and free parking. The library opened in 1970. Prior to 1970 residents were served by a bookmobile. [85]

"On April 22, 2012, a grand opening celebration was held to mark the completion of a $6 million renovation of the Malibu Library, designed by the architectural firm of LPA, Inc. and funded by revenue generated from local property taxes." Retrieved at on October 16, 2013.

Arts and culture

Getty Villa, an art museum that is part of the J. Paul Getty Museum, is located just outside the city limits in the adjacent Pacific Palisades neighborhood of Los Angeles. [86] It is owned and operated by the J. Paul Getty Trust, which also oversees the Getty Center in West Los Angeles. [87] The Museum at the Getty Villa houses Getty's collections of antiquities, sculptures, art pieces and cultural artifacts of ancient Greece, Rome, and Etruria.

The Malibu Art Association, a non-profit organization to foster the arts in Malibu produces shows, demonstrations and workshops for its members, and offers art for public display throughout the community. [88]

The Malibu Garden Club holds an annual garden tour of private, residential gardens. [89]

Malibu High School offers musicals every spring and instrumental and vocal musical concerts every winter and spring. [90]

Smothers Theatre of Pepperdine University's Theatrical Drama Department offers concerts, plays, musicals, opera, and dance. [91]

Beaches, parks, and other attractions

The Malibu pier near the famous Surfrider Beach Malibu pier.JPG
The Malibu pier near the famous Surfrider Beach

The long waves of Surfrider Beach, adjacent to the Adamson House and Malibu Lagoon, draw a steady beach and surfer crowd.

California State Parkland carpets the hills behind Malibu, and provides extensive horseback-riding, hiking, running, and mountain-biking options, affording many different views of the Santa Monica Mountains, the curve of the Santa Monica Bay, Santa Catalina Island, and the San Fernando Valley. There are many points of access to the Backbone Trail System scattered throughout the local canyons, as well as a variety of smaller, local trail-heads.

Pacific Coast Highway is popular with road cycling enthusiasts for its vistas. The route also has a reputation for being quite dangerous for cyclists, a fact which inspired the creation of the Dolphin Run, an annual community event commemorating local victims of reckless driving. The Dolphin Run was held each Autumn from 1990 to 2004.

Adamson House, the unused homesite of the 19th century original owners of Malibu, the Rindge Family, draws some visitors.

In late June 2008, the Malibu Pier reopened after $10 million in renovations. [92]

There are several shopping centers in the Malibu Civic Center area including the Malibu Country Mart, the Point Dume Plaza, and the newly opened Malibu Lumberyard, so named for the community Lumberyard that used to occupy that space. The Malibu Civic Center is well known for being frequented by paparazzi and tourists looking to catch a glimpse of local celebrities.

Malibu Bluffs Community Park and Malibu Bluffs Recreation Area

The former Malibu Bluffs State Park ownership changed hands in 2006 after the California Department of Parks and Recreation transferred the park's 93 acres (38 ha) control to the Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy, [93] They established the Malibu Bluffs Recreation Area, an Open Space Preserve of 90 acres (36 ha) on the bluffs between the Pacific Coast Highway and Malibu Road, directly opposite Pepperdine University and Malibu Canyon Road. The 100-foot (30 m) bluffs rise above Amarillo Beach and Puerco Beach across Malibu Road. Five public stairways (which adjoin private property) lead down to the shoreline from the base of the bluffs. The trails begin from the spacious lawns in Malibu Bluffs Community Park

The Malibu Bluffs Recreation Area surrounds the 6-acre (2.4 ha)Malibu Bluffs Community Park, whose 10-acre (4.0 ha) parcel the Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy sold to the city. [94] It consists of the Michael Landon Community Center, baseball diamonds, and soccer fields. Home of the Malibu Little League [95] (MLL), once the largest youth team sports organization in Malibu. (That honor was wrested in the 1990s by Malibu AYSO, [96] a youth soccer organization that shares park space (practice fields).) For over 20 years, the State Parks had tried to kick out Malibu Little League's baseball diamonds and tall baseball fences, with the intention of returning the land to its native wetlands and vegetation. [97] A rider to a California state law was written specifically in the 1950s to allow baseball, with its attendant field accoutrements, to continue being played in the state park. [98] Several generations of Malibuites worked to keep Malibu Bluffs Park for baseball and soccer.

Malibu Legacy Park Project

Adjacent to the Malibu Country Mart was a vacant, 20-acre (8.1 ha) plot of land owned by billionaire Jerry Perenchio and sold to the City of Malibu in 2005 with strict deed restrictions prohibiting any further commercial use. [99] [100]

This site is now home to Malibu Legacy Park, an ongoing restoration project undertaken by the City, with broad community support. The City hopes that a state-of-the-art water treatment plant already built will use stormwater runoff that accumulates in the park, making it into an environmental cleaning machine that will end the City's stormwater pollution contribution to Malibu Creek, Malibu Lagoon, and the world-famous Surfrider Beach. [101] The Malibu Legacy Park Project responds to critical issues: (1) bacteria reduction by stormwater treatment, (2) nutrient reduction in wastewater management, (3) restoration and development of riparian habitats, and (4) the development of an open space area for passive recreation and environmental education. In addition, the Project will be linked by a "linear park" to neighboring Surfrider Beach, Malibu Pier, Malibu Lagoon, and Malibu Bluffs Park. [102]

The park is located east of Webb Way, and between Civic Center Way on the north and PCH to the south. It was the site of the annual Labor Day Weekend Kiwanis Club Chili Cook-Off from 1982 to 2009 (in 2010, the Chili Cook-Off and Carnival went on as usual, but moved to still-open land across Civic Center Way, on the Ioki property, at the corner of Civic Center Way and Stuart Ranch Road). [103] Further back, it was agricultural land, planted in geraniums, other flowers and vegetables by the Takahashi family since 1924. [104]

As of now, "Legacy Park" stands in the lot adjacent to the Malibu Public Library. Some dissidents of the park development feel the project was a waste of money because the park does not contain grass areas, only many walkways and plants. What they may not be aware of are the strict "passive use" restrictions also included in the land purchase agreement. Not only are all ball sports prohibited, but running/jogging and other sports are banned within the park as well. [104] [105] The park does include many educational features, an outdoor classroom, and other informative features which explain the different habitats included in the park's final design. [106]

World Surfing Reserve

On October 9, 2010 Malibu Surfrider Beach was dedicated as the first World Surfing Reserve. [107]

Businesses and organizations

Pepperdine University campus, view to the coast Pepperdine University 2011.jpg
Pepperdine University campus, view to the coast

The Malibu Chamber of Commerce was formed in 1949 to provide support to local Malibu business, and now has over 500 members. [108]

HRL Laboratories, the research arm of the former Hughes Aircraft Company, was established in 1960 in Malibu. Among its research accomplishments was the first working laser. Despite aerospace industry downsizing in the 1990s, HRL is the largest employer in Malibu.

Jakks Pacific is based in Malibu.

Established in 1937 in south-central Los Angeles, Pepperdine University moved to its Malibu campus in 1972. However, when Malibu incorporated as a city the boundaries were drawn to exclude Pepperdine, at the college's insistence. [109]

The Surfrider Foundation was formed in 1984 by a group of surfers gathered to protect 31 miles (50 km) of coastal waters from Marina Del Rey through Malibu to Ventura County, and represent the surfing community. [110]

Heal the Bay, a non-profit organization for environmental advocacy, was formed in 1985 to protect Santa Monica Bay, which extends from Malibu's Point Dume along the entire coastline of Malibu past Santa Monica to the Palos Verdes Peninsula.

Following the opening of Passages Malibu in 2001, the city has become home to numerous residential drug-abuse treatment centers. As of 2013, there are 35 state-licensed drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities in Malibu, in addition to a multiplying number of unlicensed sober-living homes. [111]


The Malibu Arts Festival is held annually on the last weekend in July by the Malibu Chamber of Commerce. [112]

The Malibu International Film Festival is held every year showcasing new films and filmmakers from around the world. [113]

The Malibu Chili Cookoff, held every Labor Day weekend, is sponsored by the Kiwanis Club of Malibu. Proceeds benefit children and youth organizations. [114]

The Malibu Nautica Triathlon is held every September. In 2007, it raised $718,000 to benefit Children's Hospital Los Angeles. [115]

The Polar Plunge (Los Angeles) is held each year in February at Zuma Beach to help raise funds for the Special Olympics in Southern California. [116]

National Get Organized Month is provided by Bee Organized. [117]

Malibu International Marathon is a half and full marathon race held every November. These races started in 2009. A SUPathlon a sport created by Forever Runners (7 miles run and a 6 miles Stand Up Paddle boarding) was added in 2011. A kids' fun run was added in 2013. [118]

Filming location

Point Dume State Beach, a frequently-used film location POINTDUME CA6.jpg
Point Dume State Beach, a frequently-used film location
Ambulance hulk at M*A*S*H filming site, Malibu Creek State Park, 2008 MASH site - Malibu Creek State Park - 30 August 2008.jpg
Ambulance hulk at M*A*S*H filming site, Malibu Creek State Park, 2008

Malibu has been used as a location or setting for many films, television programs, fashion shoots and music videos.

Surfrider Beach was home to Gidget , and surfing movies of the 1960s. Jill Munroe and her sister Kris Munroe's Charlie's Angels beach house was located in Malibu. The residence can also be seen in the first scene after the opening theme song of Beach Blanket Bingo. Important scenes in the Planet of the Apes series were filmed at Point Dume. The hero's trailer in The Rockford Files was parked by the Paradise Cove Pier. Love American Style and The Mod Squad are among many TV series and commercials filmed in Paradise Cove. A 1978 film starring Suzanne Somers was entitled Zuma Beach. [119] In the 1990s and 2000s (decade), it was the setting for MTV Beach House, Malibu's Most Wanted , and Nickelodeon's Zoey 101 . Point Dume is the location of Tony Stark's mansion in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, first appearing in Iron Man (2008).

Malibu is the setting for the television series Two and a Half Men . The television series So Little Time (2001) portrayed two Malibu teens (Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen) who attend the fictional school West Malibu High. Fictional teen star Hannah Montana / Miley Stewart (portrayed by Miley Cyrus) and her father Robbie Ray Stewart (portrayed by Billy Ray Cyrus) live in Malibu on the Disney Channel Original Series, Hannah Montana . In the Fox TV series The O.C. , both the Cohen house and the Cooper homes were actually located in Malibu. [120] Malibu Shores , a teen drama that aired on NBC, was set in Malibu. Some scenes from The Even Stevens Movie were filmed on Westward Beach in Point Dume. The small hit TV show Summerland was also filmed and set in Malibu.

In 2006, Bravo television aired Million Dollar Listing , a real-estate related show based on million dollar listings in Malibu, as well as Hollywood, including real-life Malibu agents such as Chris Cortazzo, Scotty Brown, Madison Hildebrand, and Lydia Simon. [121]

The MTV reality show Buzzin' starring Shwayze and Cisco Adler is mostly filmed in Malibu, at locations including Westward Beach, Malibu Courthouse, Pacific Coast Highway, Point Dume Trailer Park, Malibu Inn, and the outside of PC Greens.

There are also many music videos filmed on Malibu's beaches. In 1998, the alternative rock band Hole shot the video for the song "Malibu". Mariah Carey's video for her 2009 single H.A.T.E.U. was filmed there. Selena Gomez's "Love You Like a Love Song" video was partly filmed in Malibu. Music videos for "Survivor" by Destiny's Child, "If It's Lovin' That You Want" by Rihanna, "Sunshine" by Lil Flip, "Natural" by S Club 7, "Feel It Boy" by Beenie Man featuring Janet Jackson, "You're Still the One" by Shania Twain, and many others were filmed on Westward Beach. Linda Ronstadt who lived in the Colony is photographed in front of her home for her 1976 Grammy award-winning album Hasten Down the Wind . Girls Aloud filmed their video "Call the Shots" on the beach at Malibu. In 1999, Britney Spears shot the video for the song "Sometimes" directed by Nigel Dick on the pier at Paradise Cove. Also in late 1998, Madonna shot her video for "The Power of Good-Bye" near Silver Top mansion. The music video for "Somebody to You", from British pop rock band The Vamps featuring Demi Lovato was filmed on Malibu Beach in May 2014.

Local media

Pepperdine University's TV-32 is fed on Educational-access television cable TV channel 32, and was previously on channel 26. [122] [123]

Broadcast radio stations licensed for Malibu include FM booster station KPFK-FM1 for 90.7 KPFK Los Angeles. 92.7 KYRA, Thousand Oaks, has a booster KLSI-FM1 with a city of license of "Malibu Vista". [124]

Malibu has three local newspapers: The Malibu Times , founded in 1946, the Malibu Surfside News, and Pepperdine University's student newspaper, the Graphic.

There are also three magazines in Malibu: Malibu Arts Journal, Malibu Magazine, and Malibu Times Magazine and "Malibu Biz".

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

Pacific Palisades, Los Angeles Neighborhood of Los Angeles in California, United States

Pacific Palisades is a coastal neighborhood in the Westside of the city of Los Angeles, California, located among Brentwood to the east, Malibu and Topanga to the west, Santa Monica to the southeast, the Santa Monica Bay to the southwest, and the Santa Monica Mountains to the north. It is about 9 miles northwest of the UCLA campus. The area currently has about 24,651 residents. Of those residents it is estimated that 11,799 are males and 12,852 are females. It is primarily a residential area, with a mixture of large private homes, small houses, condominiums, and apartments.

The Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy is an agency of the state of California in the United States founded in 1980 and dedicated to the acquisition of land for preservation as open space, for wildlife and California native plants habitat Nature Preserves, and for public recreation activities.

Malibu Creek State Park Wilderness park in Santa Monica Mountains of southern California

Malibu Creek State Park is a state park of California, United States, preserving the Malibu Creek canyon in the Santa Monica Mountains. The 8,215-acre (3,324 ha) park was established in 1974. Opened to the public in 1976, the park is also a component of Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area.

Santa Monica Bay bay

Santa Monica Bay is a bight of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California, United States. Its boundaries are slightly ambiguous, but it is generally considered to be the part of the Pacific within an imaginary line drawn between Point Dume, in Malibu, and the Palos Verdes Peninsula. Its eastern shore forms the western boundary of the Los Angeles Westside and South Bay regions. Although it was fed by the Los Angeles River prior to the river's catastrophic change of course in 1825, the only stream of any size now flowing into it is Ballona Creek. Other waterways draining into the bay include Malibu Creek, Topanga Creek, and Santa Monica Creek.

Mulholland Highway thoroughfare in Los Angeles, United States

Mulholland Highway is a scenic road in Los Angeles County, California, that runs approximately 50 miles through the western Santa Monica Mountains from near US Route 101 in Calabasas to Highway 1 near Malibu at Leo Carrillo State Park and the Pacific Ocean coast - at the border of Los Angeles and Ventura Counties.

Topanga State Park

Topanga State Park is a California state park located in the Santa Monica Mountains, within Los Angeles County, California. It is part of the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area.

Frederick H. Rindge American businessman

Frederick Hastings Rindge (1857–1905) was an American business magnate, patriarch of the illustrious and prominent Rindge Family, real estate developer, philanthropist, and writer, of Los Angeles, California. He was a major benefactor to his home town of Cambridge, Massachusetts and a founder of present day Malibu, California. Rindge was the only surviving son of banking and shipping tycoon Samuel B. Rindge. Rindge and his wife Rhoda were informally known as the King and Queen of Malibu. Between 1905 and 1940 with an estimated net worth of between US $700 million and US $1.4 billion, the Rindge family was widely considered one of the wealthiest in the world.

Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area protected area in Southern California, USA

The Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area is a United States National Recreation Area containing many individual parks and open space preserves, located primarily in the Santa Monica Mountains of Southern California. The SMMNRA is located within the greater Los Angeles region, with two thirds of the parklands in northwest Los Angeles County, and the remaining third, including a Simi Hills extension, in southeastern Ventura County.

California State Route 27 highway in California

State Route 27 is a state highway in the U.S. state of California that runs from Pacific Coast Highway (PCH) at Topanga State Beach near Pacific Palisades, through Topanga Canyon including the community of Fernwood Pacific also known as Topanga, and continuing through Woodland Hills, Canoga Park, West Hills, and Chatsworth to Ronald Reagan Freeway. The entire route is commonly known by its street name, Topanga Canyon Boulevard.

Malibu Creek river in the United States of America

Malibu Creek is a year-round stream in western Los Angeles County, California. It drains the southern Conejo Valley and Simi Hills, flowing south through the Santa Monica Mountains, and enters Santa Monica Bay in Malibu, California. The Malibu Creek watershed drains 109 square miles (280 km2) and its tributary creeks reach as high as 3,000 feet (910 m) into Ventura County, California. The creek's mainstem begins south of Westlake Village at the confluence of Triunfo Creek and Lobo Canyon Creek, and flows 13.4 miles (21.6 km) to Malibu Lagoon.

Rustic Canyon is a residential neighborhood and canyon in eastern Pacific Palisades, on the west side of Los Angeles, California. It is along Rustic Creek, in the Santa Monica Mountains.

Rindge Co. v. County of Los Angeles, 262 U.S. 700 (1923), was a case in which the United States Supreme Court held that a county government could use its power of eminent domain to take land from a private landowner to build a scenic highway.

these roads, especially the main road, through its connection with the public road coming along the shore from Santa Monica, will afford a highway for persons desiring to travel along the shore to the county line, with a view of the ocean on one side, and of the mountain range on the other, constituting, as stated by the trial judge, a scenic highway of great beauty. Public uses are not limited, in the modern view, to matters of mere business necessity and ordinary convenience, but may extend to matters of public health, recreation and enjoyment. Thus, the condemnation of lands for public parks is now universally recognized as a taking for public use. A road need not be for a purpose of business to create a public exigency; air, exercise and recreation are important to the general health and welfare; pleasure travel may be accommodated as well as business travel; and highways may be condemned to places of pleasing natural scenery.

Malibu Country Mart

The Malibu Country Mart is a large outdoor lifestyle center or "boutique mall" located in the heart of Malibu at the Civic Center of Malibu, California. The center features a popular public playground, outdoor dining and picnic area, unique sculptures and public art, multiple restaurant options, free Wi-Fi, and on-site parking.

California County Routes in zone N California County Routes in zone N

There are 9 routes assigned to the "N" zone of the California Route Marker Program, which designates county routes in California. The "N" zone includes county highways lying in Los Angeles and Orange counties.

Hueneme, Malibu and Port Los Angeles Railway

The Hueneme, Malibu & Port Los Angeles Railway was a standard-gauge, 15-mile railroad in Malibu, California. It was founded by Frederick Hastings Rindge (1857–1905) and operated on his 13,000-acre ranch along the coast, which encompassed most of what is today Malibu. He struggled for years to keep trespassers off of his land, and feared that the Southern Pacific Company would use the power of eminent domain to build a railroad through his property. This threat animated Rindge to plan his own railroad to thwart the efforts of the Southern Pacific. This was part of his overall effort to keep outsiders off of his ranch and spoil what he considered to be paradise.

Rindge family

The Rindge family is an American family of British royal origin who gained social and business prominence during the 19th and 20th centuries. The Rindge's are direct descendants of King Alfred the Great, King Edward the Elder, King Edmund I, King Henry II of England and other European royalty.


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Further reading