Mamie Smith

Last updated
Mamie Smith
Birth nameMamie Robinson
Born(1891-05-26)May 26, 1891 [1]
Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.
DiedSeptember 16, 1946(1946-09-16) (aged 55)
Staten Island, New York, U.S.
Genres Blues
Occupation(s)Actress, dancer, singer
Instrument(s) Vocals, piano

Mamie Smith (née Robinson; May 26, 1891 [1] – September 16, 1946) was an American vaudeville singer, dancer, pianist, and actress. As a vaudeville singer she performed in multiple styles, including jazz and blues. In 1920, she entered blues history as the first African American artist to make vocal blues recordings. Willie "The Lion" Smith (no relation) described the background of that recording in his autobiography, Music on My Mind (1964).


Early life

Robinson was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1891. The year of her birth has previously been given as 1883, [2] [3] but in 2018, researcher John Jeremiah Sullivan discovered her birth certificate stating she was born in Cincinnati in 1891. [1]

When she was around 10 years old, she found work touring with a white act, the Four Dancing Mitchells. [4] As a teenager, she danced in Salem Tutt Whitney's Smart Set. [3] In 1913, she left the Tutt Brothers to sing in clubs in Harlem and married William "Smitty" Smith, a singer. [4]

Musical career

On February 14, 1920, Smith recorded "That Thing Called Love" and "You Can't Keep a Good Man Down" for the Okeh label in New York City, [5] after African-American songwriter and bandleader Perry Bradford persuaded Fred Hager to break the color barrier in black music recording. [6] Okeh Records recorded many iconic songs by black musicians. Although this was the first recording by a black blues singer, the backing musicians were all white. Hager had received threats from Northern and Southern pressure groups saying they would boycott the company if he recorded a black singer. [6] Despite these threats the record was a commercial success and opened the door for more black musicians to record. [7]

Smith's biggest hit was recorded later, on August 10, 1920, when she recorded a set of songs written by Perry Bradford, including "Crazy Blues" and "It's Right Here for You (If You Don't Get It, 'Tain't No Fault of Mine)", again for Okeh Records, [8] [9] [10] A million copies were sold in less than a year. [11] Many were bought by African Americans, and there was a sharp rise in sales of "race records". [12] Because of its historical significance, "Crazy Blues" was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1994 [13] and was selected for preservation in the National Recording Registry of the Library of Congress in 2005. [14]

Although other African Americans had been recorded earlier, such as George W. Johnson in the 1890s, they were performing music that had a substantial following among European-American audiences. The success of Smith's record prompted record companies to seek to record other female blues singers and began the era of what is now known as classic female blues. [10]

Gravure of Smith in the New York Clipper, 1921 Mamiesmith1921.jpg
Gravure of Smith in the New York Clipper , 1921

Smith continued to make popular recordings for Okeh throughout the 1920s. In 1924 she made three releases for Ajax Records, which, while heavily promoted, did not sell well. [15] She made some records for Victor. She toured the United States and Europe with her band, Mamie Smith & Her Jazz Hounds, as part of Mamie Smith's Struttin' Along Review. [16]

She was billed as "The Queen of the Blues", a billing soon one-upped by Bessie Smith, who was called "The Empress of the Blues". Mamie found that the new mass medium of radio provided a means of gaining additional fans, especially in cities with predominantly white audiences. For example, she and several members of her band performed on KGW in Portland, Oregon, in early May 1923 and received positive reviews. [17]

Recording lineups of the Jazz Hounds included (from August 1920 to October 1921) Jake Green, Curtis Moseley, Garvin Bushell, Johnny Dunn, Dope Andrews, Ernest Elliot, Porter Grainger, Leroy Parker and Bob Fuller, and (from June 1922 to January 1923) Coleman Hawkins, Everett Robbins, Johnny Dunn, Herschel Brassfield, Herb Flemming, Buster Bailey Cutie Perkins, Joe Smith, Bubber Miley, and Cecil Carpenter. [18]

While recording with the Jazz Hounds, she also recorded as Mamie Smith and Her Jazz Band, comprising George Bell, Charles Matson, Nathan Glantz, Larry Briers, Jules Levy, Jr., Joe Samuels, together with musicians from the Jazz Hounds, including Hawkins, Fuller and Carpenter. [19]

Film career and later years

Smith appeared in an early sound film, Jailhouse Blues , in 1929. She retired from recording and performing in 1931. She returned to performing in 1939 to appear in the motion picture Paradise in Harlem , produced by her husband, Jack Goldberg. [14]

She also appeared in other films, including Mystery in Swing (1940), Sunday Sinners (1940), Stolen Paradise (1941), Murder on Lenox Avenue (1941), and Because I Love You (1943). [20]

Death and memorial

Smith died in 1946 in New York, New York, [21] reportedly penniless. [22] She was interred at Frederick Douglass Memorial Park on Staten Island, on ground which remained unmarked until 2013, when a monument was finally erected.

Initially, according to the Jas Obrecht Music Archive website, Smith was buried in an unmarked grave until 1963, when musicians from Iserlohn, West Germany, used the money from a Hot Jazz benefit to buy a headstone that read “Mamie Smith (1883–1946): First Lady of The Blues”. With the help of fellow blues singer Victoria Spivey and Record Research Magazine publisher Len Kunstadt, Smith was re-interred at Frederick Douglass Memorial Park in Richmond, New York. Smith's re-interment was celebrated with a gala honoring the late singer on January 27, 1964. [22] However, according to the 2012 campaign website, Mamie Smith was still buried without a headstone 67 years after her death in 1946.

A successful campaign to finally acquire and erect a headstone for Smith was begun in 2012 by Michael and Anne Fanciullo Cala. The couple, respectively a blues journalist and editor, developed a months-long crowdfunding campaign on the Indiegogo Web site to purchase a headstone for Smith. The philanthropy Music Cares also supported the effort. The campaign raised over $8,000 that funded the creation of a four-foot-high etched granite headstone featuring an image of the late blues singer.

The monument was erected with great fanfare at Frederick Douglass Cemetery in Staten Island, New York, on September 20, 2013. Excess funds from the campaign were donated to the cemetery for grounds care. [23]

Hit records

YearSingle US
1920"Crazy Blues"3
1921"Fare Thee Honey Blues"9
"Royal Garden Blues"13
"You Can't Keep a Good Man Down"4
"Dangerous Blues"6
1922"Lonesome Mama Blues"6
1923"You Can Have Him, I Don't Want Him Blues"13
"You've Got to See Mama Ev'ry Night (Or You Can't See Mama At All)"13

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bessie Smith</span> American blues singer (1894–1937)

Bessie Smith was an American blues singer widely renowned during the Jazz Age. Nicknamed the "Empress of the Blues", she was the most popular female blues singer of the 1930s. Inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1989, she is often regarded as one of the greatest singers of her era and was a major influence on fellow blues singers, as well as jazz vocalists.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">W. C. Handy</span> American blues composer and musician (1873–1958)

William Christopher Handy was an American composer and musician who referred to himself as the Father of the Blues. Handy was one of the most influential songwriters in the United States. One of many musicians who played the distinctively American blues music, Handy did not create the blues genre but was the first to publish music in the blues form, thereby taking the blues from a regional music style with a limited audience to a new level of popularity.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Black Swan Records</span>

Black Swan Records was an American jazz and blues record label founded in 1921 in Harlem, New York. It was the first widely distributed label to be owned, operated, and marketed to African Americans.. Black Swan was established to give African Americans a label that would give them more creative liberties. Black Swan was revived in the 1990s for CD reissues of historic jazz and blues recordings.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Okeh Records</span> American record label; imprint of Otto Heineman Phonograph Supply Company, Inc.

Okeh Records is an American record label founded by the Otto Heinemann Phonograph Corporation, a phonograph supplier established in 1916, which branched out into phonograph records in 1918. The name was spelled "OkeH" from the initials of Otto K. E. Heinemann but later changed to "OKeh". Since 1965, Okeh was a subsidiary of Epic Records, a subsidiary of Sony Music. Today, OKeh is a jazz imprint, distributed by Sony Masterworks.

Lucille Nelson Hegamin was an American singer and entertainer and an early African-American blues recording artist.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Aileen Stanley</span> Musical artist

Aileen Stanley, born Maude Elsie Aileen Muggeridge, was one of the most popular American singers of the early 1920s.

Trixie Smith was an American blues singer, recording artist, vaudeville entertainer, and actress. She made four dozen recordings.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ida Cox</span> American singer and vaudeville performer

Ida Cox was an American singer and vaudeville performer, best known for her blues performances and recordings. She was billed as "The Uncrowned Queen of the Blues".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lonnie Johnson (musician)</span> American blues and jazz musician (1899–1970)

Alonzo "Lonnie" Johnson was an American blues and jazz singer, guitarist, violinist and songwriter. He was a pioneer of jazz guitar and jazz violin and is recognized as the first to play an electrically amplified violin.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Eva Taylor</span> American blues singer and stage actress

Eva Taylor was an American blues singer and stage actress.

Classic female blues was an early form of blues music, popular in the 1920s. An amalgam of traditional folk blues and urban theater music, the style is also known as vaudeville blues. Classic blues were performed by female singers accompanied by pianists or small jazz ensembles and were the first blues to be recorded. Ma Rainey, Bessie Smith, Ethel Waters, and the other singers in this genre were instrumental in spreading the popularity of the blues.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Race record</span> 78-rpm phonograph records marketed to African Americans between the 1920s and 1940s

Race records were 78-rpm phonograph records marketed to African Americans between the 1920s and 1940s. They primarily contained race music, comprising various African-American musical genres, blues, jazz, and gospel music, Rhythm and blues and also comedy. These records were, at the time, the majority of commercial recordings of African American artists in the U.S., and few African American artists were marketed to white audiences. Race records were marketed by Okeh Records, Emerson Records, Vocalion Records, Victor Talking Machine Company, Paramount Records, and several other companies.

Rosa Henderson was an American jazz and classic female blues singer and vaudeville entertainer of the Harlem Renaissance era.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Perry Bradford</span> American musician

Perry Bradford was an American composer, songwriter, and vaudeville performer. His most notable songs included "Crazy Blues," "That Thing Called Love," and "You Can't Keep A Good Man Down." He was nicknamed "Mule" because of his stubbornness, and he is credited with finally persuading Okeh Records to work with Mamie Smith leading to her historic blues recording in 1920.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lena Wilson</span> American blues singer (1898–1939)

Lena Wilson was an American blues singer who performed in the classic female blues style. An African-American, Wilson performed in vaudeville with her brother Danny and his wife, Edith Wilson in the late 1910s and 1920s. Wilson made numerous recordings in the 1920s as a solo artist, for labels such as Black Swan, Paramount, Pathé, Victor, and Vocalion.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Edith Wilson (singer)</span> American blues singer and vaudeville performer (1896-1981)

Edith Wilson was a blues singer, vaudeville performer, and actress from Louisville, Kentucky, US. An African-American who performed and recorded in the classic female blues style in the 1920s, Wilson worked in vaudeville and stage productions, first in Louisville and later throughout the US and abroad. From the 1930s onward, she acted in radio plays and television, and from 1948 to 1966 represented the Aunt Jemima brand for Quaker Oats in personal appearances and on television. She remained an active performer until 1980.

Virginia Liston was an American classic female blues and jazz singer. She spent most of her career in vaudeville. She performed with her husband, Samuel H. Gray, as Liston and Liston. In the 1920s she made a series of recordings that included performances with Clarence Williams and his Blue Five on "You've Got the Right Key, but the Wrong Keyhole" and "Early in the Morning", and with the Clarence Williams Washboard Band on "Cushion Foot Stomp", and "P.D.Q. Blues".

"Crazy Blues" is a song, renamed from the originally titled "Harlem Blues" song of 1918, written by Perry Bradford. Mamie Smith and Her Jazz Hounds recorded it on August 10, 1920, which was released that year by Okeh Records (4169-A). The stride pianist Willie "The Lion" Smith appeared in photographs associated with the recording session, although Bradford claimed to have played piano on the recording. Within a month of release, it had sold 75,000 copies.

Everett "Happy" Robbins was a Chicago-based pianist, bandleader and composer.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Edna Alexander (composer)</span> American singer and music composer

Edna Belle Alexander (1892–1972) was an American soprano singer and music composer. In addition to performing, she became a songwriter and published music under the name Alex Belledna.


  1. 1 2 3 DiTirro, Tessa (15 November 2018). "Researchers confirm blues legend Mamie Smith was born in Cincinnati". WKRC. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
  2. Tracy, Steven C. (1998). Going to Cincinnati: A History of the Blues in the Queen City. University of Illinois Press. p. 5. ISBN   0-252-06709-6.
  3. 1 2 Oliver, Paul, "Smith (née Robinson), Mamie", The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz (2 ed.), Oxford University Press , retrieved April 22, 2010(registration required)
  4. 1 2 Gates, Henry Louis; Higginbotham, Evelyn Brooks (2009). Harlem Renaissance Lives from the African American National Biography. Oxford University Press US. p. 458. ISBN   978-0-19-538795-7.
  5. Lynskey, Dorian. "The forgotten story of America's first black superstars". Retrieved 2021-04-25.
  6. 1 2 Giles Oakley (1997). The Devil's Music. Da Capo Press. p.  83/5. ISBN   978-0-306-80743-5.
  7. Oakley, Gilles (1976). The Devil's Music: A History of the Blues. Da Capo Press. pp. 83–84.
  8. Weisenfeld, Judith (2007). Hollywood Be Thy Name: African American religion in American Film, 1929-1949. University of California Press. p. 287. ISBN   978-0-520-25100-7.
  9. Whalan, Mark (2010). American Culture in the 1910s. Edinburgh University Press. p. 148. ISBN   978-0-7486-3424-8.
  10. 1 2 Du Noyer, Paul (2003). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Music. Fulham, London: Flame Tree Publishing. p. 154. ISBN   1-904041-96-5.
  11. Schuller, Gunther (1986). Early jazz: its roots and musical development. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 226. ISBN   0-19-504043-0.
  12. Gates & Higginbotham, p. 460
  13. "Grammy Hall of Fame". Retrieved 6 July 2018.
  14. 1 2 McCann, Bob (2010). Encyclopedia of African American Actresses in Film and Television. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. p. 309. ISBN   978-0786437900.
  15. Sutton, Allan; Nauck, Kurt (2000). American Record Labels and Companies: An Encyclopedia (1891–1943). Denver, Colorado: Mainspring Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN   0-9671819-0-9.
  16. Kernfeld, Barry Dean (2002). "Mamie Smith". The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz, vol. 3 (2nd ed.). London: Macmillan. p. 615. ISBN   1-56159-284-6.
  17. "Broadcasting from KGW", Portland Oregonian, May 5, 1923, p. 11.
  18. Gibbs, Craig Martin (2012). Black Recording Artists, 1877–1926: An Annotated Discography. pp. 73–122. McFarland. Retrieved May 2013.
  19. Gibbs (2012). Black Recording Artists, 1877–1926. pp. 88–106; retrieved May 15, 2013.
  20. Mamie Smith at IMDb
  21. Cincinnati’s own Mamie Smith”. AAREG. 1993, 2018. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  22. 1 2 Mame Smith: The First Lady of The Blues Archived 2018-08-05 at the Wayback Machine ”. Jas Obercht Music Archive. 7 June 2010.
  23. A Headstone for Mamie Smith’ Campaign has Ended”. 22 August 2013.
  24. Whitburn, Joel (1986). Pop Memories: 1890–1954. Record Research. ISBN   0-89820-083-0.