This article needs additional citations for verification .(August 2012)
|Type||Camera and lens manufacturer|
|Industry||Digital imaging and photography|
|Seiichi Mamiya, founder|
|Products||Cameras, Optical and other products|
Number of employees
|Website|| Mamiya Japan |
Mamiya Digital Imaging Co., Ltd. (Japanese: マミヤ・デジタル・イメージング 株式会社, Hepburn: Mamiya Dejitaru Imējingu Kabushiki-gaisha, IPA: [maꜜmija deʑitaɾɯ imeꜜːʑiŋɡɯ kabɯɕi̥ki ɡaꜜiɕa] ) is a Japanese company that manufactures high-end cameras and other related photographic and optical equipment. With headquarters in Tokyo, it has two manufacturing plants and a workforce of over 200 people. The company was founded in May 1940 by camera designer Seiichi Mamiya (間宮精一) and financial backer Tsunejiro Sugawara.
Mamiya originally achieved fame for its professional medium-format film cameras such as the Mamiya Six and the Mamiya Press series. It later developed the industry workhorse RB67 series, the RZ67 and the twin-lens reflex Mamiya C-series, used by advanced amateur and professional photographers.
Many Mamiya models over the past six decades[ when? ] have become collectors' items. The earliest Mamiya Six medium-format folding camera, the 35 mm Mamiya-Sekor 1000DTL, the lightweight 35 mm Mamiya NC1000, the 6×6 cm medium-format C series of interchangeable-lens twin-lens reflex (TLR) cameras, and the press cameras of the Super/Universal series are highly valued. Mamiya also manufactured the last models in the Omega line of medium format cameras.
Mamiya entered other business markets over time by purchasing other companies.Until 2000, it made fishing equipment such as fishing rods and fishing reels. In 2006, the Mamiya Op Co., Ltd., Inc. transferred the camera and optical business to Mamiya Digital Imaging Co., Ltd. The original company, doing business as Mamiya-OP, continues to exist and makes a variety of industrial and electronics products. It also makes golf clubs, golf club shafts and grips, and golf balls through its subsidiaries Kasco and USTMamiya.
In 2009, Phase One, a medium format digital camera back manufacturer from Denmark, purchased a major stake in Mamiya. In 2012, Phase One combined Mamiya and another subsidiary, Leaf Imaging, created a new, worldwide Mamiya Leaf brand to integrate both companies’ product lines into one complete medium-format digital camera system offering. The re-branding offers a streamlined product development and establishment of a more efficient customer sales and support base.
In 2015 Phase One purchased Mamiyaand began using Mamiya's Saku factory as the new Japan headquarters.
Mamiya started manufacturing 135-film cameras in 1949, with 135-film point-and-shoot compact cameras being introduced later. The excellent Mamiya-35 series of rangefinder cameras was followed by the Mamiya Prismat SLR in 1961 and the Mamiya TL/DTL in the mid-to-late 1960s. The SX, XTL and NC1000 were other 135-film SLR camera models introduced by Mamiya. One of Mamiya's last 135-film SLR designs was the Z-series. The original entry-level ZE model was an aperture-priority-only SLR; the ZE-2 added manual exposure; the ZE-X added shutter priority and full program automated mode, and (with a dedicated flash and an EF-series lens) focus-priority flash exposure). In these models the aperture ring had no direct connection to the diaphragm, allowing the camera body to override the set aperture, and the lenses could communicate a considerable amount of information to the camera body via electrical contacts on the mount.
The Mamiya ZM, introduced in 1982, was essentially an advanced version of the ZE-2, with some of the features of the ZE-X. It was the last Mamiya 135-film camera produced. It had an aperture-priority automatic time control, based on center-weighted TTL readings, an automatic shutter-speed range from 4 seconds to 1/1000, and a manual range from 2 seconds to 1/1000. Visual and audio signals indicated over- or under-exposure, pending battery failure, or excessive camera shake. Metering modes, shutter release, self-timer, manual time settings and the ergonomics of the camera body were also improved.
In 1984 Osawa, one of Mamiya's major distributors, filed for the Japanese equivalent of bankruptcy and, soon after, Mamiya discontinued 135-film camera production to focus on the medium-format professional market.
Mamiya made a series of square format twin lens reflex (TLR) throughout the middle of the twentieth century. These were developed into the C cameras (C2, C3 through to C330s) which have interchangeable lenses as well as bellows focus.
In 1970, Mamiya introduced the RB67 6×7 cm professional single lens reflex (SLR). The RB67, a large, heavy, medium-format camera with built-in closeup bellows was innovative and successful. Previous medium-format professional SLR cameras used the square 6×6 cm format which did not require the camera to be rotated for photographs in portrait orientation, problematical with large and heavy cameras when tripod-mounted. Like the Linhof Technika the RB67 had a rotating back which enabled photographs to be taken in either landscape or portrait orientation without rotating the camera, at the expense of additional weight and bulk. The RB67 soon became widely used by professional studio photographers. The 6x7 frame had been introduced and patented by Linhof (56 x 72mm) and was described as being ideal, as the negatives required very little cropping to fit on standard 10" x 8" paper. Mamiya actually used 56 x 67mm. When comparing the RB67 to full frame 135 cameras there is a so-called "crop factor" of a half. That means the standard 35mm frame has "half" the diagonal of the 67 (though the ratio is different) but a quarter the area. This effects the focal length of lenses so that to get an equivalent field of view on a 35mm camera you need half the focal length. There is a similar effect on the depth of field of a particular aperture, so a 90mm f1:3.5 on the RB67 is equivalent to using a 45mm f1:1.8 on 35mm full frame.
In 1975 Mamiya started to offer the M645, a camera re-using the 1930s 6x4.5 cm frame, allowing 15 shots on a standard 120 roll film becoming the first SLR MF camera to offer exclusively that format size also known as the 645 format.
The RB67 was followed by the more advanced RZ67 6x7cm frame format camera in 1982. These cameras established Mamiya as a major medium-format professional camera manufacturer, together with Hasselblad, Rollei, Bronica and Pentax.
In 1989, Mamiya introduced the Mamiya 6 and Mamiya 7 (6x6cm and 6x7cm, respectively) rangefinder cameras, compact and quiet cameras which are reputed for the extremely high optical quality of their lenses.
In 1999, Mamiya presented the Mamiya 645AF, a 6X4.5 frame SLR camera with interchangeable lenses and film backs, auto focus and an integrated prism visor that would be the base platform for the Mamiya 645AFD film and digital back cameras.
Mamiya introduced the Mamiya ZD, which was a compact medium-format camera, in 2004. Rather than taking the form of a digital back solution, it was all built into one unit, much like a 35mm camera. This camera utilized the Mamiya 645AF lenses and had a resolution of 22mp. The solution had technical difficulties and became delayed. At the same time, Mamiya also announced a ZD back which had the same specification but was intended to be used with the Mamiya 645AFDII / AFDIII. The ZD back was even more delayed and, once it was introduced, it was already outdated.
In 2009, the Mamiya M Series digital backs were released (M18, M22 and M31) all featuring high pixel counts with large CCDs and compatibility with the Mamiya 645AFD range and RZ/ RB series (via specially manufactured adapters). All the backs are compatible with 4x5 inch view cameras. In the final quarter of 2009, Mamiya released its Mamiya 645DF camera, the latest and digital-only version of the famed 6x4.5 format AF camera series. The Mamiya 645DF has many improved features including mirror-up delay, lack of shutter lag, AF preference with priority on speed or precision, and compatibility with the new leaf shutter lens range (Mamiya Sekor AF 80mm, 55mm and 110mm D lenses with in-built leaf shutters). With these lenses attached, flash synchronizations speeds of up to 1/1,600 of a second are achievable, although the camera can also be programmed to use the focal plane shutter even if a leaf shutter lens is attached. 2010 saw the release of 3 Mamiya DM Systems (Mamiya DM33 System, consisting of a 645DF camera body and 33MP digital back, the Mamiya DM28 System, consisting of a 645 AF III camera body and 28MP digital back, and the Mamiya DM22 System, consisting of a 645 AF III camera body and 22MP digital back. A new logo and webpage were also launched.
In the United States, the trademark for "Mamiya" is not owned by the original company in Japan but rather by a wholly separate entity called Mamiya America Corporation ("M.A.C."). As such, All products that bear the name "Mamiya" are controlled by M.A.C. and has resulted in a considerable rise in retail pricing when comparing the same products to ones sold outside the United States. As of 2014 MAC group no longer manages the Mamiya brand in America, all sales, service and support was transferred to Phase One who already owned a large portion of Mamiya.
A single-lens reflex camera (SLR) is a camera that typically uses a mirror and prism system that permits the photographer to view through the lens and see exactly what will be captured. With twin lens reflex and rangefinder cameras, the viewed image could be significantly different from the final image. When the shutter button is pressed on most SLRs, the mirror flips out of the light path, allowing light to pass through to the light receptor and the image to be captured.
A camera is an optical instrument that captures a visual image. At their most basic, cameras are sealed boxes with a small hole that allows light in to capture an image on a light-sensitive surface. Cameras have various mechanisms to control how the light falls onto the light-sensitive surface. Lenses focus the light entering the camera, the size of the aperture can be widened or narrowed to let more or less light into the camera, and a shutter mechanism determines the amount of time the photo-sensitive surface is exposed to the light.
A rangefinder camera is a camera fitted with a rangefinder, typically a split-image rangefinder: a range-finding focusing mechanism allowing the photographer to measure the subject distance and take photographs that are in sharp focus. Most varieties of rangefinder show two images of the same subject, one of which moves when a calibrated wheel is turned; when the two images coincide and fuse into one, the distance can be read off the wheel. Older, non-coupled rangefinder cameras display the focusing distance and require the photographer to transfer the value to the lens focus ring; cameras without built-in rangefinders could have an external rangefinder fitted into the accessory shoe. Earlier cameras of this type had separate viewfinder and rangefinder windows; later the rangefinder was incorporated into the viewfinder. More modern designs have rangefinders coupled to the focusing mechanism so that the lens is focused correctly when the rangefinder images fuse; compare with the focusing screen in non-autofocus SLRs.
A twin-lens reflex camera (TLR) is a type of camera with two objective lenses of the same focal length. One of the lenses is the photographic objective or "taking lens", while the other is used for the viewfinder system, which is usually viewed from above at waist level.
A press camera is a medium or large format view camera that was predominantly used by press photographers in the early to mid-20th century. It was largely replaced for press photography by 35mm film cameras in the 1960s, and subsequently, by digital cameras. The quintessential press camera was the Speed Graphic. Press cameras are still used as portable and rugged view cameras.
Minolta Co., Ltd. was a Japanese manufacturer of cameras, camera accessories, photocopiers, fax machines, and laser printers. Minolta Co., Ltd., which is also known simply as Minolta, was founded in Osaka, Japan, in 1928 as Nichi-Doku Shashinki Shōten. It made the first integrated autofocus 35 mm SLR camera system. In 1931, the company adopted its final name, an acronym for "Mechanism, Instruments, Optics, and Lenses by Tashima". In 1933, the brand name first appeared on a camera, a copy of the Plaubel Makina simply called "Minolta".
A digital single-lens reflex camera is a digital camera that combines the optics and the mechanisms of a single-lens reflex camera with a digital imaging sensor.
Contax began as a camera model in the Zeiss Ikon line in 1932, and later became a brand name. The early cameras were among the finest in the world, typically featuring high quality Zeiss interchangeable lenses. The final products under the Contax name were a line of 35 mm, medium format, and digital cameras engineered and manufactured by Japanese multinational Kyocera, and featuring modern Zeiss optics. In 2005, Kyocera announced that it would no longer produce Contax cameras. The rights to the brand are currently part of Carl Zeiss AG, but no Contax cameras are currently in production, and the brand is considered dormant.
Bronica also Zenza Bronica was a Japanese manufacturer of classic medium-format roll film cameras and photographic equipment based in Tokyo, Japan. Their single-lens reflex (SLR) system-cameras competed with Pentax, Hasselblad, Mamiya and others in the medium-format camera market.
The history of the single-lens reflex camera (SLR) begins with the use of a reflex mirror in a camera obscura described in 1676, but it took a long time for the design to succeed for photographic cameras: the first patent was granted in 1861, and the first cameras were produced in 1884 but while elegantly simple in concept, they were very complex in practice. One by one these complexities were overcome as optical and mechanical technology advanced, and in the 1960s the SLR camera became the preferred design for many high-end camera formats.
The Mamiya RZ67 is a professional medium format single-lens reflex system camera manufactured by Mamiya. There are three successive models: the RZ67 Professional, RZ67 Professional II and RZ67 Professional IID. RZ67 is a modular camera system, meaning lenses, viewfinders, ground glasses, film winders and film backs are all interchangeable. It is primarily designed for studio use, but can also be used in the field. The RZ67 Sekor lenses have built-in electronic leaf shutters which are cocked and triggered from the body. Focusing is performed with a bellows on the body instead of the lenses.
Leaf is an Israeli company that manufactures high-end digital backs for medium format and large format cameras. It was previously a division of Scitex and later Kodak, and is now a subsidiary of Phase One. In 1991, Leaf introduced the first medium format digital camera back, the Leaf DCB1, nicknamed ‘The Brick’, which had a resolution of 4 million pixels. As of 2012, Leaf produces the Credo line of digital camera backs, ranging from 40 to 80 megapixels. Until 2010, Leaf also produced photography workflow software Leaf Capture.
The Kodak Digital Camera System is a series of digital single-lens reflex cameras and digital camera backs that were released by Kodak in the 1990s and 2000s, and discontinued in 2005. They are all based on existing 35mm film SLRs from Nikon, Canon and Sigma. The range includes the original Kodak DCS, the first commercially available digital SLR.
The Mamiya 6 is a medium-format rangefinder system camera manufactured by Mamiya. It was introduced in 1989, and the line was discontinued in 1995. The coupled viewfinder windows displays frame lines appropriate to the lens mounted. The lens mount partially collapses when the camera is not in use, making it more compact. The camera has a built-in dark slide that allows the electronic leaf shutter lenses to be changed with film in the camera. It can operate in auto exposure, auto exposure lock, and manual modes. It captures twelve 6 cm × 6 cm images on 120 film rolls and 24 on 220 film. The camera also features a self-timer, hot shoe, and flash synchronization terminal.
This article discusses the cameras – mainly 35 mm SLRs – manufactured by Pentax Ricoh Imaging Corp. and its predecessors, Pentax Corporation and Asahi Optical Co., Ltd..
The Pentax 6x7 is a SLR medium format system film camera for 120 and 220 film, which produces images on the film that are nominally 6 cm by 7 cm in size, made by Pentax. It originally debuted in 1965 as a prototype dubbed the Pentax 220. Since then and with improvements, it was released in 1969 as the Asahi Pentax 6×7, as well as the Honeywell Pentax 6×7 for the North American import market. In 1990, it received a number of minor engineering updates and cosmetic changes and was renamed as the Pentax 67.
The Fuji GX680 is a series of single lens reflex system cameras for medium format film produced by Fujifilm with interchangeable camera lenses and interchangeable film holders for the unusual film format 6×8cm on 120 and 220 roll film. The distinguishing feature of the Fuji GX680 is the articulating front standard, which runs on a rail connecting lens and camera body by a bellows; the interchangeable lens is permanently mounted to a lens board.
The Pentax 645 is a medium format single-lens reflex system camera manufactured by Pentax. It was introduced in 1984, along with a complementary line of lenses. It captures images nominally 6 cm × 4.5 cm on 120, 220, and 70 mm film, though the actual size of the images is 56 mm × 41.5 mm.
The Mamiya 645 camera systems are a series of medium format film and digital cameras and lenses manufactured by Mamiya and its successors. They are called "645" because they use the nominal 6 cm x 4.5 cm film size from 120 roll film. They came in three major generations: first-generation manual-focus film cameras, second-generation manual-focus film cameras, and autofocus film/digital cameras.
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