Mana Motuhake

Last updated
Mana Motuhake
Founder Matiu Rata
Founded1980
Dissolved2005
Split from Labour Party
Merged into Māori Party
Ideology Māori rights
Indigenous rights
Social democracy
Political position Centre-left
ColorsBlack, red and white

Mana Māori Motuhake was a Māori political party in New Zealand from 1980 to 2005. The name is difficult to translate accurately, but essentially refers to Māori self-rule and self-determination mana, in this context, can be understood as "authority" or "power", while motuhake can be understood as "independent" or "separate". [1] The purpose of the party was to unify Māori to gain 'political potency'. [2]

Contents

History

Early years

Mana Motuhake was formed in 1980 by Matiu Rata, a former Labour Party member of parliament who had served as Minister of Māori Affairs in the third Labour government (1972–1975). Rata had grown increasingly dissatisfied with Labour Party policy. Eventually deciding that Māori needed an independent voice, he announced his intention to resign from Labour on 6 November 1979. He announced that he would promote a movement based on "mana Māori motuhake". [3] At Easter 1980, he launched the Mana Motuhake party, [3] and resigned his seat in Parliament to contest a by-election under its banner. In the resulting Northern Maori by-election of 1980, Rata was defeated by the Labour Party's new candidate, Bruce Gregory. [4]

Mana Motuhake stood candidates in the 1981, 1984, 1987, and 1990 general elections, but was unsuccessful on each occasion. [5]

In 1991, the party agreed to join forces with three other political parties (NewLabour Party, the Green Party, and the Democratic Party) to form a single group, known as the Alliance. [6] This decision was controversial, as a number of prominent figures in Mana Motuhake believed that by joining the party with non-Māori parties, even sympathetic ones, the party would no longer be free to speak up for Māori. Those who supported the continuation of an independent Māori party founded the new Mana Māori party, led by Eva Rickard.

From the 1990s to deregistration

In the 1993 elections, a Mana Motuhake candidate, Sandra Lee, was elected to Parliament under the Alliance banner. When Rata retired the following year, Lee-Vercoe became Mana Motuhake's political leader. [7] With the introduction of the MMP electoral system in the 1996 elections, Lee-Vercoe was joined in Parliament by Alamein Kopu. Kopu, however, eventually left the party, founding her own Mana Wahine Te Ira Tangata party. In the 1999 elections, another Mana Motuhake candidate, Willie Jackson, entered Parliament as an Alliance MP. In 2001, Jackson successfully challenged Lee-Vercoe for leadership of the party. [8]

In 2002, when the Alliance split into moderate and radical factions, Mana Motuhake sided with the radicals, led by Laila Harré and Matt McCarten. Lee-Vercoe, the former leader, sided with Jim Anderton's moderate faction, but decided to retire from Parliament rather than stand for his breakaway Progressive Party. In the 2002 elections, the remnants of the Alliance were defeated, and Mana Motuhake was left without representation in Parliament. Shortly afterwards, it left the Alliance.

With the rise of the new Māori Party, most of Mana Motuhake's support was transferred to the new group, and Mana Motuhake was deregistered in 2005.

Election results

The following table summarises the party's support in general elections:

Electioncandidatesseats wonvotespercentage
1981 408,3320.46%
1984 805,9890.31%
1987 709,7890.53%
1990 4010,8690.60%

Leaders

Notes

  1. Simon, Hemopereki (2017). "Te Arewhana Kei Roto i Te Rūma: An Indigenous Neo-Disputatio on Settler Society, Nullifying Te Tiriti, 'Natural Resources' and Our Collective Future in Aotearoa New Zealand". Te Kaharoa. 9 (1).
  2. Hokowhitu, Brendan (2012). "As for these Blankets, Burn Them - Māori and Indigeneity". Huia histories of Māori : ngā tāhuhu kōrero. Danny Keenan. Wellington, N.Z.: Huia. ISBN   978-1-77550-009-4. OCLC   779490407.
  3. 1 2 Hill 2009, p.  179.
  4. Norton 1988, p. 398.
  5. Bargh, Maria (2012). "New Māori Politics 1990s-2000s". Huia histories of Māori : ngā tāhuhu kōrero. Danny Keenan. Wellington, N.Z.: Huia. ISBN   978-1-77550-009-4. OCLC   779490407.
  6. Orsman, Bernard (2 December 1991). "Alliance born with eye on Tamaki win". The New Zealand Herald . p. 1.
  7. Herbert, Patricia (21 March 1994). "Party leader calls it a day". The New Zealand Herald . p. 5.
  8. "Lee dumped as Mana Motuhake leader". The Press . 4 June 2001. p. 9.

Related Research Articles

Rātana New Zealand church and political movement

The Rātana movement is a church and pan-iwi political movement founded by Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana in early 20th-century New Zealand. The Rātana Church has its headquarters at the settlement of Rātana Pā near Whanganui.

Sandra Lee-Vercoe New Zealand politician

Sandra Rose Te Hakamatua Lee-Vercoe is a former New Zealand politician and diplomat. She served as deputy leader of the Alliance party and was later High Commissioner to Niue.

The Alliance was a left-wing political party in New Zealand. It was formed at the end of 1991 by the linking of four smaller parties. The Alliance positioned itself as a democratic socialist alternative to the centre-left New Zealand Labour Party. It was influential throughout the 1990s, but suffered a major setback after its founder and leader, Jim Anderton, left the party in 2002, taking with him several of its members of parliament (MPs). After the remaining MPs lost their seats in the 2002 general election, some commentators predicted the demise of the party.

Mana Wahine Te Ira Tangata was a small and short-lived political party in New Zealand. It was established by Alamein Kopu, a member of the New Zealand Parliament who had left her original party. After a short time as an independent MP, Kopu established Mana Wahine as her own party. It was officially registered on 12 June 1998.

Manu Alamein Kopu was a New Zealand politician.

1993 New Zealand general election

The 1993 New Zealand general election was held on 6 November 1993 to determine the composition of the 44th New Zealand Parliament. Voters elected 99 members to the House of Representatives, up from 97 members at the 1990 election. The election was the last general election to use the first-past-the-post electoral system, with all members elected from single-member electorates.

39th New Zealand Parliament

The 39th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand which began with the general election held on 25 November 1978, and finished with the general election held on 28 November 1981. The dates of the Muldoon Ministry were from 13 December 1978 to 11 December 1981.

Willie Jackson (politician) New Zealand politician

William Wakatere Jackson is a New Zealand politician and former top Maori broadcaster and Urban Maori chief executive. He was an Alliance MP from 1999 to 2002, and in 2017 was elected as a Labour MP.

Māori politics Politics of the Māori people

Māori politics is the politics of the Māori people, who were the original inhabitants of New Zealand and who are now the country's largest minority. Before the arrival of Pākehā (Europeans) in New Zealand, Māori society was based largely around tribal units, and chiefs provided political leadership. With the British settlers of the 19th century came a new British-style government. From the outset, Māori sought representation within this government, seeing it as a vital way to promote their people's rights and improve living standards. Modern Māori politics can be seen as a subset of New Zealand politics in general, but has a number of distinguishing features, including advocacy for indigenous rights and Māori sovereignty. Many Māori politicians are members of major, historically European-dominated political parties, but several Māori parties have been formed.

The Northern Maori by-election of 1980 was a by-election for the Northern Maori electorate during the 39th New Zealand Parliament. It was prompted by the resignation of Matiu Rata, a former member of the Labour Party who was establishing a new group, Mana Motuhake. Rata believed that contesting a by-election would give him a mandate for his change of allegiance. In the end, however, his plan backfired when the seat was won by Bruce Gregory, his replacement as the Labour Party candidate.

Matiu Rata New Zealand politician

Matiu Waitai Rata was a Māori politician who was a member of the New Zealand Parliament for the Labour Party from 1963 to 1980, and a cabinet minister from 1972 to 1975. In 1979 he resigned from the Labour Party and formed the Mana Motuhake Party.

The Māori renaissance is the revival in fortunes of the Māori of New Zealand beginning in the latter half of the twentieth century. During this period the perception of Māori went from being that of a "dying race" to being politically, culturally and artistically ascendant.

Waiariki (New Zealand electorate) Māori electorate in New Zealand

Waiariki is a New Zealand parliamentary Māori electorate that was first established for the 1999 election. Since the 2020 general election, it has been held by Māori Party MP Rawiri Waititi. Waiariki was an important electorate in the 2020 election as Waititi's win there allowed the Māori Party to re-enter Parliament and have two MPs despite not reaching 5% of the party vote.

Ikaroa-Rāwhiti

Ikaroa-Rāwhiti is a New Zealand parliamentary Māori electorate. It was formed for the 1999 election and held by Parekura Horomia of the Labour Party until his death in 2013. A by-election to replace him was held on 29 June 2013 and was won by Labour's Meka Whaitiri, who remains the incumbent after the 2014 election.

Te Tai Hauāuru New Zealand electorate

Te Tai Hauāuru is a New Zealand parliamentary Māori electorate, returning one Member of Parliament to the New Zealand House of Representatives, that was first formed for the 1996 election. The electorate was represented by Tariana Turia from 2002 to 2014, first for the Labour Party and then for the Māori Party. Turia retired and was succeeded in 2014 by Labour's Adrian Rurawhe who again retained the seat in 2017.

Northern Maori was one of New Zealand's four original parliamentary Māori electorates established in 1868, along with Eastern Maori, Western Maori and Southern Maori. In 1996, with the introduction of MMP, the Maori electorates were updated, and Northern Maori was replaced with the Te Tai Tokerau electorate.

Margaret Shirley Mutu is a Ngāti Kahu leader, author and academic from Karikari in the Far North and works at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. Her iwi or nations are Ngāti Kahu, Te Rarawa and Ngāti Whātua.

Women in New Zealand Overview of the rights, role and position of women in New Zealand

Women in New Zealand are women who live in or are from New Zealand. Notably New Zealand was the first self-governing country in the world where women were entitled to vote. In recent times New Zealand has had many women in top leadership and government roles, including the current Prime Minister Jacinda Adern. New Zealand has a gender pay gap of 9.5%.

2001 Mana Motuhake leadership election

The Mana Motuhake leadership election, 2001 was held in New Zealand on 2 June 2001 to determine the future leadership of the Mana Motuhake political movement. The election was won by List MP Willie Jackson.

Mana motuhake is a phrase in the Māori language that means self determination, with the principle being autonomy and control. It is sometimes translated to the concept of sovereignty. There was a New Zealand political party called Mana Motuhake that was registered from 1980- 2005, and the Māori Party have a policy called the Mana Motuhake that was announced in 2020.

References