Manado

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Manado
City of Manado
Kota Manado
Manado Waterfront.JPG
Bunaken01.JPG
Kalasey Beach Manado.JPG
Manado airport3.JPG
Manado town square.jpg
Manado Skyline.jpg
Clockwise, from top, left to right: The city's seafront skyline, Bunaken National Park, Kalasey Beach, main terminal of Sam Ratulangi International Airport, Manado Town Square, and Soekarno Bridge
Lambang Kota Manado.png
Nickname(s): 
Kota 1001 Gereja
(City of 1001 Churches)
Motto(s): 
Si Tou Timou Tumou Tou
(Men live to help others live)
(Minahasan)
Lokasi Sulawesi Utara Kota Manado.svg
Location within North Sulawesi
Location map Manado.svg
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Manado
Location in Downtown Manado, Sulawesi, and Southeast Asia
Sulawesi location map plain.svg
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Manado
Manado (Sulawesi)
Indonesia location map.svg
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Manado
Manado (Indonesia)
Southeast Asia location map.svg
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Manado
Manado (Southeast Asia)
Coordinates: 1°29′35″N124°50′28.54″E / 1.49306°N 124.8412611°E / 1.49306; 124.8412611 Coordinates: 1°29′35″N124°50′28.54″E / 1.49306°N 124.8412611°E / 1.49306; 124.8412611
CountryIndonesia
Province North Sulawesi
Founded14 July 1623;398 years ago (1623-07-14)
Government
  Mayor Andrei Angouw
  Vice Mayor Richard Sualang
Area
[1]
  Total162.53 km2 (62.75 sq mi)
Elevation
5 m (16 ft)
Population
 (2020 Census) [2]
  Total451,916
  Density2,800/km2 (7,200/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+8 (ICST)
Area code +62 431
Vehicle registration DB
Website ManadoKota.go.id

Manado (Indonesian pronunciation:  [maˈnado] ) is the capital city of the Indonesian province of North Sulawesi. It is the second largest city in Sulawesi after Makassar, with the 2020 Census giving a population of 451,916 distributed over a land area of 162.53 km2. [2] The Manado metropolitan area has a population of 1.2 million as of 2018. [3] The city is located adjacent to the Bay of Manado, and is surrounded by a mountainous area. [4]

Contents

Manado is among Indonesia's top-five tourism priorities. [5] The city is served by Sam Ratulangi International Airport, which has direct international flights to the Philippines, Singapore, and China, as well as many domestic destinations. [6] Bunaken National Park is one of the city's most famous tourist attractions. The city is also known for its Christian-majority population, and holds the country's biggest Christmas celebration annually. [7] It is also recognised as one of the most tolerant and peaceful cities in Indonesia. [8]

Etymology

The name Manado is derived from the Sangir language word manaro, meaning 'on the far coast' or 'in the distance', and originally referred to the further of two islands which can be seen from the mainland. When the settlement on this island was relocated to the mainland, the name Manado was brought with it, after which the island itself became referred to as Manado Tua (Old Manado). [9] The name for Manado in the Sangir language is Manaro.

History

The first mention of Manado comes from a world map by French cartographer Nicolas Desliens, which shows the island of Manarow (today's Manado Tua). Before Europeans arrived in North Sulawesi, the area was under the rule of the Sultan of Ternate, who exacted tribute and introduced Islam to its inhabitants. The Portuguese made the Sultan their vassal, ruling over the Minahasa people, and establishing a factory in Wenang.

Meanwhile, the Spanish had already set themselves up in the Philippines and Minahasa was used to plant coffee that came from South America because of its rich soil. Manado was further developed by Spain as a centre of commerce for the Chinese traders who traded the coffee in China. With the help of native allies, the Spanish took over the Portuguese fortress in Amurang in the 1550s, and Spanish settlers also established a fort at Manado so that eventually Spain controlled all of the Minahasa. It was in Manado where one of the first Indo-Eurasian (Mestizo) communities in the archipelago developed during the 16th century. [10] The first King of Manado (1630) named Muntu Untu was in fact the son of a Spanish Mestizo. [11]

Map of Manado in 1679 AMH-4680-NA Map of the area around Menado.jpg
Map of Manado in 1679

Spain renounced its possessions in Minahasa by means of a treaty with the Portuguese in return for a payment of 350,000 ducats. [12] Minahasan natives made an alliance treaty with the Dutch, and expelled the last of the Portuguese from Manado a few years later.

The Dutch East India Company or Verenigde Oost Indische Compagnie (VOC) built a fortress in Manado named Fort Amsterdam in 1658. As with regions in eastern Indonesia, Manado has undergone Christianisation by Dutch missionaries, including Riedel and John Gottlieb Schwarz. The Dutch missionaries built the first Christian church in Manado called Oude Kerk (Old church), which still stands, and is now called Gereja Sentrum. HMS Dover captured Manado in June 1810. The Javanese prince Diponegoro was exiled to Manado by the Dutch government in 1830 for leading a war of rebellion against the Dutch. In 1859, the English biologist Alfred Wallace visited Manado and praised the town for its beauty.

In 1919, the Apostolic Prefecture of Celebes was established in the city. In 1961, it was promoted to the Diocese of Manado.

The Japanese captured Manado in the Battle of Manado in January 1942. [13] The city was heavily damaged by Allied bombing during World War II.

In 1958, the headquarters of the rebel movement Permesta was moved to Manado. When Permesta confronted the central government with demands for political, economic and regional reform, Jakarta responded by bombing the city in February 1958, and then invading in June 1958.

In 1962, the People's Representative Council declared Manado as the official capital city of North Sulawesi Province.

Geography

Manado has a tropical rainforest climate (Af) according to the Köppen climate classification, as there is no real dry season. The wettest month is January, with an average rainfall of 465 millimetres (18.3 in), while the driest is September with an average rainfall of 121 millimetres (4.8 in). [14] The abundance of rain seems to be influenced by the monsoon. As its location is near the equator, the temperature seems constant throughout the year. The hottest month is August with an average temperature of 26.6 °C (79.9 °F), while the coolest months are January and February with an average temperature of 25.4 °C (77.7 °F). [15] Unlike other cities in Indonesia, the temperature seems to be cooler.[ weasel words ]

Climate data for Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia (1961-1990)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)29.4
(84.9)
29.5
(85.1)
30.0
(86.0)
31.4
(88.5)
31.4
(88.5)
31.2
(88.2)
31.3
(88.3)
32.0
(89.6)
32.3
(90.1)
31.7
(89.1)
30.9
(87.6)
30.1
(86.2)
30.9
(87.6)
Daily mean °C (°F)25.4
(77.7)
25.4
(77.7)
25.7
(78.3)
26.4
(79.5)
26.4
(79.5)
26.2
(79.2)
26.1
(79.0)
26.6
(79.9)
26.4
(79.5)
26.3
(79.3)
26.3
(79.3)
25.8
(78.4)
26.1
(79.0)
Average low °C (°F)22.3
(72.1)
22.2
(72.0)
22.3
(72.1)
22.4
(72.3)
22.4
(72.3)
22.3
(72.1)
21.8
(71.2)
21.9
(71.4)
21.2
(70.2)
21.8
(71.2)
22.3
(72.1)
22.5
(72.5)
22.1
(71.8)
Average rainfall mm (inches)427
(16.8)
361
(14.2)
338
(13.3)
266
(10.5)
268
(10.6)
277
(10.9)
170
(6.7)
121
(4.8)
149
(5.9)
256
(10.1)
290
(11.4)
365
(14.4)
3,288
(129.6)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 1291191551681681441762101791721571521,929
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst [14] [16] [17] [15] [18]
Manado mean sea temperature [19]
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
28 °C (82 °F)28 °C (82 °F)27 °C (81 °F)27 °C (81 °F)28 °C (82 °F)28 °C (82 °F)28 °C (82 °F)28 °C (82 °F)29 °C (84 °F)28 °C (82 °F)28 °C (82 °F)28 °C (82 °F)

Administrative districts

Manado and its bay taken from Tinoor village Manado bay Manado city.JPG
Manado and its bay taken from Tinoor village
Fisherman village in Sindulang Riverside - panoramio (11).jpg
Fisherman village in Sindulang

The city is divided into eleven districts (kecamatan). These are tabulated below with their areas and populations at the 2010 Census [20] and 2020 Census. [2] The new districts of Bunaken Kepulauan (Bunaken Islands) and Paal Dua were established in 2012. The table also includes the location of the district administrative centres.

District
(kecamatan)
Area
in km2
Population
Census
2010 [21]
Population
Census
2020 [2]
Admin
centre
Malalayang17.9654,95961,890Malalayang Satu
Sario1.9923,19821,740Sario
Wanea8.4756,96259,760Wanea
Wenang3.4732,79632,600Tikala Kumaraka
Tikala6.6969,73430,170Tikala Baru
Paal Dua9.38(a)44,020Ranomuut
Mapanget53.5853,19463,280Paniki Bawah
Singkil4.8746,72152,730Singkil
Tuminting5.2652,08953,760Bitung Karang Ria
Bunaken32.0020,82825,670Molas
Bunaken Kepulauan18.88(b)6,300Bunaken
Totals162.53410,481451,916

Notes:
(a) the 2010 population of Paal Dua District is included in the figure for Tikala District, from which it was cut out in 2013.
(b) the 2010 population of Bunaken Kepulauan District is included in the figure for Bunaken District, from which it was cut out in 2013.

The boundaries of Manado city are as follows:

Demographics

Ethnicity and languages

Minahasa women, circa 1940s COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Portret van drie vrouwen uit Manado geposteerd voor een idyllische achtergrond TMnr 10005908.jpg
Minahasa women, circa 1940s

Currently, the majority of Manado city residents are from the Minahasa ethnic group, because Manado is located in Minahasan lands. The indigenous people of Manado are from the Tombulu people. The Tombulu language is spoken widely in several urban villages within Manado, for example: Wenang (Wenang / Mahawenang - kolintang), Tumumpa (down), Mahakeret (yelling), Tikala Ares (Walak Ares Tombulu, where the word 'ares' means punishable), Ranotana (ground water), Winangun (built), Wawonasa (wawoinasa - sharpened above), Pinaesaan (unity place), Pakowa (Tree of Treasure), Teling (fur / bamboo to make equipment), Titiwungen (excavated), Tuminting (from the word Ting-Ting: a bell, the inserted syllable -um- changing the noun to a verb, so Tuminting: ringing bell), Pondol (Edge), Wanea (from the word Wanua: meaning the country), etc. While the Malalayang area has residents mainly from the Bantik people, other indigenous groups in Manado today are from the Sangir, Gorontalo, Mongondow, Babontehu, Talaud, Tionudese, Siau, and Borgo peoples. There are also Arabian peranakan communities, mainly in the Kampung Arab area which is near Pasar '45 and has become a destination for religious tourism. Other ethnicities represented include Javanese, Chinese, Batak, Makassar, and Moluccans. A small Jewish community also exists.

GPdI church in Manado Gereja Pantekosta di Indonesia (GPdI) Manado - panoramio.jpg
GPdI church in Manado

Manado Malay is the main language spoken in Manado. It is a Malay-based creole. Some of the loan words in the Minahasan vernacular are derived from Dutch, Portuguese, and other foreign languages.

Religion

Religion in Manado (2020) [22]

   Protestant (63.06%)
   Roman Catholic (5.21%)
   Islam (30.84%)
   Buddhism (0.65%)
   Hinduism (0.18%)
   Confucianism (0.06%)

Protestant Christianity is the major religion in Manado, constituting around 63 percent of all residents, Islam comes second forming about 31 percent, Catholicism comes in third forming around 5 percent, and the rest follow Buddhism, Hinduism, and Confucianism, each coming in at less than 1 percent each, according to the 2020 national census. [22] In addition, about 20 Indonesian Jews live in Manado. [23]

Even so, heterogeneous, but the people of Manado really appreciate the attitude of tolerant, harmonious, open and dynamic life. Therefore, the city of Manado has a relatively conducive social environment, and is known as one of the most relatively safe cities in Indonesia. When Indonesia was vulnerable to political upheaval around 1999, and riots hit cities in Indonesia, Manado city was said to be relatively safe. This is shown through the slogan of the people of Manado: Torang samua basudara, which means We are all family. And also through the words of Dr. Sam Ratulangi: "Sitou, Timou, Tumou, Tou", which roughly translates to 'Man lives to educate others'.

Transportation

Sam Ratulangi International Airport Sam ratulangi airport.jpg
Sam Ratulangi International Airport

Sam Ratulangi International Airport of Manado is one of the main entry ports to Indonesia. In 2005, no fewer than 15,000 international passengers entered Indonesia via the city's airport, its connected to several Indonesian cities such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Makassar, and others. Other public transportation in Manado are:

  1. Trans Kawanua (bus)
  2. Perum DAMRI buses serving airport to Manado
  3. Bus serving Tomohon to Manado

Manado–Bitung Toll Road connects the city with Bitung. Terminal Malalayang, or Malalayang Bus Terminal serves as the main gateway for long-distance buses in Manado.

Main sights

Manado City in Panoramic - panoramio.jpg
Panoramic view of Manado

Manado is home to some of the biggest and most influential churches in the province, with many of them located along the iconic Sam Ratulangi Street. [24]

Tourism

Snorkeling around Bunaken Sea Garden of BUNAKEN.jpg
Snorkeling around Bunaken

Cuisine

Fish Woku Kakap Woku.JPG
Fish Woku
RW (dog meat) and Tinorangsak (pork meat) is main common meat used in Minahasan cusisine Manado (North Sulawesi) food.jpg
RW (dog meat) and Tinorangsak (pork meat) is main common meat used in Minahasan cusisine

Food typical of Manado include Tinutuan, which consists of various kinds of vegetables. Tinutuan is not mush, as so far people have said it as Manado porridge. In addition to Tinutuan, there is Cakalang Fufu, a smoked skipjack ('Katsuwonus pelamis'), roa fish (exocoetidae or torani; Parexocoetus brachypterus), Kawok which is food based from rat meat of forest / White (Maxomys hellwandii); Paniki (meat-based dishes bat; Pteropus pumilus) and RW (abbreviated of Rinte Wuuk) is local name of the dog meat, Swine pig (1 pig is burnt by rotating on the embers), usually served at parties, Babi Putar (made from pork mixed with manado spices and rolled burned in bamboo). There is also a typical drink from the area of Manado and its surroundings are saguer which is a kind of wine or palm wine derived from enau / aren tree (Arenga pinnata), which is then fermented. This saguer has an alcohol content, Cap Tikus (high alcoholic beverage with average 40% more ethyl alcohol content derived from saguer distillation process depends on technique in different villages in Minahasa).

Manado styled Nasi Kuning Take-out nasi kuning.JPG
Manado styled Nasi Kuning

Woku is a type of bumbu (spice mixture) found in Manado cuisine of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. It has rich aroma and spicy taste. Woku consist of ground spices paste; red ginger, turmeric, candlenut, and red chili pepper, mixed with chopped shallot, scallion, tomato, lemon or citrus leaf, and turmeric leaf, lemon basil leaf, and bruised lemongrass. Rub main ingredients (chicken or fish) with salt and lime juices, and marinate for 30 minutes. All spices are cooked in coconut oil until the aroma came up and mixed together with the main ingredients, water, and a pinch of salt, well until all cooked well.

Other typical food of Manado city which is also quite famous is Nasi Kuning which taste and its presentation is different from yellow rice in other area because it is spiked with abon of cakalang rica fish and presented in parcel using sugar palm leaves. In addition, there are also grilled fish roasted head. Dabu-dabu is a very popular typical of Manado sauce, made from a mixture of red chillies, cayenne pepper, sliced red onion, and freshly diced tomatoes, and finally given a mixture of soy sauce.

Sister cities

Language

The local language spoken in Manado and the surrounding area is a creole of the Malay language called Manado Malay. It exhibits significant influence of Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch, for example:

While there is not much known about the origin of ideogramatical Minahasa writing system, currently the orthography used for indigenous Minahasan languages closely matches that used for Indonesian.

Notable people

Leading figures in Indonesian history
Important figures in Manadonese history
Other community figures
Sportspeople and actors

See also

Related Research Articles

North Sulawesi Province of Indonesia

North Sulawesi is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the Minahasa Peninsula of Sulawesi, south of the Philippines and southeast of Sabah, Malaysia. It borders Davao and Soccsksargen regions of the Philippines to the north, the Maluku Sea to the east, Gorontalo and Celebes Sea to the west and the Gulf of Tomini to the southwest. With Miangas, it is the northernmost province of Indonesia. The province's area is 13,892.47 square kilometres (5,363.91 sq mi), and its population was 2,270,596 according to the 2010 census; this rose to 2,621,923 at the 2020 Census.

Minahasan people Native people inhabiting the northeastern part of the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia

The Minahasans are an ethnic group native to the North Sulawesi province of Indonesia, formerly known as North Celebes. The Minahasa people sometimes refer to themselves as Manado people. Although the Minahasan pre-Christian creation myth entails some form of ethnic unification, before the nineteenth century the Minahasa region was in no way unified. Instead, a number of politically independent groups (walak) existed together, often in a permanent state of war.

Manado Malay, or simply the Manado language, is a creole language spoken in Manado, the capital of North Sulawesi province in Indonesia, and the surrounding area. The local name of the language is Bahasa Manado, and the name Minahasa Malay is also used, after the main ethnic group speaking the language. Since Manado Malay is used primarily for spoken communication, there is no standard orthography.

Palu City and Capital of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

Palu is a chartered city on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, at the mouth of the Palu River. It is the capital of the province of Central Sulawesi, situated on a long, narrow bay. Because of its sheltered position between mountain ridges, the climate is unusually dry. At the 2010 census Palu had a population of 336,532 On 28 September 2018, the city suffered severe damage due to a series of earthquakes followed by a tsunami, resulting in major soil liquefaction and mudflows, which caused many of the surrounding buildings to become submerged. At the 2020 census Palu had a population of 373,218, not including those living in neighbouring regencies.

Permesta

Permesta was a rebel movement in Indonesia, its name based on the Universal Struggle Charter that was declared on 2 March 1957 by civil and military leaders in East Indonesia. Initially the center of the movement was in Makassar, which at that time was the capital of the province of Sulawesi. However, support for the movement in South Sulawesi gradually dissipated, forcing the headquarters to move to Manado in North Sulawesi. On 17 February 1958, Permesta joined forces with the Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia based in Sumatra that declared a revolutionary government two days earlier. Following successful attacks by government forces (TNI) from the Indonesian central government on the PRRI in Sumatra, the conflict swung to the east where the Permesta rebels were based. Manado was captured at the end of June 1958. However, the Permesta rebels continued their resistance, fighting a guerrilla campaign against the TNI until the last remnants surrendered and were given amnesty in 1961. The conflict killed 4,000 government soldiers and 2,000 Permesta rebels.

Sam Ratulangi

Dr. Gerungan Saul Samuel Jacob Ratulangi was a Minahasan teacher, journalist, politician, and national hero from North Sulawesi, Indonesia. He was part of the committee that ratified the Constitution of Indonesia and served as the first Governor of Sulawesi.

Sam Ratulangi International Airport Airport in Manado, Indonesia

Sam Ratulangi International Airport, is located in North Sulawesi, 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) northeast of Manado. The airport is named after the Minahasan educator and independence hero Sam Ratulangi. It is designated as one of the 11 main entry ports to Indonesia by the Ministry of Tourism and Culture of Indonesia and serves as the main gateway to the Bunaken National Marine Park. It is currently the operating base of Lion Air/Wings Air for the northeastern part of Indonesia and is one of the focus cities of Garuda Indonesia and Citilink. It is served by international airlines.

Tomohon City in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

Tomohon is a city in North Sulawesi Province, in central Indonesia. It covers an area of 147.21 km2, and had a population of 91,553 at the 2010 Census, rising to 100,587 at the 2020 Census. Tomohon was formerly a part of the Minahasa Regency in North Sulawesi, but it officially became a city separated from the Regency, inaugurated on 4 August 2003.

The Minahasan languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages spoken by the Minahasa people in northern Sulawesi. These languages are distinct from the Manado Malay language.

Manado Tua Island in Indonesia

Manado Tua is a volcanic island in the Celebes Sea off the northeast coast of Sulawesi. The island is located on Bunaken National Park.

Minahasa Regency Regency in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

Minahasa Regency is a regency in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Its capital is Tondano. It covers an area of 1,141.64 km2 and had a population of 310,384 at the 2010 Census; this rose to 347,290 at the 2020 Census.

Tombulu, also known as Minahasan language is an Austronesian language of northern Sulawesi in Indonesia. It is a Minahasan language, a sub-group of the Philippine languages.

Sangirese people Native people to the Sangir Islands

Sangirese or Sangihe people are one of the native people to the Sangir Islands in the northern chain of islands in Sulawesi and the southern part of Mindanao. The Sangirese people are fishermen and nutmeg growers in their home areas and also work as wage labourers in industrial crops enterprises in Bolaang Mongondow Regency and Minahasa Regency.

Minahasan cuisine Cuisine tradition of the Minahasan people

Minahasan cuisine or Manado cuisine is the cooking tradition of the Minahasan people of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. It is popularly known as "Manadonese cuisine" after Manado, the capital of the province, although other cities in North Sulawesi, such as Bitung, Tomohon and Tondano, are also known as Minahasan culinary hotspots. Manadonese cuisine is known for its rich variations in seafood, generous amount of spices, extra-hot condiments, exotic meats, and European-influenced cakes and pastries. Popular Manadonese dishes include tinutuan, cakalang fufu, cakalang noodle, paniki, chicken or various fish and seafood spiced in rica-rica or woku spices, chicken tuturuga, and brenebon.

Mongondow people

The Mongondow or Bolaang Mongondow people are an ethnic group native to the north-eastern part of the Indonesian island of Sulawesi. The Mongondows are predominantly Muslim. They have traditionally been concentrated in the provinces of North Sulawesi and Gorontalo. This ethnic group used to be united by a single entity, the Kingdom of Bolaang Mongondow, which became the western regencies of North Sulawesi after the Indonesian independence.

Joop Warouw

Jacob Frederick Warouw, also known as Joop Warouw, was a military officer involved in the Indonesian National Revolution. After the revolution, his appointments include Commander of VII/East Indonesia Military Territory and Military Attaché in Beijing. He was subsequently involved in the Permesta movement that sought greater regional autonomy from the central government in Java. He was killed by a fractious unit toward the end of the movement.

Bernard Wilhelm Lapian

Bernard Wilhelm "B. W." Lapian was a nationalist involved in the struggle for Indonesian independence. He published several newspapers that gave voice to the welfare of the Indonesian people and promoted Indonesian nationalism. He was also part a group who established a separate Christian denomination from the official Dutch East-Indies church institution. After Indonesia gained its independence, Lapian served as head of the district of Manado and acting governor of Sulawesi. In 2015, he was given the title of National Hero of Indonesia by President Joko Widodo.

F. J. Tumbelaka

Frits Johanes Tumbelaka, also known as Broer Tumbelaka, served in the Indonesian military, rising to the rank of lieutenant colonel. He also served in the government as governor of North and Central Sulawesi and, after the province was split into North Sulawesi and Central Sulawesi, he served as the first governor of North Sulawesi. He played an important role in finding a peaceful solution to the conflict between the Indonesian government and the Permesta movement.

Manado metropolitan area Metropolitan area in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

The Manado metropolitan area, known locally as Bimindo, is a metropolitan area anchored by the city of Manado in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. It includes the cities of Bitung and Tomohon, as well as Minahasa Regency and North Minahasa Regency. It is the second-largest metropolitan area in Sulawesi with an estimated population of nearly 1.34 million as of 2019.

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