|Município de Manaus|
Municipality of Manaus
A Paris dos Trópicos (The Paris of the Tropics) "The Jungle City"
Metropóle da Amazônia (Amazon's Metropolis)
Location in the state of Amazonas
|Founded||October 24, 1669|
|• Mayor||Arthur Virgílio Neto (PSDB)|
|• Municipality||11,401.092 km2 (4,401.97 sq mi)|
|• Urban||427 km2 (165 sq mi)|
|Elevation||92 m (302 ft)|
|• Municipality||2,145,444 (7th)|
|• Density||158.06/km2 (450.29/sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,631,239 (11th)|
|Time zone||UTC-4 (UTC-4)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-4|
|Area code(s)||+55 (92)|
Manaus ( // ; Portuguese: [mɐˈnaws, mɐˈnawʃ] ), previously known as Manaós before 1939 and formerly Barra do Rio Negro, is the capital city of the state of Amazonas in the North Region of Brazil. It is situated near the confluence of the Negro and Solimões rivers. With a population of more than 2 million, it is the most populous city of both the Brazilian state of Amazonas and the Amazon rainforest.
A capital city is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government. A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the government's offices and meeting places; the status as capital is often designated by its law or constitution. In some jurisdictions, including several countries, the different branches of government are located in different settlements. In some cases, a distinction is made between the official (constitutional) capital and the seat of government, which is in another place.
The Federative Republic of Brazil is a union of 27 federated units : 26 states and one federal district. The states are generally based on historical, conventional borders which have developed over time. The Federal District cannot be divided into municipalities, according to the Brazilian Constitution, the Federal District assumes the same constitutional and legal powers, attributions and obligations of the states and municipalities, instead, it is divided by administrative regions.
Amazonas is a state of Brazil, located in the North Region in the northwestern corner of the country. It is the largest Brazilian state by area and the 9th largest country subdivision in the world, and is greater than the areas of Uruguay, Paraguay, and Chile combined. Mostly located in the Southern Hemisphere, it is the third largest country subdivision in the Southern Hemisphere after the Australian states of Western Australia and Queensland. It would be the sixteenth largest country in land area, slightly larger than Mongolia. It is larger than the whole of the Northeast Region of Brazil with its nine states. Amazonas is roughly 90% the size of the U.S. state of Alaska and is equivalent to 2.25 times the area of Texas.
The city was founded in 1669 as the Fort of São José do Rio Negro. It was elevated to a town in 1832 with the name of "Manaus", an altered spelling of the indigenous Manaós peoples, and legally transformed into a city on October 24, 1848, with the name of Cidade da Barra do Rio Negro, Portuguese for "The City of the Margins of the Black River". On September 4, 1856 it returned to its original name.
A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary considerably between different parts of the world.
A city is a large human settlement. Cities generally have extensive systems for housing, transportation, sanitation, utilities, land use, and communication. Their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process.
Portuguese is a Western Romance language originating in the Iberian Peninsula. It is the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Angola, and São Tomé and Príncipe. It also has co-official language status in East Timor, Equatorial Guinea and Macau in China. As the result of expansion during colonial times, a cultural presence of Portuguese and Portuguese creole speakers are also found in Goa, Daman and Diu in India; in Batticaloa on the east coast of Sri Lanka; in the Indonesian island of Flores; in the Malacca state of Malaysia; and the ABC islands in the Caribbean where Papiamento is spoken, while Cape Verdean Creole is the most widely spoken Portuguese-based Creole. Reintegrationists maintain that Galician is not a separate language, but a dialect of Portuguese. A Portuguese-speaking person or nation is referred to as "Lusophone" (Lusófono).
Manaus is located in the middle of the Amazon rainforest, and access to the city is primarily by boat or airplane. This isolation helped preserve both the natural environment as well as the culture of the city. The culture of Manaus, more than in any other urban area of Brazil, preserves the habits of Native Brazilian tribes. The city is the main access point for visiting the fauna and flora of the Brazilian Amazon. Few places in the world afford such a variety of plants, birds, insects, and fishes.
In anthropology, a tribe is a human social group. Exact definitions of what constitutes a tribe vary among anthropologists. The concept is often contrasted with other social groups concepts, such as nations, states, and forms of kinship.
Amazônia Legal is the largest socio-geographic division in Brazil, containing all nine states in the Amazon basin. The region was created in 1948 based on studies of the Brazilian government on how to plan the economic and social development of the Amazon region.
It was known at the beginning of the century, as "Heart of the Amazon" and "City of the Forest".Currently its main economic engine is the Industrial Park of Manaus, a Free Economic Zone. The city has a free port and an international airport. Its manufactures include electronics, chemical products, and soap; there are distilling and ship construction industries. Manaus also exports Brazil nuts, rubber, jute and rosewood oil. It has a cathedral, opera house, zoological and botanical gardens, an ecopark and regional and native peoples museums.
Free economic zones (FEZ), free economic territories (FETs) or free zones (FZ) are a class of special economic zone (SEZ) designated by the trade and commerce administrations of various countries. The term is used to designate areas in which companies are taxed very lightly or not at all to encourage economic activity. The taxation rules are determined by each country. The World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (SCM) has content on the conditions and benefits of free zones.
An international airport is an airport with customs and border control facilities enabling passengers to travel between countries. International airports are usually larger than domestic airports and often feature longer runways and facilities to accommodate the heavier aircraft commonly used for international and intercontinental travel. International airports often also host domestic flights.
A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. A chemical substance cannot be separated into its constituent elements by physical separation methods, i.e., without breaking chemical bonds. Chemical substances can be simple substances, chemical compounds, or alloys. Chemical elements may or may not be included in the definition, depending on expert viewpoint.
With a population of 2,145,444 people in 2018, Manaus is the most populous city in the Brazilian Amazon area and the 7th most populous in the country. It is located on the north bank of the Negro River, 18 km (11 mi) above the meeting of the rivers where the Negro merges with the Solimões, to form the Amazon proper. Manaus is 1,400 km (900 mi) inland from the Atlantic Ocean. It is the hub of tourism for the rivers, the jungle lodges and the river cruises.
A river cruise is a voyage along inland waterways, often stopping at multiple ports along the way. Since cities and towns often grew up around rivers, river cruise ships frequently dock in the center of cities and towns.
The Solimões and Negro rivers meet just east of Manaus and join to form the Amazon River (using the Brazilian definition of the river; elsewhere, Solimões is considered the upper part of the Amazon). Rubber made it the richest city in South America during the late 1800s. Rubber also helped Manaus earn its nickname, the "Paris of the Tropics". Many wealthy European families settled in Manaus and brought their love for sophisticated European art, architecture and culture with them. Manaus is also a duty-free zone, which has encouraged development in the region.
The Amazon River in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and by some definitions it is the longest.
The art of Europe, or Western art, encompasses the history of visual art in Europe. European prehistoric art started as mobile Upper Paleolithic rock and cave painting and petroglyph art and was characteristic of the period between the Paleolithic and the Iron Age. Written histories of European art often begin with the art of the Ancient Middle East and the Ancient Aegean civilizations, dating from the 3rd millennium BC. Parallel with these significant cultures, art of one form or another existed all over Europe, wherever there were people, leaving signs such as carvings, decorated artifacts and huge standing stones. However a consistent pattern of artistic development within Europe becomes clear only with the art of Ancient Greece, adopted and transformed by Rome and carried; with the Empire, across much of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East.
The culture of Europe is rooted in the art, architecture, film, different types of music, literature, and philosophy that originated from the continent of Europe. European culture is largely rooted in what is often referred to as its "common cultural heritage".
The name Manaus comes from the native people called Manaós, which means Mother of the Gods.
The history of the European colonization of Manaus began in 1499 with the Spanish discovery of the mouth of the Amazon River. The Spanish then continued to colonize the region north of Brazil. Development continued in 1668-1669 with the building of the Fort of São José da Barra do Rio Negro by the Portuguese in order to ensure its predominance in the region, especially against the Dutch, at that time headquartered in what is today Suriname. The fort was constructed in rock and clay, with four cannon guarding the curtains.It continued to function for more than 100 years. Next to the fort there were many indigenous mestizos, who helped in its construction and began to live in the vicinity.
The population grew so much that in 1695, the missionaries (Carmelite, Jesuit, Franciscan) built a nearby chapel dedicated as Nossa Senhora da Conceição (Our Lady of the Conception), who in time became the patron saint of the city.A Royal Charter of March 3 of 1755, created the captaincy of São José do Rio Negro, with capital in Mariuá (now Barcelos), but with the governor, Lobo D'Almada fearing a Spanish invasion, the seat went back to Lugar de Barra in 1791. Being located at the confluence of the Rio Negro and Amazon Rivers, it was a strategic point. On November 13 of 1832, Lugar da Barra was elevated to town status and named Manaus. On October 24 of 1848, under Law 145 of the Provincial Assembly of Para, it was renamed City of Barra do Rio Negro. On September 4 of 1856 the governor Herculano Ferreira Pena finally gave it the name "Manaus".
The Cabanagem was the revolt in which blacks, Native Americans and mestizos fought against the white political elite and took power in 1835. The Cabanagem reduced the population of the then state of Grão-Pará from about 100,000 to 60,000.The involvement of rebels from the Upper Amazon (Manaus today) in what was originally a movement based in Belém was crucial for the birth of the current state of the Amazon. During the brief period of revolution, the Cabanos of the Upper Amazon, bands of rebels, roamed throughout the region, occupying Manaus twice, and in most settlements their arrival was greeted by the non-white population spontaneously joining their ranks, leading to a greater number of adherents to the movement. With that there was an integration of people in the region thus forming the state.
Manaus was at the center of the Amazon region's rubber boom during the late 19th century. For a time, it was "one of the gaudiest cities of the world".Historian Robin Furneaux wrote of this period, "No extravagance, however absurd, deterred" the rubber barons. "If one rubber baron bought a vast yacht, another would install a tame lion in his villa, and a third would water his horse on champagne." The city built a grand opera house, with vast domes and gilded balconies, and using marble, glass, and crystal, from around Europe. The opera house cost ten million (public-funded) dollars. In one season, half the members of one visiting opera troupe died of yellow fever. The opera house, called the Teatro Amazonas, was effectively closed for most of the 20th Century. However it was used in scenes of the Werner Herzog film Fitzcarraldo (1982). After a gap of almost 90 years, it reopened to produce live opera in 1997 and is now attracting performers from all over the world.
When the seeds of the rubber tree were smuggled out of the Amazon region to be cultivated on plantations in Southeast Asia,Brazil and Peru lost their monopoly on the product. The rubber boom ended abruptly, many people left its major cities, and Manaus fell into poverty. The rubber boom had made possible electrification of the city before it was installed on many European cities, but the end of the rubber boom made the generators too expensive to run. The city was not able to generate electricity again for years.
In the 60's during the establishment of the military dictatorship in Brazil, the newly installed government concerned about the "demographic gap in Brazil", began to introduce numerous projects in the interior of the country, especially in the Amazon region, with the introduction of the Manaus free trade zone in 1967,and with the opening of new roads within the region, the city had a wide period of investments in financial and economic capital, both national and international, attracted by the tax incentives granted by the free zone, in this period, Manaus had enormous demographic growth becoming one of the most populous cities in Brazil.
Manaus was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and one of the seats of some Olympic football games.It was the only host city in the Amazon rainforest and the most geographically isolated, being further north and west than any of the other host cities. A massive prison riot occurred in January 2017, having begun in Manaus and later spreading to two additional cities in Brazil, thus unleashing security problems within the country.
The largest city in northern Brazil, Manaus occupies an area of 11,401 square kilometres (4,402 sq mi), with a density of 158.06 inhabitants/km2. It is the neighboring city of Presidente Figueiredo, Careiro, Iranduba, Rio Preto da Eva, Itacoatiara and Novo Airão.
The Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests and comprises the largest and most species-rich tract of tropical rainforest in the world. Wet tropical forests are the most species-rich biome, and tropical forests in the Americas are consistently more species rich than the wet forests in Africa and Asia.As the largest tract of tropical rainforest in the Americas, the Amazonian rainforests have unparalleled biodiversity. More than one-third of all species in the world live in the Amazon Rainforest.
Despite being located in the Amazon, Manaus is densely developed and has few green areas in the city. The largest green areas are:
Manaus has a humid Tropical rainforest climate (Af) according to the Köppen climate classification system, with average annual compensated temperature of 27.6 °C (82 °F) and relatively high air humidity, with a rainfall index around 2,300 mm (90.6 in) annually. The seasons are relatively well defined with respect to rain: the winter is relatively dry (July to September), and the summer is very rainy. There have been occasional occurrences of hail rain in the city.
Due to the city's proximity to the Equator, the heat is constant in the local climate. There are no cold days in winter, and rarely very intense polar air masses in the South-Central part of Brazil and in the south-west of the Amazon have some effect on the city, as occurred in August 1955. But although they are rare, they influence the climate, causing the temperature to drop to 18 °C (64 °F) or below. The proximity to the forest usually avoids extremes of heat and makes the city wet.
On November 26, 2009, a case of acid rain was recorded in Manaus. Air pollution, caused in large part by the accumulation of smoke from burning, associated with the carbon dioxide emitted by cars, was the cause of this phenomenon. Although the incidence of acid rain is common in some Brazilian capitals where there is a great concentration of cars, in Manaus and other cities of Amazonas the situation is aggravated by the prolonged period of drought with the smoke from forest fires.
|Climate data for Manaus (1981–2010, extremes 1872–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||37.0|
|Average high °C (°F)||30.9|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||26.3|
|Average low °C (°F)||23.1|
|Record low °C (°F)||18.5|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||287.0|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||19||18||19||18||16||11||7||7||6||8||11||15||155|
|Average relative humidity (%)||86.4||86.0||86.9||86.8||85.6||83.1||80.2||78.4||77.2||78.1||80.7||84.2||82.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||112.7||93.4||95.8||107.3||144.2||186.8||218.5||215.7||183.8||158.1||140.0||118.5||1,774.8|
|Source #1: Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) (climatological normals from 1981-2010; (temperature extremes: 1961-present).|
|Source #2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)|
The urban area covers all or part of four river basins, all tributaries of the Rio Negro. The São Raimundo and Educandos streams are completely contained in the city. The Tarumã Açu forms the western boundary of the city in its lower reaches, and is fed by several tributaries that originate in the Ducke Reserve and run through the north and west of the city. The Puraquequara forms the east boundary of the urban area in its lower section.
According to the IBGE, in 2018 there were 2,145,444 people residing in the city, and 2,631,239 people in the Metropolitan Region of Manaus. The population density was 158.06 inhabitants per square kilometre (409.4/sq mi).
|Black or African Brazilian||2.43%|
|Asian or Amerindian||0.87%|
Manaus is the seventh largest city in Brazil, after São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Brasilia, Fortaleza and Belo Horizonte.
The city's population growth is above the national average, and 10% above the average for the capital (Brasilia). Most of the population is located in the North and East regions of the city, and the New Town (northern area) the neighborhood is the most populous, with more than 260,000 residents.
According to the results of the last census, the city's population increased from 343,038 inhabitants in 1960 to 622,733 in 1970. By 1990 the population grew to 1,025,979 inhabitants, increasing its density to 90.0 inhabitants / km2.
According to a 2013 genetic study, the ancestry of the inhabitants of Manaus is 45.9% European, 37.8% Native American and 16.3% African.
Although it has been developed along a predominantly Roman Catholic social matrix, both because of colonization and immigration – even today the majority of Manauenses are Catholic – there are nevertheless dozens of different Protestant denominations in the city. Judaism, Candomblé, Islam and spiritualism, among others, are also practised.The city's Catedral Metropolitana Nossa Senhora da Conceição is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manaus.
The city has a very diverse presence of Protestant or Reformed faiths, such as the Presbyterian Church, Calvary Chapel, For Christ International Church of Grace of God, Pentecostal Church of God in Brazil, Methodist Church, the Anglican Episcopal Church, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Baptist Church, an Assembly of God Church, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God, and the Jehovah's Witnesses among others. These churches are experiencing considerable growth, mainly in the outskirts of the city. An LDS temple has been built in the city, the 6th in Brazil.
The Metropolitan Region of Manaus (RMM) is a metropolitan area that comprises eight cities of the Amazonas state, but without conurbation.
Manaus is divided into seven regions: North, Southern, Central-South, East, West, Mid-West and Rural area. The eastern region of the city is the most populated, with approximately 600,000 inhabitants (2007).The northern region of the city has had the highest rate of population growth in recent years, and has the largest neighborhood of the city, the Nova Cidade neighborhood. The Center-South region has the highest per capita income. The Eastern Zone is known for having a large number of hills.
The first neighborhood (bairro) established in Manaus was Educandos. From there, other areas of the city began to be occupied, with the arrival of migrants from other regions of Brazil.
Manaus has the largest neighborhood of Latin America, the neighborhood of Cidade Nova, which has 264,449 inhabitants, but it is estimated that the population exceeds 300,000 inhabitants. Cidade Nova is larger than all the cities inside the Amazonas state.With the permanence and the strengthening of Free Economic Zone of Manaus, the city began to receive investments and constant migration of people from many parts of the state and northern Brazil.
The wealthiest neighborhood in Manaus is Adrianópolis, located in the Central-South Area of the city. Downtown Manaus is located in the Southern area of the city, next to Rio Negro River. After years of development, the historical center has been neglected by the authorities and it has become an area mostly for commerce and poor housing. There is a plan to restore the city centre to its former glory by removing beggars and irregular sellers from sidewalks and by doing that provide more safety for tourists and locals who are trying to walk in the historical areas of the city. All these plans were prompted by the 2014 World Cup.
Manaus is the sixth largest economy in Brazil. According to IBGE in 2014, its GDP was R$67,5 billion.The per capita income for the city was R$33,446. Although the main industry of Manaus through much of the 20th century was rubber, its importance has declined. Given its location, fish, wild fruits like Açaí and Cupuaçu, and Brazil-nuts make up important trades, as do petroleum refining, soap manufacturing, and chemical industries. Over the last decades, a system of federal investments and tax incentives has turned the surrounding region into a major industrial center (the Free Economic Zone of Manaus).
Manaus sprawls, but the center of town, the Centro where most of the hotels and attractions are located, rises above the river on a slight hill. As the largest city and a major port on the river, Manaus is commercial. Local industries include brewing, shipbuilding, soap manufacturing, the production of chemicals, computers, motorcycles and petroleum refining of oil brought in by barge and tourism.
The mobile phone companies LG, Nokia, Samsung, Siemens, Sagem, Gradiente and BenQ-Siemens operate mobile phone manufacturing plants in Manaus.Plastic lens manufacturer Essilor also has a plant here. The Brazilian sport utility vehicle manufacturer Amazon Veiculos is headquartered in Manaus. Two airlines, MAP Linhas Aéreas and Manaus Aerotáxi, have headquarters on the grounds of Eduardo Gomes International Airport in Manaus.
The initial idea of a Free Trade Port in Manaus, came from Deputy Francisco Pereira da Silva and was subsequently formalized by Law No. 3.173 on June 6, 1957. The project was approved by the National Congress on October 23, 1951 under No. 1.310 and regulated by Decree No. 47.757 on February 2, 1960. It was then amended by rapporteur Maurcio Jopper, engineer, who by agreement with the original author, justified the creation of a Free Trade Zone instead of a Free Trade Port.
For the first ten years the ZFM (Manaus Free Trade Zone) was located in a warehouse rented from Manaus Harbour, in the Port of Manaus, and relied on federal funds. It was perhaps due to this lack of its own resources that there was little credibility in the project. On February 28, 1967, President Castello Branco signed Decree-Law No. 288, which redefined the Manaus Free Trade Zone in more concrete terms. The new Decree-Law stipulated that the Manaus Free Trade Zone would have a radius of 10 km (6.2 mi) with an industrial center as well as an agricultural center and that these would be given the economic means to allow for regional development in order to lift the Amazon out of the economic isolation that it had fallen into at that time.
On August 28, 1967, the Manaus Free Trade Zone Authority, SUFRAMA, was created. SUFRAMA is an independent body with its own legal status and assets and having financial and administrative autonomy. Tax incentives and the subsequent complementary legislation created comparative advantages in the region with respect to other parts of the country and as a result the Manaus Free Trade Zone attracted new investment to the area. These incentives constituted tax exemptions administered federally by SUFRAMA and SUDAM.
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As in all Brazilian cities, according to the Brazilian Constitution, education is a basic right given by the government for free to the population. Unfortunately, public education is very weak and wealthier inhabitants normally enrol their children in the numerous private schools of the city. On the other hand, although there are several private universities, Public Institutions are the most prestigious and the hardest ones to be accepted by due to heavy competition.
Eduardo Gomes International Airport is the airport serving Manaus. The airport has two passenger terminals, one for scheduled flights and the other for regional aviation. It also has three cargo terminals.
Eduardo Gomes International Airport is Brazil's third largest in freight movement,handling the import and export demand from the Manaus Industrial Complex. For this reason, Infraero invested in construction of the third cargo terminal, opened on December 14, 2004. TAM Airlines also inaugurated their own cargo terminal near the airport in 2008, which claims to be their largest cargo terminal in Brazil. The country's major dedicated freight route is between Manaus and Viracopos International Airport, which is operated by wide-body jets. Other freight routes include North America and Europe.
The passenger terminal had been fully refurbished and expanded in time for the 2014 FIFA Football World Cup, which held 4 games in Manaus. The airport currently operates daily international flights to Miami, United States, by American Airlines and LATAM Airlines Brasil, to the city of Panama, by Copa Airlines, to Willemstad, Curaçao, by Insel Air and to Barcelona, Venezuela, by Avior Airlines. The airport has direct flights to all major airports in Brazil, operated by the three major carriers: Gol Transportes Aéreos, TAM Airlines and Azul Brazilian Airlines. The airport's IATA code is MAO.
Manaus Air Force Base, a base of the Brazilian Air Force is at the former Ponta Pelada Airport.
Apart from the Eduardo Gomes International Airport and Ponta Pelada Airport, Manaus still has an operational airstrip used by small propeller aircraft and helicopters about 6 kilometres (4 miles) north of the city centre, simply known as the "Aeroclube" ("airclub"). On Sundays, it is used for parachuting and where flying classes can be hired. Due to the fact that it is surrounded by residential areas, and has a recent history of crashes, it is under constant pressure to be moved.
There are two federal highways that intersect Manaus. There is a paved road heading North (BR-174) connecting Manaus to Boa Vista, capital of the State of Roraima and to Venezuela. Strictly speaking, Manaus is connected by road to the rest of Brazil, as it is possible to drive continuously from Manaus into Venezuela, and then reenter Brazil in the state of Acre by passing through the countries of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. As such a route is impractical for most motorists, the vast majority of transportation to and from Manaus is by boat or plane, except for journeys to Roraima. The Independent noted that "there are still no roads to Manaus" from the rest of the country.
The BR-319 heads South connecting Manaus to Porto Velho, the state capital of Rondônia. However, the access to this highway requires a ferry crossing to Careiro, across the Rio Negro and River Amazon, which takes about 40 minutes, and then is only paved for about another 100 km (62 mi) to Castanho. After that, the highway is not paved, and can not be used. Various governments have promised to recover this land-link with the rest of the country, but environmental issues, high costs and complicated logistics have impeded any progress so far.
The two major state highways are the AM-010 and the AM-070. The AM-010 heads east, to Itacoatiara, Amazonas at the banks of the River Amazon, which is the third largest city of the state. The AM-070 heads south, starting on the other side of the new bridge spanning the Rio Negro at Manaus, and reaching Manacapuru which lies at the banks of the Solimoes River, also known as the upper River Amazon, and which is the fourth largest city of the state. Both roads are paved and operate all year round.
Ships dock at the main port in Manaus directly downtown on the banks of the Negro River. The terraced city is home to a network of bridged channels that divide it into several compartments. Several mobile phone companies have manufacturing plants in the port area, and other major electronics manufacturers also have plants there. Major exports going through the port include Brazil nuts, chemicals, petroleum, electrical equipment, and forest products. [ citation needed ]
Regular Manaus taxis are white and can be stopped anywhere. They're organised into separate cooperatives, each with their own contact phone numbers. All taxis are metered, which doesn't necessarily mean the meter will be used.
The 'especial' taxi cars are typically black and of a higher quality than the white taxis, and will charge a fixed rate for all journeys or daily hire. Most can only be booked locally; however, the reputable Brazil Airport Transfershas recently started providing airport transfer and general transportation services in Manaus.
The bus system in Manaus is quite extensive and there are buses and vans that go to most destinations, including the popular tourist destinations. There is a very simple bus website that permits planning of routes. Pickpocketing and other crime is pervasive.
The annual calendar of festivals in Manaus starts in late February/early March. The Manaus carnival (carnaval) celebrations are a good start to upcoming events and include traditional processions and samba dancing at the Sambódromo in the Centro de Convenções (Convention Centre). May is a popular time to pay a visit to Manaus, since the city hosts both the Ponta Negra Music and the Amazonas de Opera festivals during this month. Staged at the Teatro Amazonas, the Opera Festival lasts around three weeks and usually runs into early June. The Floclorico do Amazonas (Amazonas Folklore Festival) is in June, and this has grown to become a major event, involving a huge array of folk dancing and music, culminating in the Procissao Fluvial de São Pedro (St. Peter River Procession), when hundreds of riverboats sail along the Rio Negro, honouring the patron saint of fishermen.
October 24 was the day in 1848 that Manaus legally became a city. This anniversary is always cause for a party, culminating in fireworks at the end of the day. In November is the week-long Amazonas Film Festival, with films and documentaries often emphasising ecology, ethnology and human relationships.
Because of Manaus' location next to the Amazon rainforest, it attracts a substantial number of Brazilian and foreign tourists, who come to see wildlife on land and in the rivers. It is also home to one of the most endangered primates in Brazil, the pied tamarin.
Tour boats leave Manaus to see the Meeting of the Waters, where the black waters of the Negro River meet the brown waters of the Solimoes River, flowing side by side without mixing for about 9 km (6 mi). Visitors can also explore river banks and "igarapes", swim and canoe in placid lakes, simply walk in the lush forest or stay at hotels in the jungle.
About 18 km (11 mi) from downtown is Ponta Negra beach, a neighbourhood that has a beachfront and popular nightlife area. A luxurious hotel is located at the west end of Ponta Negra; its zoo and orchid greenhouse as well as preserved woods and beach are open for public visits.
The Mercado Adolpho Lisboa, founded in 1882, is the city's oldest marketplace, trading in fruit, vegetables, and especially fish. It is a copy of the Les Halles market of Paris.Other interesting historical sites include the customs building, of mixed styles and medieval inspiration; the Rio Negro Palace cultural center; and the Justice Palace, right next to the Amazonas Opera House.
Manaus has also many large parks with native forest preservation areas, such as the Bosque da Ciência and Parque do Mindú. The largest urban forest in the world is located within the Federal University of Amazonas, which was founded on January 17, 1909 and is the oldest federal university in Brazil.
Manaus also has several Malls such as Manauara Shopping, Amazonas Shopping Center, Millennium Shopping, Shopping Ponta Negra, Studio 5 Festival Mall, Shopping Cidade Nova, Manaus Plaza Shopping, Shopping Sao José and other small Shopping Areas. Most of these malls include large food courts and movie theaters.
The city's cultural calendar throughout the year includes the Opera, Theater, Jazz and Cinema festivals, as well as Boi Manaus (usually held around Manaus' anniversary on the 24th of October), which is a great celebration of Northern Brazilian culture through Boi-Bumbá music.
The Amazonas Opera House, inaugurated in 1896, has 700 seats and was constructed with bricks brought from Europe, French glass and Italian marble. Several important opera and theater companies, as well as international orchestras, have already performed there. The Theater is home to the Amazonas Philharmonic orchestra which regularly rehearses and performs there along with choirs, jazz bands, dance performances and more.
Ponta Negra Cultural, Sport and Leisure Park
Ponta Negra beach, located 13 km (8.1 mi) from downtown Manaus, is one of the city's most important tourist attractions. It also has an amphitheater with capacity for 15.000 people.
Adolpho Ducke Botanical Garden
The Adolpho Ducke Botanical Garden, inside a 100 square kilometres (39 sq mi) ecological reserve, holds a huge number of plant and animal species.
Municipal Park of Mindú
It is located in an urban area, in the November 10 Park district. It was created in 1992 to be an area of ecological interest. It covers an area of 330,000 m2 (3,552,090 sq ft) of forest remaining from the Township, and is used for scientific, educational, cultural and tourist activities. It is one of the last habitats for the pied tamarin, a species of monkey that only inhabits the Manaus region and is considered to be at high risk of extinction. It is possible to walk through four distinct ecosystems in the park: land covered by secondary growth, firm ground brush, sandbanks and degraded areas that were illegally cleared in 1989. It also has an amphitheater for 600 people, gardens planted with medicinal and aromatic herbs, orchid nursery, aerial trails and signs aiming to develop environmental education programs.
The Tarumã, Tarumãzinho and Cachoeira das Almas bayous (branches of rivers), located near the city, are leisure spots for the population on weekends. Manaus has several public swimming areas that are being remodeled and urbanized lately. There are also many private clubs that can be visited.
This natural phenomenon is caused by the confluence of the Negro River's dark water and the Solimões River's muddy brown water that come together to form the Amazonas River. For 6 km (3.7 mi) or more, both rivers waters run side by side without mixing. The reason for this is not clear, although it is likely that the main factors are differences in the speed of the current, the volumes of water and the different densities of the two rivers. It is not thought that other differences between the two rivers (temperature and acidity) affect the mixing process significantly. The Negro River flows approximately 2 km/h (1.2 mph) at 28 °C (82 °F), while the Solimões River flows 4 to 6 km/h (2.5 to 3.7 mph) at 22 °C (72 °F).
The zoo is open to the public. It is managed by the Brazilian Army and has approximately 300 species of animals from the Amazon fauna.
For outings to beaches and parks situated near the city, it is often necessary to use boats. The beaches are formed right after the river water level starts dropping, which lasts from August to November. Starting in December, as the river rises, the waters invade the sand and the woods on the banks. The Paricatuba Waterfall, located on the right bank of the Negro River, along a small tributary, is formed by sedimentary rocks, surrounded by abundant vegetation. Access is by boat. The best time to visit is from August to February. Love Cascade located in the Guedes bayou, with cold and crystal clear water, is accessible only by boat and, then, hiking through the forest.
Tupé Beach is approximately 34 km (21 mi) from Manaus. This beach is well frequented by bathers on holidays and weekends. It is accessible only by boat. Moon Beach is located on the left bank of the Negro River, 23 km (14 mi) from Manaus. It is accessed only by boat. The beach is shaped like a crescent moon and is surrounded by rare vegetation. Lion waterfall is located on km 34 of the AM-010 highway (Manaus-Itacoatiara).
The leader club in Manaus is the Nacional Futebol Clube, founded on January 13, 1913, and called "Leão da Vila". Participant of the serie A (first division) for several times between 1970 and 1990. Nacional is 40-times state champion, the great state champion in Amazon state, and one of the greatest state champion in Brazil, and is the best amazonian football club ranked in the CBF ranking, the official Brazilian football entity.
Other club is the Atlético Rio Negro Clube, called "Galo da Praça da Saudade" (Remembrance Square Rooster) or "Barriga Preta" club (Black Belly), also founded in 1913, but in November, which is the second largest holder of state titles, and the National Fast Club, the Tricolor of the Boulevard" or "roll", founded in the early 40 years from a dissident's National Football Club, which has won six state championships, in addition to being Northern Region champion and North-Northeast Championship runner-up in 1970.
There is also San Raimundo Sports Club – the Typhoon Hill (Tufão da Colina), founded on November 18, 1918, participant of the Series B (2nd division) of the Brazilian Championship until 2006, when it was demoted. It is a 7-times states champion, 3-times North Cup champion.
Manaus was chosen in 2009 to be a host city for the 2014 FIFA World Cup, after a competition to represent the North Region of Brazil with neighboring Pará state capital, Belém.
Manaus was restructured in order to host such a big event. A new airport was built, streets throughout the city were repaved and new and improved sidewalks were built. The communications infrastructure of the city was improved with 4G networks installed by the biggest mobile phone carriers in Brazil.
The Vivaldão, previously the largest stadium in Manaus, was inaugurated in 1970 by the Brazilian national team in their last game in the country before they headed to the World Cup in Mexico. It was demolished to be replaced by the 44,000 seater Arena Amazônia for the 2014 World Cup.
The first 2014 World Cup match held in Manaus was England vs Italy on June 14. The second match was Cameroon vs Croatia on June 18, to be followed by USA vs Portugal on June 22. The last was Honduras vs Switzerland on June 25. Manaus, known for its intense heat and humidity, was the site of the World Cup's first ever official water break on June 22 in the match between Portugal and the United States.
Manaus is the origin of several world-champion Brazilian jiu-jitsu black belts, mixed martial artists and submission grapplers. Champions such as Fredson Paixão, Wallid Ismail, Saulo Ribeiro, Cristiane De Souza, Alexandre Ribeiro, Ronaldo Souza, and Bibiano Fernandes hail from Manaus. Brazilian jiu-jitsu is a major component of MMA (mixed martial arts). Jose Aldo (born September 9, 1986) is a black-belt in Brazilian jiu-jitsu and notable UFC fighter. Aldo defeated Mike Brown at WEC 44 to win the title and has since successfully defended his WEC title against Urijah Faber & Manvel Gamburyan. He later became the UFC Featherweight champion, with title defenses against such notable fighters as Mark Hominick and Kenny Florian.
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Manaus is twinned with:
Pará is a state in northern Brazil traversed by the lower Amazon River. It borders the Brazilian states of Amapá, Maranhão, Tocantins, Mato Grosso, Amazonas and Roraima. To the northwest it borders Guyana and Suriname; to the northeast it borders the Atlantic Ocean. The capital and largest city is Belém, at the mouth of the Amazon at the Atlantic Ocean and the 11th most populous city in the country.
The Jaú National Park is a national park located in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. It is one of the largest forest reserve in South America, and part of a World Heritage Site.
Solimões is the name often given to upper stretches of the Amazon River in Brazil from its confluence with the Rio Negro upstream to the border of Peru. At the confluence, the river is already by far the largest river in the world, even though its two largest tributaries have not yet entered. The Solimões portion of the Amazon river lies entirely in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, and some portion of the state is often referred to as the "Solimões region". The ecoregion of the Solimões river drainage basin is entirely tropical rainforest.
The North Region of Brazil is the largest Region of Brazil, corresponding to 45.27% of the national territory. It is the least inhabited of the country, and contributes with a minor percentage in the national GDP and population. It comprises the states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima and Tocantins.
Tabatinga, originally Forte de São Francisco Xavier de Tabatinga, is a municipality in the Três Fronteiras area of Western Amazonas. It is located in the Brazilian state of Amazonas. Its population was 59,684 (2014) and its area is 3,225 km² Together with the neighbouring Colombian city of Leticia and the Peruvian city of Santa Rosa de Yavari, the urban area has more than 100,000 residents spread along the Amazon river. The first Portuguese settlement in the area was founded in the 18th century as a military outpost. It became an autonomous municipality on February 1, 1983. Formerly, it was part of the Municipality of Benjamin Constant. The city is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Alto Solimões.
Tefé is a municipality in the state of Amazonas, northern Brazil.
Manacapuru (Munychapur) is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Amazonas.
Barcelos,, formerly Mariuá, is a municipality located in the State of Amazonas, northern Brazil. Its population was 32,169 (2005) and its area is 122,476 square kilometres (47,288 sq mi), making it the second largest municipality in Brazil, equivalent in size to New York state in the United States and slightly larger than North Korea.
Iranduba is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Amazonas.
Santa Isabel do Rio Negro is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Amazonas. Its population was 7,617 (2005) and its area is 62,846 square kilometres (24,265 sq mi). The Municipality was formerly called Tapuruquara.
Amazonía region in southern Colombia comprises the departments of Amazonas, Caquetá, Guainía, Guaviare, Putumayo and Vaupés, and covers an area of 403,000 km², 35% of Colombia's total territory. The region is mostly covered by tropical rainforest, or jungle, which is a part of the massive Amazon rainforest.
Novo Airão is a municipality located in the state of Amazonas in northern Brazil on the Rio Negro River about 180 km upstream of Manaus. Its population was 15,915 (2007) and its area is 37,771 km². The town is reachable both by river and road.
The Port of Manaus is a riverport located on the Rio Negro in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The Port of Manaus is an important commercial center for ocean-going vessels traveling the Amazon. In fact, it is the main transport hub for the entire upper Amazon basin. It imports beef from the hinterlands and exports hides and leather. Important industries in the Port of Manaus include manufacturing of soap, chemicals, electronics equipment as well as shipbuilding, brewing, and petroleum refining.
The Rio Negro State Park North Section is a state park in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. It protects an area of Amazon rainforest to the west of the Rio Negro.
The Rio Negro Right Bank Environmental Protection Area is an Environmental protection area (APA) in the state of Amazonas, Brazil.
The Rio Negro Sustainable Development Reserve is a sustainable development reserve (RDS) in the state of Amazonas, Brazil.
The Central Amazon Ecological Corridor is an ecological corridor in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, that connects a number of conservation units in the Amazon rainforest. The objective is to maintain genetic connectivity between the protected areas without penalizing the local people, where possible using participatory planning that involves all affected actors.
The Japurá-Solimões-Negro moist forests (NT0132) is an ecoregion of tropical moist broad leaf forest in the Amazon biome.