|Manchester Reform Club|
Manchester Reform Club
|Status||Grade II listed|
|Architectural style||Venetian Gothic style|
|Location||Spring Gardens, Manchester, England.|
|Design and construction|
The Reform Club in Spring Gardens, Manchester, England, is a former gentlemen's club of the Victorian era. Constructed in 1870–1871 in the Venetian Gothic style by Edward Salomons in collaboration with Irish architect John Philpot Jones,the club is "his best city centre building" and is a Grade II* listed building as of 3 October 1974. The contract for construction was awarded to "Mr Nield, builder, Manchester for £20,000". Built as a club house for Manchester's Liberal Party elite, the building was opened by Earl Granville, Gladstone's Foreign Secretary, on October 19, 1871. The building is constructed of sandstone ashlar with polychrome dressings and hipped slate roofs and is three-storey with elaborate corner turrets and oriel windows and balconies. The main entrance is "richly adorned with carving including winged beasts". The interior contains a "fine staircase, a (two-storey) grand dining room and an enormous billiard room, running the whole length of the building, in the roof". The "hall and staircase (have) linenfold panelling."
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 545,500 as of 2017. It lies within the United Kingdom's second-most populous built-up area, with a population of 3.2 million. It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. The local authority is Manchester City Council.
A gentlemen's club, or traditional gentlemen's club, is a private social club originally set up by and for British upper-class men in the 18th century, and popularised by English upper middle-class men and women in the late 19th century and early 20th century.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. The era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period, and its later half overlaps with the first part of the Belle Époque era of Continental Europe. In terms of moral sensibilities and political reforms, this period began with the passage of the Reform Act 1832. There was a strong religious drive for higher moral standards led by the nonconformist churches, such as the Methodist, and the Evangelical wing of the established Church of England. Britain's relations with the other Great Powers were driven by the colonial antagonism of the Great Game with Russia, climaxing during the Crimean War; a Pax Britannica of international free trade was maintained by the country's naval and industrial supremacy. Britain embarked on global imperial expansion, particularly in Asia and Africa, which made the British Empire the largest empire in history. National self-confidence peaked.
Declining membership in the late 20th century led the club to merge with the Engineers' Club in 1967 to form the Manchester Club, but this failed to prove financially viable and was wound up in 1988. The Club's archives are held at the John Rylands Library, Deansgate. The building is now a restaurant and bar.
The John Rylands Library is a late-Victorian neo-Gothic building on Deansgate in Manchester, England. The library, which opened to the public in 1900, was founded by Enriqueta Augustina Rylands in memory of her husband, John Rylands. The John Rylands Library and the library of the University of Manchester merged in July 1972 into the John Rylands University Library of Manchester; today it is part of The University of Manchester Library.
Deansgate is a main road through Manchester city centre, England. It runs roughly north–south in a near straight route through the western part of the city centre and is the longest road in the city centre at over one mile long.
There are 236 Grade II* listed buildings in Greater Manchester, England. In the United Kingdom, the term listed building refers to a building or other structure officially designated as being of special architectural, historical or cultural significance; Grade II* structures are those considered to be "particularly significant buildings of more than local interest". In England, the authority for listing under the Planning Act 1990 rests with English Heritage, a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.
Manchester is a city in Northwest England. The M2 postcode area of the city includes part of the city centre, including the Central Retail District. The postcode area contains 143 listed buildings that are recorded in the National Heritage List for England. Of these, five are listed at Grade I, the highest of the three grades, 16 are at Grade II*, the middle grade, and the others are at Grade II, the lowest grade.
The Free Trade Hall on Peter Street, Manchester, England, was a public hall, constructed in 1853–56 on St Peter’s Fields, the site of the Peterloo Massacre. It is now a Radisson hotel.
Capernwray Hall is a former country house situated 3 miles east-northeast of Carnforth, Lancashire, England, and is currently used as a Christian Bible school and holiday centre. The house is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II* listed building. It stands in grounds included in the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens at Grade II.
Slade Hall is a small Elizabethan manor house on Slade Lane in Longsight, Manchester, England. An inscription above the porch dates the building to 1585.
The Great Northern Warehouse is the former railway goods warehouse of the Great Northern Railway in Manchester city centre, England, which was refurbished into a leisure complex in 1999. The building is at the junction of Deansgate and Peter Street. It was granted Grade II* listed building status in 1974.
The Storey, formerly the Storey Institute, is a multi-purpose building located at the corner of Meeting House Lane and Castle Hill in Lancaster, Lancashire, England. Its main part is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building, with its back entrance being listed separately, also at Grade II.
Bridgewater House, Manchester is a packing and shipping warehouse at 58–60 Whitworth Street, Manchester, England. It is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building.
The former Manchester Law Library is a Grade II* listed building in the Venetian Gothic style at 14 Kennedy Street, Manchester. "The building is noteworthy by virtue of having been built for the purposes of a law library and, London and the old universities aside, it is believed to have performed this function for a period longer than any other provincial law library".
Dale Street Warehouse is an early nineteenth century warehouse in the Piccadilly Basin area of Manchester city centre. It is a Grade II* listed building as of 10 November 1972. "It is of considerable interest as the earliest surviving canal warehouse in the city" according to Clare Hartwell. The building is dated 1806 with initials "WC" on the datestone indicating that it was designed by William Crosley, an engineer who worked with William Jessop on the inner-Manchester canal system. Constructed of watershot millstone grit blocks, the four-storey building has timber floors, supported throughout by cast-iron columns, a feature which now makes it unique amongst Manchester warehouses. The base of the building incorporates four boatholes which allowed boats to unload their cargoes inside of the warehouse. The warehouse also incorporates a "subterranean wheel-pit containing a 16-foot water-wheel used to drive hoists both in this building and in a former warehouse to the south via a line-shaft tunnel which mostly survives beneath the car-park." For many years the building was a shop and was described in 2000 as "sadly neglected"; the warehouse has now been converted to office space and a café and renamed Carver's Warehouse.
The City Police Courts, now commonly called Minshull Street Crown Court, is a complex of court buildings on Minshull Street in Manchester, designed in 1867–73 by the architect Thomas Worthington. The court was designated a Grade II* listed building on 3 October 1974.
Lancaster House in Whitworth Street, Manchester, England, was a packing and shipping warehouse built between 1905 and 1910 for Lloyd's Packing Warehouses Limited, which had, by merger, become the dominant commercial packing company in early 20th century Manchester. It is in the favoured Edwardian Baroque style and constructed of red brick and orange terracotta. It is a Grade II* listed building as of 3 October 1974.
The Tootal, Broadhurst and Lee Building at No. 56 Oxford Street, in Manchester, England, is a late Victorian warehouse and office block built in a neo-Baroque style for Tootal Broadhurst Lee, a firm of textile manufacturers. It was designed by J. Gibbons Sankey and constructed between 1896 and 1898. It has been designated a Grade II* listed building.
38 and 42 Mosley Street in Manchester, England, is a double-block Victorian bank constructed between 1862 and c. 1880 for the Manchester and Salford Bank. It was occupied in 2001 by the Royal Bank of Scotland. The original block of 1862 was the "last great work" of Edward Walters, and the extension of the 1880s was by his successors Barker and Ellis. It is a Grade II* listed building.
The Estate Exchange at 46 Fountain Street, Manchester, England, is a Victorian office block by Thomas Worthington. It was built as Overseers' and Churchwardens' Offices in 1852, with the top two floors being added in 1858. It is a Grade II* listed building as of 3 October 1974.
Lawrence Buildings in Mount Street, Manchester, England, is a Victorian office block constructed for the Inland Revenue in 1874–6 by Pennington and Bridgen in the Gothic Revival style. It is a Grade II* listed building as of 3 October 1974.
The Church of St John the Evangelist is in Waterloo Road, Cheetham Hill, Manchester, England. It is an active Anglican parish church in the deanery of North Manchester, the archdeaconry of Manchester, and the diocese of Manchester. The church is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II* listed building.
The 1830 warehouse, Liverpool Road, Manchester, is a 19th-century warehouse that forms part of the Liverpool Road railway station complex. It was built in five months between April and September 1830, "almost certainly [to the designs of] the Liverpool architect Thomas Haigh". The heritage listing report attributes the work to George Stephenson and his son, Robert. It has been listed Grade I on the National Heritage List for England since May 1973.
The former Royal Albert Hospital is in Ashton Road, Lancaster, Lancashire, England. It opened in 1870 as an institution for the care and education of children with learning problems. By 1909 there were 662 children in residence. Following new legislation in 1913, adults were also admitted. By the time of the introduction of the National Health Service in 1948 the hospital had 886 patients, and by the 1960s there were over 1,000 patients. Following legislation in the 1980s, the patients were relocated in the community, and the hospital closed in 1996. The building was acquired by Jamea Al Kauthar Islamic College to provide Islamic education for girls. The main part of the hospital is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II* listed building, and its west lodge is listed at Grade II.
Kearsley Mill is a 240,000 sq ft, late period cotton mill located in the small village of Prestolee in Kearsley, Greater Manchester. A near complete example of Edwardian mill architecture, the building now functions as headquarters for a number of businesses and is still used in the continued manufacturing and distribution of textiles by Richard Haworth Ltd Est (1876), part of the Ruia Group. The mill is a Grade II listed building.
St Mary's Church is in St Mary's Street, Preston, Lancashire, England. It is a redundant Anglican parish church, and was converted into a conservation centre in 2006. The church is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building.
Swan Lane Mills is a former cotton mill complex in Bolton, Greater Manchester. All three mills are Grade II* listed buildings. The mills were designed by Stott and Sons of Oldham. When completed, the double mill was the largest spinning mill in the world. It was granted Grade II* listed status on 26 April 1974. Number 3 Mill was separately listed as Grade II* on the same day.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.