Manchu alphabet

Last updated

Manchu script
ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᡥᡝᡵᡤᡝᠨ
manju hergen
Sealeg25.png
Seal with Manchu text
Script type
Languages Manchu
Xibe
Related scripts
Parent systems
ISO 15924
ISO 15924 Mong, ,Mongolian
Unicode
Unicode alias
Mongolian
 This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.For the distinction between [ ], / / and  , see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.
A bilingual sign in Chinese (l.) and Manchu (r.) in the Forbidden City Manchu chinese.jpg
A bilingual sign in Chinese (l.) and Manchu (r.) in the Forbidden City
Manju hergen ("Manchu alphabet") in Manchu Manchu script.jpg
Manju hergen ("Manchu alphabet") in Manchu

The Manchu alphabet (Manchu :ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ
ᡥᡝᡵᡤᡝᠨ
; Möllendorff : manju hergen; Abkai : manju hergen) is the alphabet used to write the now nearly-extinct Manchu language. A similar script is used today by the Xibe people, who speak a language considered either as a dialect of Manchu or a closely related, mutually intelligible language. It is written vertically from top to bottom, with columns proceeding from left to right.

Contents

History

Tongki fuka akū hergen

According to the Veritable Records  [ zh ] (Manchu :ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᡳ
ᠶᠠᡵᡤᡳᠶᠠᠨ
ᡴᠣᠣᠯᡳ
; Möllendorff : manju i yargiyan kooli; Chinese :滿洲實錄; pinyin :Mǎnzhōu Shílù), in 1599 the Jurchen leader Nurhaci decided to convert the Mongolian alphabet to make it suitable for the Manchu people. He decried the fact that while illiterate Han Chinese and Mongolians could understand their respective languages when read aloud, that was not the case for the Manchus, whose documents were recorded by Mongolian scribes. Overriding the objections of two advisors named Erdeni and G'ag'ai, he is credited with adapting the Mongolian script to Manchu. The resulting script was known as tongki fuka akū hergen (Manchu :ᡨᠣᠩᡴᡳ
ᡶᡠᡴᠠ
ᠠᡴᡡ
ᡥᡝᡵᡤᡝᠨ
) — the "script without dots and circles".

Tongki fuka sindaha hergen

In 1632, Dahai added diacritical marks to clear up a lot of the ambiguity present in the original Mongolian script; for instance, a leading k, g, and h are distinguished by the placement of no diacritical mark, a dot, and a circle, respectively. This revision created the standard script, known as tongki fuka sindaha hergen (Manchu :ᡨᠣᠩᡴᡳ
ᡶᡠᡴᠠ
ᠰᡳᠨᡩᠠᡥᠠ
ᡥᡝᡵᡤᡝᠨ
) — the "script with dots and circles". As a result, the Manchu alphabet contains little ambiguity. Recently discovered manuscripts from the 1620s make clear, however, that the addition of dots and circles to Manchu script began before their supposed introduction by Dahai.

Dahai also added the tulergi hergen ("foreign/outer letters"): ten graphemes to facilitate Manchu to be used to write Chinese, Sanskrit, and Tibetan loanwords. Previously, these non-Manchu sounds did not have corresponding letters in Manchu. [1] Sounds that were transliterated included the aspirated sounds k' (Chinese pinyin: k, ), k (g, ), x (h, ); ts' (c, ); ts (ci, ᡮ᠊ᡟ); sy (si, ᠰ᠊ᡟ); dz (z, ); c'y (chi, ᡱᡟ); j'y (zhi, ᡷᡟ); and ž (r, ). [2]

19th century – present

By the middle of the nineteenth century, there were three styles of writing Manchu in use: standard script (ginggulere hergen), semi-cursive script (gidara hergen), and cursive script (lasihire hergen). Semicursive script had less spacing between the letters, and cursive script had rounded tails. [3]

The Manchu alphabet was also used to write Chinese. A modern example is in Manchu: a Textbook for Reading Documents, which has a comparative table of romanizations of Chinese syllables written in Manchu letters, Hànyǔ Pīnyīn and Wade–Giles. [4] Using the Manchu script to transliterate Chinese words is a source of loanwords for the Xibe language. [5] Several Chinese-Manchu dictionaries contain Chinese characters transliterated with Manchu script. The Manchu versions of the Thousand Character Classic and Dream of the Red Chamber are actually the Manchu transcription of all the Chinese characters. [6]

In the Imperial Liao-Jin-Yuan Three Histories National Language Explanation (欽定遼金元三史國語解Qinding Liao Jin Yuan sanshi guoyujie) commissioned by the Qianlong Emperor, the Manchu alphabet is used to write Evenki (Solon) words. In the Pentaglot Dictionary , also commissioned by the Qianlong Emperor, the Manchu alphabet is used to transcribe Tibetan and Chagatai (related to Uyghur) words.

Manju ("Manchu") in Manchu script Manjui gisun.svg
Manju ("Manchu") in Manchu script

Alphabet

CharactersTransliterationUnicodeNotes
isolatedinitialmedialfinal
Vowels [7]
ᠠ᠊᠊ᠠ᠊᠊ᠠa [a]1820Second final form is used after b, p ([p], [pʰ]).
᠊ᠠ᠋
ᡝ᠊᠊ᡝ᠊᠊ᡝe [ə]185DSecond final form is used after k, g, h ([qʰ], [q], [χ]). [8]
‍ᡝ᠋
ᡳ᠊᠊ᡳ᠊᠊ᡳi [i]1873
᠊ᡳ᠋᠊᠊ᡳ᠋
ᠣ᠊᠊ᠣ᠊᠊ᠣo [ɔ]1823
᠊ᠣ᠋
ᡠ᠊᠊ᡠ᠊᠊ᡠu [u]1860
 ??
ᡡ᠊᠊ᡡ᠊᠊ᡡū/uu/v [ʊ]1861
᠊ᡟ᠊᠊ᡟy/y/i' [ɨ]185FUsed in Chinese loanwords.
ᡳᠣᡳᡳᠣᡳ᠊᠊ᡳᠣᡳ᠊᠊ᡳᠣᡳioi [y]Used in Chinese loanwords.
Consonants [9]
ᠨ᠊᠊ᠨ᠋᠊᠊ᠨ᠊ᠨ᠋n [n]1828The dotted form is used before vowels; undotted form before consonants
᠊ᠨ᠊
᠊ᠩ᠊᠊ᠩng [ŋ]1829This form is used before consonants
ᡴ᠊᠊ᡴ᠊᠊ᡴk [qʰ]1874The undotted medial form is used before a o ū; dotted form before consonants
᠊ᡴ᠋᠊
( Mongol k head.jpg )᠊ᡴ᠌᠊᠊ᡴ᠋k [kʰ]This form is used before e, i, u.
ᡤ᠊᠊ᡤ᠊g [q]1864This form is used after a, o, ū.
g [k]This form is used after e, i, u.
ᡥ᠊᠊ᡥ᠊h [χ]1865This form is used after a, o, ū.
h [x]This form is used after e, i, u.
ᠪ᠊᠊ᠪ᠊᠊ᠪb [p]182A
ᡦ᠊᠊ᡦ᠊p [pʰ]1866
ᠰ᠊᠊ᠰ᠊᠊ᠰs [s], [ɕ] before [i]1830
ᡧ᠊᠊ᡧ᠊š [ʃ], [ɕ] before [i]1867
ᡨ᠋᠊᠊ᡨ᠋᠊t [tʰ]1868

First initial and medial forms are used before a, o, i;
second medial form is used before consonants;
third medial forms are used before e, u, ū

᠊ᡨ᠌᠊᠊ᡨ
ᡨ᠌᠊᠊ᡨ᠍᠊
ᡩ᠊᠊ᡩ᠊d [t]1869

First initial and medial forms are used before a, o, i;
second initial and medial forms are used before e, u, ū

ᡩ᠋᠊᠊ᡩ᠋᠊
ᠯ᠊᠊ᠯ᠊᠊ᠯl [l]182FInitial and final forms usually exist in foreign words.
ᠮ᠊᠊ᠮ᠊᠊ᠮm [m]182E
ᠴ᠊᠊ᠴ᠊c/ch/č/q [t͡ʃʰ], [t͡ɕʰ] before [i]1834
ᠵ᠊᠊ᠵ᠊j/zh/ž [t͡ʃ], [t͡ɕ] before [i]1835
ᠶ᠊᠊ᠶ᠊y [j]1836
ᡵ᠊᠊ᡵ᠊᠊ᡵr [r]1875Initial and final forms exist mostly in foreign words.
ᡶ‍‍ᡶ‍f [f]1876First initial and medial forms are used before a e;

second initial and medial forms are used before i o u ū

ᡶ᠋‍‍ᡶ᠋‍
ᠸ᠊᠊ᠸ᠊v (w) [w], [v-]1838
ᠺ᠊᠊ᠺ᠊k'/kk/k῾/k’ [kʰ]183AUsed for Chinese k [kʰ]. Used before a, o.
ᡬ᠊᠊ᡬ᠊g'/gg/ǵ/g’ [k]186CUsed for Chinese g [k]. Used before a, o.
ᡭ᠊᠊ᡭ᠊h'/hh/h́/h’ [x]186DUsed in Chinese h [x]. Used before a, o.
ᡮ᠊᠊ᡮ᠊ts'/c/ts῾/c [tsʰ]186EUsed in Chinese c [t͡sʰ].
ᡯ᠊᠊ᡯ᠊dz/z/dz/z [t͡s]186FUsed in Chinese z [t͡s].
ᡰ᠊᠊ᡰ᠊ž/rr/ž/r’ [ʐ]1870Used in Chinese r [ʐ].
ᡱ᠊᠊ᡱ᠊c'/ch/c῾/c’ [tʂʰ]1871Used in Chinese ch [tʂʰ] and chi/c'y [tʂʰɨ]
ᡷ᠊᠊ᡷ᠊j/zh/j̊/j’ [tʂ]1877Used in Chinese zh [tʂ] and zhi/j'y [tʂɨ]

Method of teaching

Despite its alphabetic nature, the Manchu "alphabet" was traditionally taught as a syllabary to reflect its phonotactics. Manchu children were taught to memorize the shapes of all the syllables in the language separately as they learned to write [10] and say right away "la, lo", etc., instead of saying "l, ala"; "l, olo"; etc. As a result, the syllables contained in their syllabary do not contain all possible combinations that can be formed with their letters. They made, for instance, no such use of the consonants l, m, n and r as English; hence if the Manchu letters s, m, a, r and t were joined in that order, a Manchu would not pronounce them as "smart". [11]

Today, it is still divided among experts on whether the Manchu script is alphabetic or syllabic. In China, it is considered syllabic, and Manchu is still taught in this manner, while in the West it is treated like an alphabet. The alphabetic approach is used mainly by foreigners who want to learn the language, as studying the Manchu script as a syllabary takes longer. [12] [13]

Twelve uju

The syllables in Manchu are divided into twelve categories called uju (literally "head") based on their syllabic codas (final phonemes). [14] [15] [16] Here lists the names of the twelve uju in their traditional order:

a, ai, ar, an, ang, ak, as, at, ab, ao, al, am.

Each uju contains syllables ending in the coda of its name. Hence, Manchu only allows nine final consonants for its closed syllables, otherwise a syllable is open with a monophthong (auju) or a diphthong (aiuju and aouju).The syllables in an uju are further sorted and grouped into three or two according to their similarities in pronunciation and shape. For example, a uju arranges its 131 licit syllables in the following order:

a, e, i; o, u, ū; na, ne, ni; no, nu, nū;

ka, ga, ha; ko, go, ho; kū, gū, hū;

ba, be, bi; bo, bu, bū; pa, pe, pi; po, pu, pū;

sa, se, si; so, su, sū; ša, še, ši; šo, šu, šū;

ta, da; te, de; ti, di; to, do; tu, du;

la, le, li; lo, lu, lū; ma, me, mi; mo, mu, mū;

ca, ce, ci; co, cu, cū; ja, je, ji; jo, ju, jū; ya, ye; yo, yu, yū;

ke, ge, he; ki, gi, hi; ku, gu, hu; k'a, g'a, h'a; k'o, g'o, h'o;

ra, re, ri; ro, ru, rū;

fa, fe, fi; fo, fu, fū; wa, we;

ts'a, ts'e, ts; ts'o, ts'u; dza, dze, dzi, dzo, dzu;

ža, že, ži; žo, žu; sy, c'y, jy.

In general, while syllables in the same row resemble each other phonetically and visually, syllables in the same group (as the semicolons separate) bear greater similarities.

Punctuation

Abkai fulingga han jiha (coins of Tianming Khan) Aphai fulingga han chiha. Currency of the farther East. No.849.jpg
Abkai fulingga han jiha (coins of Tianming Khan)

The Manchu alphabet has two kinds of punctuation: two dots (), analogous to a period; and one dot (), analogous to a comma. However, with the exception of lists of nouns being reliably punctuated by single dots, punctuation in Manchu is inconsistent, and therefore not of much use as an aid to readability. [17]

The equivalent of the question mark in Manchu script consists of some special particles, written at the end of the question. [18]

Jurchen script

The Jurchens of a millennium ago became the ancestors of the Manchus when Nurhaci united the Jianzhou Jurchens (1593–1618) and his son subsequently renamed the consolidated tribes as the "Manchu". Throughout this period, the Jurchen language evolved into what we know as the Manchu language. Its script has no relation to the Manchu alphabet, however. The Jurchen script was instead derived from the Khitan script, itself derived from Chinese characters.

Unicode

The Manchu alphabet is included in the Unicode block for Mongolian.

Mongolian [1] [2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
 0123456789ABCDEF
U+180xFV
 S1 
FV
 S2 
FV
 S3 
 MV 
S
U+181x
U+182x
U+183x
U+184x
U+185x
U+186x
U+187x
U+188x
U+189x
U+18Ax
Notes
1. ^ As of Unicode version 13.0
2. ^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

See also

Related Research Articles

Alphabet Standard set of letters that represent phonemes of a spoken language

An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols or graphemes that represent the phonemes of certain spoken languages. Not all writing systems represent language in this way; in a syllabary, each character represents a syllable, for instance, and logographic systems use characters to represent words, morphemes, or other semantic units.

Abugida Writing system

An abugida, sometimes known as alphasyllabary, neosyllabary or pseudo-alphabet, is a segmental writing system in which consonant-vowel sequences are written as units; each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary. This contrasts with a full alphabet, in which vowels have status equal to consonants, and with an abjad, in which vowel marking is absent, partial, or optional. The terms also contrast them with a syllabary, in which the symbols cannot be split into separate consonants and vowels.

Manchu is a critically endangered East Asian Tungusic language native to the historical region of Manchuria in Northeast China. As the traditional native language of the Manchus, it was one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636–1912) of China and in Inner Asia, though today the vast majority of Manchus now speak only Mandarin Chinese. Now, several thousand can speak Manchu as a second language through governmental primary education or free classes for adults in classrooms or online.

Ugaritic alphabet Cuneiform consonantal alphabet of 30 letters

The Ugaritic writing system is a cuneiform abjad used from around either the fifteenth century BCE or 1300 BCE for Ugaritic, an extinct Northwest Semitic language, and discovered in Ugarit, Syria, in 1928. It has 30 letters. Other languages were occasionally written in the Ugaritic script in the area around Ugarit, although not elsewhere.

Cherokee syllabary Writing system invented by Sequoyah to write the Cherokee language

The Cherokee syllabary is a syllabary invented by Sequoyah in the late 1810s and early 1820s to write the Cherokee language. His creation of the syllabary is particularly noteworthy as he was illiterate until the creation of his syllabary. He first experimented with logograms, but his system later developed into a syllabary. In his system, each symbol represents a syllable rather than a single phoneme; the 85 characters provide a suitable method to write Cherokee. Although some symbols resemble Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, and Glagolitic letters, they are not used to represent the same sounds.

The Mohe, Malgal, or Mogher, maybe a mispronunciation of the word Mojie, were an East Asian Tungusic people who lived primarily in the modern geographical region of Northeast Asia. The two most powerful Mohe groups were known as the Heishui Mohe, located along the Amur River, and the Sumo Mohe, named after the Songhua River.

Canadian Aboriginal syllabics Writing systems for indigenous North American languages created in 1840 CE

Canadian syllabic writing, or simply syllabics, is a family of abugidas created by James Evans to write a number of indigenous Canadian languages of the Algonquian, Inuit, and (formerly) Athabaskan language families, which had no formal writing system previously. They are valued for their distinctiveness from the Latin script of the dominant languages and for the ease with which literacy can be achieved; indeed, by the late 19th century the Cree had achieved what may have been one of the highest rates of literacy in the world.

ʼPhags-pa script

The ʼPhags-pa script is an alphabet designed by the Tibetan monk and State Preceptor Drogön Chögyal Phagpa for Kublai Khan, the founder of the Yuan dynasty, as a unified script for the written languages within the Yuan. The actual use of this script was limited to about a hundred years during the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty, and it fell out of use with the advent of the Ming dynasty.

Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics is a writing system for several Algonquian languages that emerged during the nineteenth century and whose existence was first noted in 1880. It was originally used near the Great Lakes: Fox, Sac, and Kickapoo, in addition to Potawatomi. Use of the script was subsequently extended to the Siouan language Ho-Chunk. Use of the Great Lakes script has also been attributed to speakers of the Ottawa dialect of the Ojibwe language, but supporting evidence is weak.

The Sibe language is a Tungusic language spoken by members of the Sibe minority of Xinjiang, in Northwest China.

Carrier syllabics Script for the Carrier language of British Columbia, Canada

Carrier or Déné syllabics is a script created by Adrien-Gabriel Morice for the Carrier language. It was inspired by Cree syllabics and is one of the writing systems in the Canadian Aboriginal syllabics Unicode range.

Mongolian script Writing system used for the Mongolian language

The classical or traditional Mongolian script, also known as the Qudum Mongγol bičig, was the first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most widespread until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946. It is traditionally written in vertical lines Top-Down, right across the page. Derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet, Mongolian is a true alphabet, with separate letters for consonants and vowels. The Mongolian script has been adapted to write languages such as Oirat and Manchu. Alphabets based on this classical vertical script are used in Inner Mongolia and other parts of China to this day to write Mongolian, Xibe and experimentally, Evenki.

Semi-syllabary

A semi-syllabary is a writing system that behaves partly as an alphabet and partly as a syllabary. The main group of semi-syllabic writing are the Paleohispanic scripts of ancient Spain, a group of semi-syllabaries that transform redundant plosive consonants of the Phoenician alphabet into syllabograms.

Transliteration of Chinese

The different varieties of Chinese have been transcribed into many other writing systems.

Jurchen script Script used to write the Jurchen language

Jurchen script was the writing system used to write the Jurchen language, the language of the Jurchen people who created the Jin Empire in northeastern China in the 12th–13th centuries. It was derived from the Khitan script, which in turn was derived from Chinese. The script has only been decoded to a small extent.

Old Uyghur alphabet Historic Aramaic-based alphabet

The Old Uyghur alphabet was used for writing the Old Uyghur language, a variety of Old Turkic spoken in Turfan and Gansu that is the ancestor of the modern Western Yugur language. The term "Old Uyghur" used for this alphabet is misleading because Qocho, the Tocharian-Uyghur kingdom created in 843, originally used the Old Turkic alphabet. The Uyghur adopted this "Old Uyghur" script from local inhabitants when they migrated into Turfan after 840. It was an adaptation of the Aramaic alphabet used for texts with Buddhist, Manichaean and Christian content for 700–800 years in Turpan. The last known manuscripts are dated to the 18th century. This was the prototype for the Mongolian and Manchu alphabets. The Old Uyghur alphabet was brought to Mongolia by Tata-tonga.

Writing system Any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication

A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication, based on a script and a set of rules regulating its use. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer. Writing systems require shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing is usually recorded onto a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage, although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display, on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting. Reading a text can be accomplished purely in the mind as an internal process, or expressed orally.

Nurhaci Jurchen chieftain (1559–1626)

Nurhaci was a Jurchen chieftain who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria. He was a member of the House of Aisin-Gioro, and reigned as the founding khan of the Later Jin dynasty from 1616 to 1626. He laid the foundation for the subsequent Qing dynasty conquest of the Ming dynasty.

Aisin-Gioro Ulhicun is a Chinese linguist of Manchu ethnicity who is known for her studies of the Manchu, Jurchen and Khitan languages and scripts. She is also known as a historian of the Liao and Jin dynasties. Her works include a grammar of Manchu (1983), a dictionary of Jurchen (2003), and a study of Khitan memorial inscriptions (2005), as well as various studies on the phonology and grammar of the Khitan language.

References

  1. Gorelova, L: "Manchu Grammar", page 50. Brill, 2002.
  2. Gorelova, L: "Manchu Grammar", pages 71-72. Brill, 2002.
  3. Gorelova, L: "Manchu Grammar", page 72. Brill, 2002.
  4. Gertraude Roth Li (2000). Manchu: a textbook for reading documents. Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press. p. 370. ISBN   978-0824822064 . Retrieved 25 March 2012. Manchu transliteration of Chinese syllables Some Chinese syllables are transliterated in different ways. There may be additional versions to those listed below. *W-G stands for Wade-Giles
  5. Gertraude Roth Li (2000). Manchu: a textbook for reading documents. Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press. p. 294. ISBN   978-0824822064 . Retrieved 25 March 2012. f) Transliteration of Chinese words and compounds. Though most Chinese words in Manchu are easily recognizable to students familiar with Chinese, it is helpful to remember the most important rules that govern the transliteration of Chinese words into Manchu.
  6. Salmon, Claudine, ed. (2013). Literary Migrations: Traditional Chinese Fiction in Asia (17th-20th Centuries). 19 of Nalanda-Sriwijaya series (reprint ed.). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 102. ISBN   978-9814414326 . Retrieved 30 October 2014.
  7. Gorelova, L: "Manchu Grammar", page 59. Brill, 2002.
  8. Liliya M. Gorelova; Liliëiìa Mikhaæilovna Gorelova (2002). Manchu Grammar. Brill. p. 53. ISBN   978-90-04-12307-6.
  9. Gorelova, L: "Manchu Grammar", page 70. Brill, 2002.
  10. Saarela 2014, p. 169.
  11. Meadows 1849, p. 3.
  12. Gertraude Roth Li (2000). Manchu: a textbook for reading documents. University of Hawaii Press. p. 16. ISBN   978-0824822064 . Retrieved 25 March 2012. Alphabet: Some scholars consider the Manchu script to be a syllabic one.
  13. Gertraude Roth Li (2010). Manchu: A Textbook for Reading Documents (Second Edition) (2 ed.). Natl Foreign Lg Resource Ctr. p. 16. ISBN   978-0980045956 . Retrieved 1 March 2012. Alphabet: Some scholars consider the Manchu script to be a syllabic one. Others see it as having an alphabet with individual letters, some of which differ according to their position within a word. Thus, whereas Denis Sinor urged in favor of a syllabic theory, Louis Ligeti preferred to consider the Manchu script an alphabetical one.
  14. Translation of the Ts'ing wan k'e mung, a Chinese Grammar of the Manchu Tartar Language; with introductory notes on Manchu Literature: (translated by A. Wylie.). Mission Press. 1855. pp. xxvii–.
  15. Shou-p'ing Wu Ko (1855). Translation (by A. Wylie) of the Ts'ing wan k'e mung, a Chinese grammar of the Manchu Tartar language (by Woo Kĭh Show-ping, revised and ed. by Ching Ming-yuen Pei-ho) with intr. notes on Manchu literature. pp. xxvii–.
  16. Hummel, Arthur W. Sr., ed. (1943). "Dahai"  . Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period . United States Government Printing Office.
  17. Li, G: "Manchu: A Textbook for Reading Documents", page 21. University of Hawai'i Press, 2000.
  18. Gorelova, L: "Manchu Grammar", page 74. Brill, 2002.

Further reading