Mandageria

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Mandageria
Temporal range: Late Devonian
Scientific classification
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Genus:
Mandageria
Species:
M. fairfaxi
Binomial name
Mandageria fairfaxi
Johanson & Ahlberg, 1997

Mandageria fairfaxi (Pronunciation: Man-daj-ee-ree-a fair-fax-i) is an extinct lobe-finned fish [1] that lived during the Late Devonian period (FrasnianFamennian). It is related to the much larger Hyneria ; although Mandageria was smaller, it probably hunted in the same way.

The Frasnian is one of two faunal stages in the Late Devonian period. It lasted from 382.7 million years ago to 372.2 million years ago. It was preceded by the Givetian stage and followed by the Famennian stage.

The Famennian is the latter of two faunal stages in the Late Devonian epoch. It lasted from 372.2 million years ago to 358.9 million years ago. It was preceded by the Frasnian stage and followed by the Tournaisian stage.

<i>Hyneria</i> species of Sarcopterygii

Hyneria is a genus of large prehistoric predatory lobe-finned fish that lived during the Devonian period around 360 million years ago.

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The generic epithet, Mandageria, refers to the Mandagery Sandstone formation near Canowindra, Australia, where the fossils were found. The specific epithet, fairfaxi, honors the philanthropist James Fairfax. M. fairfaxi is the state fossil emblem for New South Wales. [2]

Canowindra Town in New South Wales, Australia

Canowindra is a historic township located between Orange and Cowra in the central west of New South Wales, Australia, in Cabonne Shire. Canowindra is situated on the Belubula River. The curving main street, Gaskill Street, is partly an urban conservation area. At the 2016 census, Canowindra and the surrounding area had a population of 2,258. The name of the town is derived from an Aboriginal language (Wiradjuri) word meaning 'a home' or 'camping place'

Australia Country in Oceania

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.

New South Wales State of Australia

New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.

Description

Mandageria was a large predator about 1.5 to 2 m (4.9 to 6.6 ft) long. It had a long torpedo-shaped body and large tail fins. Mandageria also had large pectoral fins which could have helped it manoeuvre around submerged logs when preparing to attack its prey. [1] Mandageria had a functional neck joint, an otherwise uncommon feature among fish - Tiktaalik , Tarrasius , placoderms (esp. Arthrodira) and seahorses being other exceptions. [3]

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<i>Tiktaalik</i> genus of fishes (fossil)

Tiktaalik is a monospecific genus of extinct sarcopterygian from the Late Devonian Period, about 375 Ma, having many features akin to those of tetrapods.

Arthrodira order of fishes (fossil)

Arthrodira is an order of extinct armoured, jawed fishes of the class Placodermi that flourished in the Devonian period before their sudden extinction, surviving for about 50 million years and penetrating most marine ecological niches.

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Panderichthys is a genus of extinct sarcopterygian from the late Devonian period, about 380 Mya. Panderichthys, which was recovered from Frasnian deposits in Latvia, is represented by two species. P. stolbovi is known only from some snout fragments and an incomplete lower jaw. P. rhombolepis is known from several more complete specimens. Although it probably belongs to a sister group of the earliest tetrapods, Panderichthys exhibits a range of features transitional between tristichopterid lobe-fin fishes and early tetrapods. It is named after the German-Baltic paleontologist Christian Heinrich Pander. A recent study uncovered tetrapod tracks dating back to before the appearance of Panderichthys in the fossil record, which suggests that Panderichthys is not a transitional fossil, but nonetheless shows the traits that evolved during the fish-tetrapod evolution

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<i>Onychodus</i> genus of fishes

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Innovations conventionally associated with terrestrially first appeared in aquatic elpistostegalians such as Panderichthys rhombolepis, Elpistostege watsoni, and Tiktaalik roseae. Phylogenetic analyses distribute the features that developed along the tetrapod stem and display a stepwise process of character acquisition, rather than abrupt. The complete transition occurred over a period of 25 million years beginning with the tetrapodomorph diversification in the Middle Devonian.

References

  1. 1 2 Age of Fishes Museum, Canowindra
  2. "NSW State Flag & Emblems". NSW Government. Archived from the original on 18 September 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  3. Johanson, Z., Ahlberg, P. and Ritchie, A. (March 2003). "The braincase and palate of the tetrapodomorph sarcopterygian mandageria fairfaxi: morphological variability near the fish–tetrapod transition". Palaeontology. 46 (2): 271–293. doi:10.1111/1475-4983.00298.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)