This article needs additional citations for verification . (December 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Mangal (Pashto : منگل ) is a Pashtun tribe, residing in eastern Paktia and adjacent Khost provinces of Afghanistan, and in the town of Tari Mangal, district Kurram, Pakistan. Their land constitutes the northeastern part of the Loya Paktia (Greater Paktia) region. The Mangals descent from Karlani Pashtun lineage.
Mangals are known for their bravery and independent nature, they have resisted the Taliban and other infiltrators. The majority of Mangals are spread across Afghanistan who among other Afghans are attached to professions such as politicians, military commanders, teachers and scholars specializing in Pashto literature. The Mangal leaders are most recognized for settling tribal disputes and have established an unwritten code known as nerkh, which the Pashtun tribes still use as a tool to resolve conflict among each other. A small number of Mangals residing in the present day lakki marwat District around 1500 AD along with the Honi tribe. Most of these Mangals live as independent in lakki marwat (kpk) and in Kurma Pakistan which borders the Mangal province of Paktia in Afghanistan. [ citation needed ]
In 1924 to 1925, the Mangal fought in the Khost rebellion (1924–1925).
The Mangal tribal militia was one of the various militias assisted Mohammed Nadir Shah to topple the Tajik King, Habibullah Kalakani. Consequently, Nadir Khan owed much to the tribes of Paktia, these tribal leaders were granted vast war booty and power by the new administration. In fact, the entire greater Loya Paktia region was exempt from mandatory military service, which the rest of the nation (regardless of ethnicity, region, or family) endured. [ citation needed ]
The Mangal tribal militia was deployed in Northern Afghanistan shortly before Nadir Khan's assassination to oust an Uzbek Muslim resistance fighter, Ibrahimbeg Laqqai, who was using ethnic kin support in Northern Afghanistan against Soviets in his homeland across the Oxus river. Laqqai had been successfully battling Soviet troops, who had taken over his homeland of modern-day Uzbekistan, in what is now known as the Basmachi Movement. During Kalakani's short rule as king, Laqqai was given support in the Northern Tajik and Uzbek communities and thus he recruited locals to fight across the river against the Soviets. Mohammad Nader Khan worried by this, summoned the Mangal tribe, amongst others, armed them with Soviet-supplied weaponry and motivated them by promises of war booty, to being dispatched to the north. Within a few months, with Soviet support and systematic terror against Tajik and Uzbek locals, the Basmachi Movement were brutally crushed in Afghanistan and eventually in Central Asia and driven him back across the Amu river, where Ibrahimbeg Laqqai was subsequently captured and hanged by the Soviets. [ citation needed ]
The Mangals also played a notable role in the late 20th century history of Afghanistan. The son and grandsons of the Mangals who toppled Habibullah Kalakani were recruited in the Afghan Army and educated in Soviet Military Academies. Consequently, they came back as ideological Communists who eventually joined military corp of the KHALQ faction and overthrew the Monarchy
Mangal tribe is also found in Pakistan's Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province mainly in area of Thall Valley and also in District Hangu and Orakzai Agency of FATA. A large group of Mangal's are living in the valley of kurram agency's areas such as Tari Mangal, Kutri Mangal, Gobazana, Haqdara, Gidu, Sursurang, Piwar tangi and Shalawzan Tangi. Mangal tribe also found in Qematay Mangal nearer to Tari Mangal on Afghanistan side. Mangals Of Tari Mangal and Mangals of Qematay Mangal are relatives of each other. These Mangals on both sides of the border between Pakistan and Afghanistan are called the saver of the border. Tari Mangal, Qematay, Kutri, Gidu and Shalawzan are popular for tourism as thousands of people from different parts of Pakistan have been visiting these zones on special occasions.[ citation needed ]
Educationalist and Political activist Syed Ahmad Shah also belongs to Tari Mangal, Parachinar Kurram Agency.He is serving as a Principal in International Public School Teri Mangal since 2001.[ citation needed ] Mangals are living bothsides in Afghanistan and Pakistan.[ citation needed ]
The Afghan Civil War was fought from 14 November 1928 to 13 October 1929. Rebelling, and subsequently governing Saqqawist forces under Habibullāh Kalakāni fought against various opposing tribes and rival monarchs in the Kingdom of Afghanistan, among whom Mohammed Nādir Khān eventually achieved a preponderant role. Despite early successes, such as the capture of Kabul and defeat of Amanullah Khan on 17 January 1929 or the capture of Kandahar on 3 June, the Saqqawists were eventually deposed by anti-Saqqawist forces led by Nadir on 13 October 1929, leading to Nadir's ascension as King of Afghanistan, who ruled until his assassination on 3 November 1933.
Khōst is the capital city of Khost Province, Afghanistan. It is the largest city in the southeastern part of the country, and also the largest in the region of Loya Paktia. To the south and east of Khost lie Waziristan and Kurram in Pakistan. Khost is the home of Shaikh Zayed University. Khost Airport serves the city as well as the larger region surrounding the city.
Khost is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern part of the country. To the east, Khost Province is bordered by North Waziristan and Kurram in Pakistan. Khost Province used to be part of Paktia Province in the past, and the larger region surrounding Khost is still called Loya Paktia.
Paktia is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the east of the country. Forming part of the larger Loya Paktia region, Paktia Province is divided into 13 districts and has a population of roughly 525,000, which is mostly a tribal society living in rural areas. Pashtuns make up the majority of the population but smaller number of Tajiks are also found. Gardez is the provincial capital.
Paktika is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern part of the country. Forming part of the larger Loya Paktia region, Paktika has a population of about 413,800, mostly ethnic Pashtuns. The town of Sharana serves as the provincial capital, while the most populous city is Urgun.
The Kharoti are a Pashtun tribe of Ghilji origin, originating in the central part of Paktika Province, Afghanistan, but can be also found in other parts of the country. The Kharoti settled in Kharotabad in Quetta, British India around 1945.
The Zazi, also spelled Zazai, or Jaji, is a Karlani Pashtun tribe. They are found in Paktia and Khost provinces in the Loya Paktia region of southeastern Afghanistan, as well as Kurram Valley of Pakistan, but also have an effective presence in Kabul, Logar, Ghazni, Nangharhar, Kunduz, and Baghlan in Afghanistan.
Habibullāh Kalakāni, also known by his nickname "Bacha-ye Saqao" was a ruler of Afghanistan from 17 January to 13 October 1929, as well as a leader of the Saqqawists. During the Afghan Civil War, he captured vast swathes of Afghanistan and ruled Kabul during what is known in historiography as the "Saqqawist period". He was an ethnic Tajik. No country recognized Kalakani as ruler of Afghanistan.
The Turi or Torai are a sub-tribe of the Karlani Pashtun tribe, inhabiting the Kurram Valley, in Kurram Agency in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan, with a smaller number living across the Durand line in the Paktia province of Afghanistan. They speak Pashto and are adherents of the Twelver Shia sect of Islam.
Kurram District is a district in Kohat Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan.The name Kurram comes from the river Kuramá in Pashto which itself derives from the Sanskrit name Krumuḥ.
Afghanistan is a multiethnic and mostly tribal society. The population of the country consists of numerous ethnolinguistic groups: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Aimaq, Turkmen, Baloch, Pashai, Nuristani, Gujjar, Arab, Brahui, Qizilbash, Pamiri, Kyrgyz, Sadat and others. The Afghan National Anthem and the Afghan Constitution each mention fourteen of them, though the lists are not exactly the same.
The Lohani, sometimes called Nuhani is a Pashtun tribe found in Pakistan especially in the region of Dera Ismail Khan, Tank, Lakki Marwat, Shakargarh, Afghanistan and India. They were a mostly pastoral and migratory tribe but nowadays most of them have settled down in the plains of DI Khan, Tank and Lakki Marwat. Lohanis have four branches, Marwat, Daulat Khel, Miya Khel and Tatoor. The Tatoor tribe was crushed by Nadir shah and Daulat khel who brought them near to extinction. Therefore, nowadays Tatoor tribe is generally dispersed in the region of Tank, Dera Ismail khan and FR Tank and especially found in village Tatoor near Tank city.
The Zadran, also spelled Dzadran or Jadran, is a Pashtun tribe that inhabits the Loya Paktia region in southeastern Afghanistan and parts of Waziristan in neighboring Pakistan. "Zadran: Pashtun tribe mainly residing in the “Zadran Arc” a 9-district area encompassing portions of the Khost, Paktya, and Paktika provinces."
Lōya Paktiā is a historical and cultural region of Afghanistan, comprising the modern Afghan provinces of Khost, Paktia, and Paktika, as well as parts of Logar and parts of Kurram and Waziristan in Pakistan. Loya Paktia is vaguely defined by a common culture and history that is connected to the local indigenous tribes that reside in the region. Particular styles of clothing, articles of clothing, turban styles, turban cloth colors, dialects of Pashto language, etc. may sometimes be associated with specific tribes indigenous to Loya Paktia and thus integrate themselves into regional culture. For instance, a Pashtun tribesman from Loy Kandahar may quickly recognize a Pashtun from Loya Paktia based upon his turban style and color. Likewise, a Pashtun from Loya Paktia may recognize someone from Loy Kandahar based upon his unique style of collarless kameez (shirt) with specific embroidered patterns on the front. There are many subtle and intricate cultural indicators of this type that are not recorded in any known written history but simply known and observed by the tribesmen of the various Pashtun regions of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Muhammad Nadir Shah was King of Afghanistan from 15 October 1929 until his assassination in November 1933. Previously, he served as Minister of War, Afghan Ambassador to France, and as a general in the military of Afghanistan. He and his son Muhammad Zahir Shah, who succeeded him, are part of the Musahiban.
The Sulaimankhel, or Suleiman Khel, are a Pashtun sub-tribe of the Ghilji tribe of Bettani confederation of Pashtuns. In the early 20th century, the tribe was recognised as generally pastoral.
The Khost rebellion, also known as the 1924 Mangal uprising, the Khost revolt or the Mangal Revolt was an uprising against the Westernization and modernizing reforms of Afghanistan’s king, Amanullah Khan. The uprising was launched in Southern Province, Afghanistan, and lasted from March 1924 to January 1925. It was fought by the Mangal Pashtun tribe, later joined by the Sulaiman Khel, Ali Khel, Jaji, Jadran and Ahmadzai tribes. After causing the death of over 14,000 Afghans, the revolt was finally quelled in January 1925.
Tari Mangal is a town in the Kurram Valley at the Durand Line, near Spin Ghar, which is a part of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas in Pakistan. Tari Mangal is 23 kilometres (14 mi) away from Parachinar, and 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the town of Aryob in Zazi District, Afghanistan. The Pashtun tribe Mangal has been living in Tari Mangal since 1600 AD. From 1977–1988, during the Soviet–Afghan War, the city served as a Mujahideen camp. Weapons and funds from the United States, en route to Pakistan, were delivered to Afghanistan through the border at Tari Mangal, as well as its neighbouring region Torkham. Due to Tari Mangal's normal weather in summer, many people from hot areas in Pakistan visit Tari Mangal to enjoy cold weather.
The Saqqawists were an armed group in the Kingdom of Afghanistan who were active from the 1924 to 1931. They were led by Habibullāh Kalakāni, and in January 1929 they managed to take control of the capital of Afghanistan, Kabul, establishing the Emirate of Afghanistan. Following military reversals in the Afghan Civil War (1928–1929), they were forced out of the capital in October 1929. Saqqawist activity ended in 1931.
The Emirate of Afghanistan was an unrecognized state ruled by the Saqqawists that existed from January to October 1929. Habibullāh Kalakāni became the state's only emir on 18 January 1929. After the fall of Kalakani on 13 October 1929, the Emirate ended.