Last updated
Manisanda Khin U
မဏိစန္ဒာ ခင်ဦး
Queen of the Northern Palace
Successor Yadanabon I (as the Chief Queen)
King Kyansittha
Chief queen consort of Burma
Predecessor Usaukpan
Successor Apeyadana
King Saw Lu
Queen of the Northern Palace
Predecessor Saw Mon Hla
King Anawrahta
Saw Lu
Born Pegu (Bago)
Died Pagan (Bagan)
Spouse Anawrahta (1070s–77)
Saw Lu (1077–84)
Kyansittha (1084–1112)
House Pegu
FatherRuler of Pegu
Religion Theravada Buddhism

Manisanda Khin U (Burmese : မဏိစန္ဒာ ခင်ဦး [mənḭsàɴdà kʰɪ̀ɴ ʔú] ) was queen to three consecutive kings of Pagan dynasty of Burma (Myanmar). The ethnic Mon queen is famous in Burmese history for her love triangle with Gen. Kyansittha and King Anawrahta. Their story has been compared to the legend of King Arthur, Lancelot and Guinevere. [1]

Manisanda was a daughter of the ruler of Pegu (Bago), which was subject to Pagan. Circa early 1070s, her father gave the princess to Anawrahta as gratitude for Pagan's help in repelling attacks on Pegu by foreign invaders from the direction of Chiang Mai. Kyansittha, who led the Pagan army that drove out the invaders, rode alongside the lady Manisanda who was borne in a curtained litter. During the long journey, they fell in love with each other so violently that the matter had to be reported to Anawrahta. The king nearly killed Kyansittha, and banished his adopted son and best general for the rest of his reign. The princess, who was probably still in her early to mid teens, became one of his queens. [2]

After Anawrahta's death, Saw Lu became king and married her. She became the chief queen soon after as Lu's chief queen Usaukpan died soon after his accession. [3] Uninterested in running the kingdom, Lu brought back Kyansittha from banishment. But Kyansittha and Manisanda resumed their love affair, and Lu too had to banish Kyansittha. [4] :155 Her father, the ruler of Pegu, had died by then, and Lu appointed his childhood friend Yamankan as governor of Pegu. In 1084, Lu was killed by Yamankan who had raised a rebellion against Pagan rule. [5]

Kyansittha defeated the rebellion, and became king of Pagan. He married his love Manisanda for whom he had twice endured exile, and made her his queen. She became queen to the third monarch in succession. [6]

Related Research Articles

Anawrahta King of Burma

Anawrahta Minsaw was the founder of the Pagan Empire. Considered the father of the Burmese nation, Anawrahta turned a small principality in the dry zone of Upper Burma into the first Burmese Empire that formed the basis of modern-day Burma (Myanmar). Historically verifiable Burmese history begins with his accession to the Pagan throne in 1044.

Narathihapate was the last king of the Pagan Empire who reigned from 1256 to 1287. The king is known in Burmese history as the "Taruk-Pyay Min" for his flight from Pagan (Bagan) to Lower Burma in 1285 during the first Mongol invasion (1277–87) of the kingdom. He eventually submitted to Kublai Khan, founder of the Yuan dynasty in January 1287 in exchange for a Mongol withdrawal from northern Burma. But when the king was assassinated six months later by his son Thihathu, the Viceroy of Prome, the 250-year-old Pagan Empire broke apart into multiple petty states. The political fragmentation of the Irrawaddy valley and its periphery would last for another 250 years until the mid-16th century.

Saw Lu was king of Pagan dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1077 to 1084. He inherited from his father Anawrahta the Pagan Empire, the first ever unified kingdom of Burma (Myanmar) but proved an inexperienced ruler. In 1082, he faced a rebellion in Lower Burma, and was captured c. April 1083. He was later killed in captivity about a year later.

Alaungsithu King of Burma

Alaungsithu or Sithu I was king of Pagan Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1112/13 to 1167. Sithu's reign was a prosperous one in which Pagan was an integral part of in-land and maritime trading networks. Sithu engaged in a massive building campaign throughout the kingdom, which included colonies, forts and outposts at strategic locations to strengthen the frontiers, ordination halls and pagodas for the support of religion, as well as reservoirs, dams and other land improvements to assist the farmers. He also introduced standardized weights and measures throughout the country to assist administration as well as trade. He presided over the beginning of a transition away from the Mon culture toward the expression of a distinctive Burman style.

Narapatisithu King of Burma

Narapati Sithu was king of Pagan dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1174 to 1211. He is considered the last important king of Pagan. His peaceful and prosperous reign gave rise to Burmese culture which finally emerged from the shadows of Mon and Pyu cultures. The Burman leadership of the kingdom was now unquestioned. The Pagan Empire reached its peak during his reign, and would decline gradually after his death.

Kyansittha King of Burma

Kyansittha was king of Pagan dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1084 to 1112/13, and is considered one of the greatest Burmese monarchs. He continued the social, economic and cultural reforms begun by his father, King Anawrahta. Pagan became an internationally recognized power during his 28-year reign. The Burmese language and culture continued to gain ground.

Naratheinkha was king of Pagan dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1171 to 1174. He appointed his brother Narapati Sithu heir apparent and commander-in-chief. It was the first recorded instance in the history of the dynasty that the king had given up the command of the army. The king was assassinated by Aungzwa, one of Sithu's servants, after the king had raised one of Sithu's wives to queen.

Thihathu was a co-founder of the Myinsaing Kingdom, and the founder of the Pinya Kingdom in today's central Burma (Myanmar). Thihathu was the youngest and most ambitious of the three brothers that successfully defended central Burma from Mongol invasions in 1287 and in 1300–01. He and his brothers toppled the regime at Pagan in 1297, and co-ruled central Burma. After his eldest brother Athinkhaya's death in 1310, Thihathu pushed aside the middle brother Yazathingyan, and took over as the sole ruler of central Burma. His decision to designate his adopted son Uzana I heir-apparent caused his eldest biological son, Saw Yun to set up a rival power center in Sagaing in 1315. Although Saw Yun nominally remained loyal to his father, after Thihathu's death in 1325, the two houses of Myinsaing officially became rival kingdoms in central Burma.

Athinkhaya was a co-founder of Myinsaing Kingdom in present-day Central Burma (Myanmar). As a senior commander in the Royal Army of the Pagan Empire, he, along with his two younger brothers Yazathingyan and Thihathu, led Pagan's successful defense of central Burma against the Mongol invasions in 1287. Following the collapse of the Pagan Empire, the brothers became rivals of King Kyawswa of Pagan in central Burma, and overthrew him in December 1297, nine months after Kyawswa became a Mongol vassal. They successfully defended the second Mongol invasion (1300–01), and emerged the sole rulers of central Burma.

Athinhkaya Saw Yun was the founder of the Sagaing Kingdom of Myanmar (Burma). The eldest son of King Thihathu set up a rival kingdom in 1315 after Thihathu appointed Uzana I as heir-apparent. Saw Yun successfully resisted two small expeditions by Pinya by 1317. While Saw Yun nominally remained loyal to his father, he was the de facto king of the area roughly corresponding to present-day Sagaing Region and northern Mandalay Region.

Thihathu of Prome, or Sihasura, was viceroy of Prome (Pyay) from 1275 to 1288. He is known in Burmese history for assassinating his own father King Narathihapate, the last sovereign king of the Pagan Empire, in 1287. He was the maternal grandfather of King Swa Saw Ke of Ava.

Wareru was the founder of the Martaban Kingdom, located in present-day Myanmar (Burma). By using both diplomatic and military skills, he successfully carved out a Mon-speaking polity in Lower Burma, during the collapse of the Pagan Empire in the 1280s. The king was assassinated in 1307 but his line ruled the kingdom until its fall in the mid-16th century.

Kale Kye-Taung Nyo was king of Ava from 1425 to 1426, and governor of Kale Kye-Taung (Kalay) from 1406 to 1425. A top military commander during the reigns of kings Minkhaung I and Thihathu of Ava, Prince Min Nyo came to power in 1425 by overthrowing his eight-year-old nephew King Min Hla with the help of his lover Queen Shin Bo-Me. But Nyo himself was overthrown less than seven months later in 1426 by his fellow senior commander and long-time rival Gov. Thado of Mohnyin.

Nga Yamankan was Governor of Pegu (Bago) from 1077 to 1084, who raised an unsuccessful rebellion against Saw Lu of Pagan Dynasty. He nearly succeeded. He captured and killed Lu. But he was driven out of Upper Burma by Lu's half-brother, Kyansittha and was killed while in retreat.

Atula Thiri Maha Yaza Dewi was the chief queen consort of King Bayinnaung of Burma (Myanmar) from 1550 to 1568. The queen was of Toungoo royalty, daughter of King Mingyi Nyo and younger half-sister of King Tabinshwehti. She was the mother of King Nanda. Her 1534 marriage to Bayinnaung, a commoner, solidified an unfailing alliance between Tabinshwehti and Bayinnaung who together would go on to found the Toungoo Empire.

<i>Hmannan Yazawin</i>

Hmannan Maha Yazawindawgyi is the first official chronicle of Konbaung Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar). It was compiled by the Royal Historical Commission between 1829 and 1832. The compilation was based on several existing chronicles and local histories, and the inscriptions collected on the orders of King Bodawpaya, as well as several types of poetry describing epics of kings. Although the compilers disputed some of the earlier accounts, they by and large retained the accounts given Maha Yazawin, the standard chronicle of Toungoo Dynasty.

Tarabya of Pegu was the self-proclaimed king of Pegu from c. 1287 to c. 1296. He was one of several regional strongmen who emerged after the fall of the Pagan Empire in 1287.


  1. Htin Aung 1967: 38
  2. Harvey 1925: 31–32
  3. Yazawin Thit Vol. 1 2012: 108
  4. Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella (ed.). The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN   978-0-8248-0368-1.
  5. Harvey 1925: 34–36
  6. Harvey 1925: 38


Royal titles
Preceded by
Chief queen consort of Burma
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Queen of the Northern Palace
Succeeded by
Yadanabon I
as Chief queen consort
Preceded by
Saw Mon Hla
Queen of the Northern Palace
Succeeded by