Manisanda

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Manisanda Khin U
မဏိစန္ဒာ ခင်ဦး
Queen of the Northern Palace
Tenure1084–1112
Predecessorherself
Successor Yadanabon I (as the Chief Queen)
King Kyansittha
Chief queen consort of Burma
Tenure1077–1084
Predecessor Usaukpan
Successor Apeyadana
King Saw Lu
Queen of the Northern Palace
Tenure1070s–1077
Predecessor Saw Mon Hla
Successorherself
King Anawrahta
Saw Lu
Born Pegu (Bago)
Died Pagan (Bagan)
Spouse Anawrahta (1070s–77)
Saw Lu (1077–84)
Kyansittha (1084–1112)
House Pegu
FatherRuler of Pegu
Religion Theravada Buddhism

Manisanda Khin U (Burmese : မဏိစန္ဒာ ခင်ဦး [mənḭsàɴdà kʰɪ̀ɴ ʔú] ) was queen to three consecutive kings of Pagan dynasty of Burma (Myanmar). The ethnic Mon queen is famous in Burmese history for her love triangle with Gen. Kyansittha and King Anawrahta. Their story has been compared to the legend of King Arthur, Lancelot and Guinevere. [1]

Manisanda was a daughter of the ruler of Pegu (Bago), which was subject to Pagan. Circa early 1070s, her father gave the princess to Anawrahta as gratitude for Pagan's help in repelling attacks on Pegu by foreign invaders from the direction of Chiang Mai. Kyansittha, who led the Pagan army that drove out the invaders, rode alongside the lady Manisanda who was borne in a curtained litter. During the long journey, they fell in love with each other so violently that the matter had to be reported to Anawrahta. The king nearly killed Kyansittha, and banished his adopted son and best general for the rest of his reign. The princess, who was probably still in her early to mid teens, became one of his queens. [2]

After Anawrahta's death, Saw Lu became king and married her. She became the chief queen soon after as Lu's chief queen Usaukpan died soon after his accession. [3] Uninterested in running the kingdom, Lu brought back Kyansittha from banishment. But Kyansittha and Manisanda resumed their love affair, and Lu too had to banish Kyansittha. [4] :155 Her father, the ruler of Pegu, had died by then, and Lu appointed his childhood friend Yamankan as governor of Pegu. In 1084, Lu was killed by Yamankan who had raised a rebellion against Pagan rule. [5]

Kyansittha defeated the rebellion, and became king of Pagan. He married his love Manisanda for whom he had twice endured exile, and made her his queen. She became queen to the third monarch in succession. [6]

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References

  1. Htin Aung 1967: 38
  2. Harvey 1925: 31–32
  3. Yazawin Thit Vol. 1 2012: 108
  4. Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella (ed.). The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN   978-0-8248-0368-1.
  5. Harvey 1925: 34–36
  6. Harvey 1925: 38

Bibliography

Manisanda
Royal titles
Preceded by
Usaukpan
Chief queen consort of Burma
1077–1084
Succeeded by
Apeyadana
Preceded by
herself
Queen of the Northern Palace
1084–1112
Succeeded by
Yadanabon I
as Chief queen consort
Preceded by
Saw Mon Hla
Queen of the Northern Palace
1070s–1077
Succeeded by
herself