Mannaz

Last updated
Name Proto-Germanic Old English Old Norse
*MannazMannMaðr
"man, human"
Shape Elder Futhark Futhorc Younger Futhark
Runic letter mannaz.svg Long-branch m rune.svg Short-twig m rune.svg
Unicode
U+16D7
U+16D8
U+16D9
Transliteration m
Transcriptionm
IPA [m]
Position in
rune-row
2014
Two early forms of the m-rune of the Younger Futhark. Formrun.svg
Two early forms of the m-rune of the Younger Futhark.

*Mannaz is the conventional name of the m-rune of the Elder Futhark. It is derived from the reconstructed Common Germanic word for "man", *mannaz.

Contents

Younger Futhark ᛘ is maðr ("man"). It took up the shape of the algiz rune ᛉ, replacing Elder Futhark .

As its sound value and form in the Elder Futhark indicate, it is derived from the letter M (𐌌) in the Old Italic alphabets, ultimately from the Greek letter Mu (Μ).

Rune poems

The rune is recorded in all three Rune Poems, in the Norwegian and Icelandic poems as maðr, and in the Anglo-Saxon poem as man.

Rune Poem: [1] English Translation:

Norwegian

Maðr er moldar auki;
mikil er græip á hauki.
Man is an augmentation of the dust;
great is the claw of the hawk.

Icelandic

Maðr er manns gaman
ok moldar auki
ok skipa skreytir.
[ clarification needed ]
Man is delight of man
and augmentation of the earth
and adorner of ships.

Anglo-Saxon

Man byþ on myrgþe his magan leof:
sceal þeah anra gehƿylc oðrum sƿican,
forðum drihten ƿyle dome sine
þæt earme flæsc eorþan betæcan.
The joyous man is dear to his kinsmen;
yet every man is doomed to fail his fellow,
since the Lord by his decree
will commit the vile carrion to the earth.

Modern usage

For the "man" rune of the Armanen Futharkh as "life rune" in Germanic mysticism, see Lebensrune .

Related Research Articles

Runes Ancient Germanic alphabet

Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter. The Scandinavian variants are also known as futhark or fuþark ; the Anglo-Saxon variant is futhorc or fuþorc.

is the rune denoting the sound p in the Elder Futhark runic alphabet. It does not appear in the Younger Futhark. It is named peorð in the Anglo-Saxon rune-poem and glossed enigmatically as follows:

The reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the Elder Futhark u rune is *Ūruz meaning "wild ox" or *Ūrą "water". It may have been derived from the Raetic alphabet character u as it is similar in both shape and sound value. The name of the corresponding letter in the Gothic alphabet is urus.

The Younger Futhark, also called Scandinavian runes, is a runic alphabet and a reduced form of the Elder Futhark, with only 16 characters, in use from about the 9th century, after a "transitional period" during the 7th and 8th centuries. The reduction, somewhat paradoxically, happened at the same time as phonetic changes that led to a greater number of different phonemes in the spoken language, when Proto-Norse evolved into Old Norse. Thus, the language included distinct sounds and minimal pairs that were written the same.

Elder Futhark System of runes for Proto-Germanic

The Elder Futhark, Elder Fuþark, Older Futhark, Old Futhark or Germanic Futhark is the oldest form of the runic alphabets. It was a writing system used by Germanic tribes for Northwest Germanic dialects in the Migration Period, the dates of which are debated among scholars. Runic inscriptions are found on artifacts, including jewelry, amulets, plateware, tools, weapons, and, famously, runestones, from the 2nd to the 8th centuries.

The Fe rune represents the f-sound in the Younger Futhark and Futhorc alphabets. Its name means "(mobile) wealth", cognate to English fee with the original meaning of "sheep" or "cattle".

Algiz is the name conventionally given to the "z-rune" of the Elder Futhark runic alphabet. Its transliteration is z, understood as a phoneme of the Proto-Germanic language, the terminal *z continuing Proto-Indo-European terminal *s.

Gyfu is the name for the g-rune in the Anglo-Saxon rune poem, meaning ‘gift’ or ‘generosity’:

*Raidō "ride, journey" is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the r- rune of the Elder Futhark . The name is attested for the same rune in all three rune poems, Old Norwegian Ræið Icelandic Reið, Anglo-Saxon Rad, as well as for the corresponding letter of the Gothic alphabet 𐍂 r, called raida. The shape of the rune may be directly derived from Latin R.

Jera is the conventional name of the j-rune of the Elder Futhark, from a reconstructed Common Germanic stem *jēra- meaning "harvest, (good) year".

*Naudiz is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the n-rune , meaning "need, distress". In the Anglo-Saxon futhorc, it is continued as nyd, in the Younger Futhark as , Icelandic naud and Old Norse nauðr. The corresponding Gothic letter is 𐌽 n, named nauþs.

*Ehwaz is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the Elder Futhark e rune , meaning "horse". In the Anglo-Saxon futhorc, it is continued as eh.

Haglaz Rune

*Haglaz or *Hagalaz is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the h-rune , meaning "hail".

*Laguz or *Laukaz is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the l-rune , *laguz meaning "water" or "lake" and *laukaz meaning "leek". In the Anglo-Saxon rune poem, it is called lagu "ocean". In the Younger Futhark, the rune is called lögr "waterfall" in Icelandic and logr "water" in Norse.

*Isaz is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the i-rune , meaning "ice". In the Younger Futhark, it is called Iss in Icelandic and isa in Old Norse. As rune of the Anglo-Saxon futhorc, it is called is.

Berkanan is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the b rune , meaning "birch". In the Younger Futhark it is called Bjarkan in the Icelandic and Norwegian rune poems. In the Anglo-Saxon rune poem it is called beorc. The corresponding Gothic letter is 𐌱 b, named bairkan.

The rune is called Thurs in the Icelandic and Norwegian rune poems. In the Anglo-Saxon rune poem it is called thorn, whence the name of the letter þ derived. It is transliterated as þ, and has the sound value of a voiceless dental fricative.

Abecedarium Nordmannicum presentation of the 16 runes of the Younger Futhark as a short poem

The Abecedarium Nordmannicum is a presentation of the 16 runes of the Younger Futhark as a short poem, in the 9th-century Codex Sangallensis 878. The Younger Futhark are given after the Hebrew alphabet on the preceding page, and the Anglo-Saxon futhorc on the same page. The text of the rune poem was unfortunately destroyed in the 19th century by chemicals intended for its preservation. It survives in an 1828 drawing by Wilhelm Grimm.

The d rune (ᛞ) is called dæg "day" in the Anglo-Saxon rune poem. The corresponding letter of the Gothic alphabet 𐌳 d is called dags. This rune is also part of the Elder Futhark, with a reconstructed Proto-Germanic name *dagaz.

Sowilo (*sōwilō) meaning "Sun", is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic language name of the s-rune.

References

  1. Original poems and translation from the Rune Poem Page Archived 1999-05-01 at the Wayback Machine ("Ragnar's Ragweed Forge").

See also