Mannheim

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Mannheim
Der Friedrichsplatz und der Wasserturm.jpg
Die Jesuitenkirche.jpg
Luisenpark Mannheim Gondolettas.JPG
Mannheim wasserspiele.jpg
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Friedrichsplatz, Jesuit Church, Luisenpark, Wasserturm, Augustaanlage
Mannheim-Flagge.svg
Flag
Wappen Mannheim.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Mannheim in Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Wurttemberg MA.svg
Germany adm location map.svg
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Mannheim
Baden-Wuerttemberg location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Mannheim
Coordinates: 49°29′20″N8°28′9″E / 49.48889°N 8.46917°E / 49.48889; 8.46917 Coordinates: 49°29′20″N8°28′9″E / 49.48889°N 8.46917°E / 49.48889; 8.46917
Country Germany
State Baden-Württemberg
Admin. region Karlsruhe
District urban district
Government
   Lord Mayor Peter Kurz (SPD)
Area
  City144.96 km2 (55.97 sq mi)
Elevation
97 m (318 ft)
Population
 (2017-12-31) [1]
  City307,997
  Density2,100/km2 (5,500/sq mi)
   Metro
2,362,046 [2]
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
68001–68309
Dialling codes 0621
Vehicle registration MA
Website www.mannheim.de
Neckar watershed closer.gif
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Mannheim on the rivers Rhine and Neckar
Aerial view of Mannheim, showing the grid layout Mannheim Innenstadt.jpg
Aerial view of Mannheim, showing the grid layout

Mannheim (German pronunciation: [ˈmanhaɪm] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Palatine German: Monnem or Mannem) is a city in the southwestern part of Germany, the third-largest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe with a 2015 population of approximately 305,000 inhabitants. The city is at the centre of the larger densely populated Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region which has a population of 2,400,000 [3] and is Germany's eighth-largest metropolitan region.

Palatine German or Pfaelzisch is a West Franconian dialect of German which is spoken in the Upper Rhine Valley roughly in an area between the cities of Zweibrücken, Kaiserslautern, Alzey, Worms, Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Mannheim, Heidelberg, Speyer, Landau, Wörth am Rhein and the border to the Alsace region in France but also beyond. Pennsylvania German, or Pennsylvania Dutch is descended primarily from the Palatine German dialects spoken by Germans who immigrated to North America from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries and who chose to maintain their native language. Danube Swabians in Croatia and Serbia also use many elements of it. Normally, one distinguishes the Pfälzisch spoken in the western part of the Palatinate (Westpfälzisch) and the Pfälzisch spoken in the eastern part of the Palatinate (Vorderpfälzisch). The English term Palatine refers to the Palatinate region where these dialects are spoken.

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

States of Germany First-level administrative subdivisions of the Federal Republic of Germany

Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states. Since today's Germany was formed from an earlier collection of several states, it has a federal constitution, and the constituent states retain a measure of sovereignty. With an emphasis on geographical conditions, Berlin and Hamburg are frequently called Stadtstaaten (city-states), as is the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, which in fact includes the cities of Bremen and Bremerhaven. The remaining 13 states are called Flächenländer.

Contents

Mannheim is located at the confluence of the Rhine and the Neckar in the northwestern corner of Baden-Württemberg. The Rhine separates Mannheim from the city of Ludwigshafen, just to the west of it in Rhineland-Palatinate, and the border of Baden-Württemberg with Hesse is just to the north. Mannheim is downstream along the Neckar from the city of Heidelberg.

Rhine river in Western Europe

The Rhine is one of the major European rivers, which has its sources in Switzerland and flows in a mostly northerly direction through Germany and the Netherlands, emptying into the North Sea. The river begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.

Neckar right tributary of Rhine river in Germany

The Neckar is a 362-kilometre-long (225 mi) river in Germany, mainly flowing through the southwestern state of Baden-Württemberg, with a short section through Hesse. The Neckar is a major right tributary of the Rhine. Rising in the Black Forest near Villingen-Schwenningen in the Schwenninger Moos conservation area at a height of 706 m (2,316 ft) above sea level, it passes through Rottweil, Rottenburg am Neckar, Kilchberg, Tübingen, Wernau, Nürtingen, Plochingen, Esslingen, Stuttgart, Ludwigsburg, Marbach, Heilbronn and Heidelberg, before discharging into the Rhine at Mannheim, at 95 m (312 ft) above sea level.

Ludwigshafen Place in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Ludwigshafen am Rhein is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, on the river Rhine, opposite Mannheim. With Mannheim, Heidelberg, and the surrounding region, it forms the Rhine Neckar Area.

Mannheim is unusual among German cities in that its streets and avenues are laid out in a grid pattern, leading to its nickname "die Quadratestadt" ("The City of Squares"). The eighteenth century Mannheim Palace, former home of the Prince-elector of the Palatinate, now houses the University of Mannheim.

Mannheim Palace historic castle in Mannheim, Germany

Mannheim Palace is a large Baroque palace in Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It was originally the main residence of the Prince-electors of the Electorate of the Palatinate of the House of Wittelsbach. Part of the palace is used by the University of Mannheim. The State of Baden-Württemberg offers tours of parts of the reconstructed and restored Baroque palace, which features tapestries, furniture, paintings, porcelain and silverware.

Prince-elector members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire

The Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire, or Electors for short, were the members of the electoral college that elected the Holy Roman Emperor.

University of Mannheim German university

The University of Mannheim, abbreviated UMA, is a public research university in Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Founded in 1967, the university has its origins in the Palatine Academy of Sciences, which was established by Elector Carl Theodor at Mannheim Palace in 1763, as well as the Handelshochschule, which was founded in 1907.

The city is home to major corporations including Daimler, John Deere, Caterpillar, ABB, Fuchs Petrolub, IBM, Roche, Reckitt Benckiser, Unilever, Phoenix Group, Siemens, and several other well-known companies. In addition, Mannheim's SAP Arena is not only the home of the German ice hockey record champions the Adler Mannheim, but also the well-known handball team, the Rhein-Neckar Löwen. According to the Forbes magazine, Mannheim is known for its exceptional inventive power and was ranked 11th among the Top 15 of the most inventive cities worldwide. [4] [5] The New Economy Magazine elected Mannheim under the 20 cities that best represent the world of tomorrow emphasizing Mannheim's positive economic and innovative environment. [6] Since 2014, Mannheim has been a member of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network and holds the title of "UNESCO City of Music". [7] Mannheim is a Smart City; the city's electrical grid is installed with a power-line communication network. [8]

Daimler AG automotive manufacturer

Daimler AG is a German multinational automotive corporation, headquartered in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg. Daimler-Benz was formed with the merger of Benz & Cie and Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft in 1926. The company was renamed DaimlerChrysler upon acquiring the American automobile manufacturer Chrysler Corporation in 1998, and was again renamed Daimler upon divesting of Chrysler in 2007.

John Deere American corporation

John Deere is the brand name of Deere & Company, an American corporation that manufactures agricultural, construction, and forestry machinery, diesel engines, drivetrains used in heavy equipment, and lawn care equipment. In 2018, it was listed as 102nd in the Fortune 500 America's ranking and was ranked 394th in the global ranking. The company also provides financial services and other related activities.

Caterpillar Inc. is an American Fortune 100 corporation which designs, develops, engineers, manufactures, markets and sells machinery, engines, financial products and insurance to customers via a worldwide dealer network. It is the world's largest construction equipment manufacturer. In 2018, Caterpillar was ranked #65 on the Fortune 500 list and #238 on the Global Fortune 500 list. Caterpillar stock is a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.

The city's tourism slogan is "Leben. Im Quadrat." (Life. Squared.). The civic symbol of Mannheim is der Wasserturm, a Romanesque water tower completed in 1886 that rises to 60 metres (200 feet) above the highest point of the art nouveau area Friedrichsplatz. Mannheim is the starting and finishing point of the Bertha Benz Memorial Route.

Water tower elevated structure supporting a water tank

A water tower is an elevated structure supporting a water tank constructed at a height sufficient to pressurize a water supply system for the distribution of potable water, and to provide emergency storage for fire protection. In some places, the term standpipe is used interchangeably to refer to a water tower. Water towers often operate in conjunction with underground or surface service reservoirs, which store treated water close to where it will be used. Other types of water towers may only store raw (non-potable) water for fire protection or industrial purposes, and may not necessarily be connected to a public water supply.

Art Nouveau Style of art & architecture about 1890 to 1911

Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts. It was most popular between 1890 and 1910. A reaction to the academic art of the 19th century, it was inspired by natural forms and structures, particularly the curved lines of plants and flowers.

Bertha Benz Memorial Route scenic route

The Bertha Benz Memorial Route is a German tourist and theme route in Baden-Württemberg and member of the European Route of Industrial Heritage. It opened in 2008 and follows the tracks of the world's first long distance road trip in 1888.

History

Early history

The name of the city was first recorded as Mannenheim in a legal transaction in 766, surviving in a twelfth-century copy in the Codex Laureshamensis from Lorsch Abbey. The name is interpreted as "the home of Manno", a short form of a Germanic name such as Hartmann or Hermann. [9] Mannheim remained a mere village throughout the Middle Ages.

Lorsch codex manuscript

The Lorsch Codex is an important historical document created between about 1175 to 1195 AD in the Monastery of Saint Nazarius in Lorsch, Germany. It consists of 460 pages in large format containing more than 3800 entries. It is important because it details the gifts given to the monastery and the possessions belonging to it, which thus gives some of the first mention of cities of the Middle Ages in central Germany, and in particular in the Rhein-Neckar region. Over one thousand places are named.

Lorsch Abbey

Lorsch Abbey, otherwise the Imperial Abbey of Lorsch, is a former Imperial abbey in Lorsch, Germany, about 10 km east of Worms. It was one of the most renowned monasteries of the Carolingian Empire. Even in its ruined state, its remains are among the most important pre-Romanesque–Carolingian style buildings in Germany. Its chronicle, entered in the Lorscher Codex compiled in the 1170s, is a fundamental document for early medieval German history. Another famous document from the monastic library is the Codex Aureus of Lorsch. In 1991 the ruined abbey was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Germanic given names are traditionally dithematic; that is, they are formed from two elements, by joining a prefix and a suffix. For example, King Æþelred's name was derived from æþele, for "noble", and ræd, for "counsel".

Early Modern Age

In 1606, Frederick IV, Elector Palatine started building the fortress of Friedrichsburg and the adjacent city centre with its grid of streets and avenues. On January 24, 1607, Frederick IV gave Mannheim the status of a "city", whether it really was one by then or not.

Mannheim was mostly levelled during the Thirty Years War around 1622 by the forces of Johan Tilly. After being rebuilt, it was again severely damaged by the French Army in 1689 during the Nine Years' War.

After the rebuilding of Mannheim that began in 1698, the capital of the Electorate of the Palatinate was moved from Heidelberg to Mannheim in 1720 when Karl III Philip, Elector Palatine began construction of Mannheim Palace and the Jesuit Church; they were completed in 1760.

18th and 19th centuries

Mannheim in 1758 Mannheim 1758.jpg
Mannheim in 1758
Historical map of Mannheim in 1880 Stadtplan Mannheim 1880.jpg
Historical map of Mannheim in 1880

During the eighteenth century, Mannheim was the home of the "Mannheim School" of classical music composers. Mannheim was said to have one of the best court orchestras in Europe under the leadership of the conductor Carlo Grua. The royal court of the Palatinate left Mannheim in 1778. Two decades later, in 1802, Mannheim was removed from the Palatinate and given to the Grand Duchy of Baden.

In 1819, Norwich Duff wrote of Mannheim:

Mannheim is in the Duchy of Baden and situated at the confluence of the Rhine and Neckar over both of which there is a bridge of boats. This is the third town of this name having been twice burnt. The houses are large, and the streets broad and at right angles to each other, and is one of the most airy clean towns I have seen in Germany. It was formerly fortified, but the fortifications were razed in 1806 and gardens fill their places. There is a large château here belonging to the Grand Duke and a very good garden; part of the château was destroyed when the town was bombarded and has never since been repaired, the other part is occupied by the Grand Duchess, widow of the late Grand Duke who was succeeded by his uncle having left only three daughters. She is the sister of Eugene Beauharnais [sic; in fact, she was his second cousin]. There is a cathedral, a theatre which is considered good, an observatory, a gallery of pictures at the château, and some private collections. About two kilometres (one point two miles) below the town the Russian Army crossed the Rhine in 1813. Population 18,300.

In 1819, August von Kotzebue was assassinated in Mannheim.

The climate crisis of 1816-17 caused famine and the death of many horses in Mannheim. That year Karl Drais invented the first bicycle.

Infrastructure improvements included the establishment of Rhine Harbour in 1828 and construction of the first Baden railway, which opened from Mannheim to Heidelberg in 1840. Influenced by the economic rise of the middle class, another golden age of Mannheim gradually began. In the March Revolution of 1848, the city was a centre for political and revolutionary activity.

In 1865, Friedrich Engelhorn founded the Badische Anilin- und Soda-Fabrik (Baden Aniline and Soda Factory, BASF) in Mannheim, but the factory was constructed across the Rhine in Ludwigshafen because Mannheim residents feared air pollution from its operations. From this dye factory, BASF has developed into the largest chemical company in the world. After opening a workshop in Mannheim in 1871 and patenting engines from 1878, Karl Benz patented the first motor car in 1886. He was born in Mühlburg (now part of Karlsruhe).

Early 20th century and World War I

The Schütte-Lanz company, founded by Karl Lanz and Johann Schütte in 1909, built 22 airships. The company's main competitor was the Zeppelin works.

When World War I broke out in 1914, Mannheim's industrial plants played a key role in Germany's war economy. This contributed to the fact that, on 27 May 1915, Ludwigshafen was the world's first civilian settlement behind the battle lines to be bombed from the air. French aircraft attacked the BASF plants, thereby killing twelve people. The precedent was set for this attack by Germany's repeated air raids against British civilian populations throughout southeastern Britain during the first half of 1915.

When Germany lost the war in 1918, according to the peace terms, the left bank of the Rhine was occupied by French troops. The French occupation lasted until 1930, and some of Ludwigshafen's most elegant houses were erected for the officers of the French garrison.

Inter-war period

After the First World War, the Heinrich Lanz Company built the Bulldog, an advanced tractor, powered by heavy oil. As a result of the invention of the pre-combustion chamber by Prosper L'Orange, Benz & Cie. developed the world's first compact diesel-powered car at its motor works in Mannheim in 1923. In 1922, the Grosskraftwerk Mannheim (Mannheim large power station) was opened. By 1930, the city, along with its sister city of Ludwigshafen, which had developed out of the old Mannheim Rheinschanze, had a population of 385,000.

World War II

US troops in street fighting in Mannheim, 1945 Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1971-053-59, Mannheim, US-Truppen im Strassenkampf.jpg
US troops in street fighting in Mannheim, 1945

During WW2, Air raids on Mannheim completely destroyed the city centre during the Second World War. Mannheim was heavily damaged during aerial bombing by the RAF and the U.S. Air Force. The RAF razed the city center of Mannheim with nighttime area bombing killing thousands of civilians. 2,262 of Mannheim's Jews were sent to concentration camps. Some sources state that the first deliberate terror bombing of the war occurred at Mannheim on December 16, 1940. [10]

The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Mannheim in late March 1945, which was potentially well-defended by German forces. However, the German forces suddenly abandoned the city and the U.S. 44th Infantry Division entered unopposed on 29 March 1945. [11] There had been a large American military occupation presence in the Mannheim area with up to 10 barracks. The first one shut down in 2007 going on until 2013 when the last one closed. (See United States military installations below).

United States Military Installations

A number of U.S. Army Europe installations were located in and near Mannheim during the Cold War. The following locations provided services to and housed the "U.S. Army Garrison Mannheim" and other units of the U.S. Army. The U.S. Army Garrison Mannheim was formally deactivated on 31 May 2011. [12]

The following locations were part of the "U.S. Army Garrison Heidelberg" but were within the area of the city of Mannheim; They were vacated in 2010 and 2011:

All personnel of the U.S. Army military community left Mannheim by 2015, some of them moving to Wiesbaden. With the exception of four barracks, all other barracks formerly occupied by the U.S. military had been returned to the German state for conversion to civilian use in 2011.

1950s to 1980s

The Wasserturm Garden Wasserturm Mannheim.jpg
The Wasserturm Garden
Victoria Tower (Victoria-Turm) Victoria-Turm in Mannheim.jpg
Victoria Tower (Victoria-Turm)

Rebuilding of the city began laboriously. Mannheim Palace and the water tower (Wasserturm) eventually were rebuilt and the National Theatre was replaced by a new building at a new location. At the old location there is a monument to Friedrich Schiller and the Zum Zwischen-Akt pub. The housing shortage led to the development of many new residential areas.

In 1964, the City Hospital (Städtische Krankenhaus) became part of the Neckar Faculty of Heidelberg University for Clinical Medicine in Mannheim. In 1967, the University of Mannheim was established in the city.

In 1975, the Bundesgartenschau (Federal horticulture show) was celebrated in Luisen and Herzogenried parks. A number of pieces of infrastructure were developed for the show: the telecommunications tower and a second bridge across the Rhine were built, the pedestrian zone was established, the new Rosengarten conference centre was opened and the Aerobus was installed as a temporary transport system.

A number of major projects were completed in the 1980s and 1990s: a planetarium, an extension to the art gallery, the new Reiß Museum, Stadthaus, a new May Market ground, synagogue, mosque, State Museum for Technology and Work, Carl-Benz stadium and the Fahrlach tunnel were opened.

Mannheim has lost many industrial jobs, although in the recent past the city was economically dominated by manufacturing. The city tried in the past to prevent the establishment of service providers by designating some locations as industrial areas. A prime example of the current trend is the construction of the Victoria Tower (Victoria-Turm) in 2001, one of the tallest buildings in the city, on railway land.

Post-reunification

Mannheim celebrated its 400th anniversary with a series of cultural and other events throughout 2007. The 400th anniversary proper was in 2006, since Frederick IV, Elector Palatine laid the foundations of Mannheim citadel on 17 March 1606. In preparation for the anniversary, some urban activities were implemented, beginning in 2000: the building of the SAP Arena with access to the city's new eastern ring road, the rehabilitation of the pedestrian zone in Breite Straße, the arsenal and the palace, the complete transformation of the old fair ground, and the new Schafweide tram line. The concept of the anniversary of the city aimed at a diverse range of events without a dominant central event.

Demographics

The following list shows significant groups of foreigners in the city of Mannheim by nationalities. [14]

RankNationalityPopulation (31.12.2018)
1Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 16,196
2Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 8,275
3Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 6,943
4Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 6,079
5Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 5,448
6Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 4,278
7Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 3,352
8Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 1,695
9Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina 1,582
10Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 1,416
11Flag of Syria.svg  Syria 1,259
12Flag of France.svg  France 1,254
13Flag of India.svg  India 1,234
14Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo 1,125
15Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 1,021
16Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 1,016
17Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia 978
18Flag of the United States.svg  USA 970
19Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 913

Inventions

Some important inventions were made in Mannheim.

Politics

Town hall in E 5 Technisches Rathaus in Mannheim.jpg
Town hall in E 5
City council in 2009 Gemeinderat-Mannheim-2009.png
City council in 2009

City council

The council has 48 seats and is elected by direct suffrage for five years. In the local elections in Baden-Württemberg, voters are allowed to take advantage of cumulative voting and vote splitting. Since the Second World War the SPD, except in the elections of 1999 and 2004, has received more votes than the CDU. The next municipal election will take place in 2019.

The outcome of the local elections of 25 May 2014 and the current members of the council is as follows:

City Council election 2014
SPD
27.3%
−3.3
13 seats
−3
CDU
26.1%
−2.6
12 seats
−3
Greens
16.3%
+0.4
8 seats
±0
Mannheim List
9.3%
+1.9
4 seats
+1
AfD
7.8%
+7.8
4 seats
+4
The Left
6.2%
+1.3
3 seats
+1
FDP
4.5%
−3.5
2 seats
−2
Mittelstand für Mannheim
1.4%
+1.4
1 seats
+1
NPD
1.1%
+1.1
1 seats
+1

The SPD, CDU, Greens, Mannheim List and AfD have official party status.

Mayor Peter Kurz OBKurz 8210.jpg
Mayor Peter Kurz

Mayor

The mayor is the head of the city council and chairman of the council, being selected by direct suffrage for a term of eight years. The current mayor is Peter Kurz (SPD), who was elected during 2007 with 50.53 percent on a turnout of 36.64 percent in the first round.

The city leaders since 1810 are:

  • 1810–1820: Johann Wilhelm Reinhardt
  • 1820–1832: Valentin Möhl
  • 1833–1835: Heinrich Andriano
  • 1836–1849: Ludwig Jolly
  • 1849–1852: Friedrich Reiß
  • 1852–1861: Heinrich Christian Diffené
  • 1861–1870: Ludwig Achenbach
  • 1870–1891: Eduard Moll
  • 1891–1908: Otto Beck
  • 1908–1913: Paul Martin
  • 1914–1928: Theodor Kutzer
  • 1928–1933: Hermann Heimerich (SPD)
  • 1933–1945: Carl Renninger (NSDAP)
  • 1945–1948: Josef Braun (CDU)
  • 1948–1949: Fritz Cahn-Garnier (SPD)
  • 1949–1955: Hermann Heimerich (SPD)
  • 1956–1972: Hans Reschke (independent)
  • 1972–1980: Ludwig Ratzel (SPD)
  • 1980–1983: Wilhelm Varnholt (SPD)
  • 1983–2007: Gerhard Widder (SPD)
  • since 2007: Peter Kurz (SPD)

Theatre

The National Theatre Mannheim was founded in 1779 and is the oldest "Stage" in Germany. In 1782 the premier of Die Räuber, written by Friedrich Schiller, was shown.

Recently, more smaller stages have opened, such as the Oststadt-Theater, the TIG7 (Theater im Quadrat G7), the Theater Oliv, the Freilichtbühne, the Theater31, the Theater ImPuls, the Theater Felina-Areal, the Mannheimer Puppenspiele, the Kleinkunstbühne Klapsmühl', Schatzkistl, and zeitraumexit.

Education

The University of Mannheim is one of Germany's younger universities. Although founded in 1967, it has its origins in the 1763-established Palatine Academy of Sciences and the former Handelshochschule. Situated in Mannheim Palace, it is Germany's leading university in business and economics and attracts students from around the world. Described by "Die Zeit" magazine as the 'Harvard of Germany' it is seen as the alma mater of German businessmen and women.

The University of Mannheim's main campus - the Palace in a 180-degree panoramic view SchlossMannheim-Pano-130616.jpg
The University of Mannheim's main campus – the Palace in a 180-degree panoramic view

The university town also houses one of the medical schools of Heidelberg University, the Hochschule Mannheim, a branch of the Duale Hochschule of the State of Baden-Württemberg and several musical and theatrical academies, including the Pop Academy Mannheim, the Musikhochschule and the Theaterakademie. These institutions draw a large and diverse student body.

Dependents of U.S. military personnel attended Mannheim Elementary School until it closed in June 2012. [15] In the 1980s the school had 2,200 students. [16]

Geography

Climate

Climate data for Mannheim, Germany for 1981–2010 (Source: DWD)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)16.4
(61.5)
20.2
(68.4)
26.1
(79.0)
32.0
(89.6)
33.2
(91.8)
36.6
(97.9)
39.0
(102.2)
39.8
(103.6)
34.3
(93.7)
28.5
(83.3)
22.6
(72.7)
17.5
(63.5)
39.8
(103.6)
Average high °C (°F)4.7
(40.5)
6.7
(44.1)
11.6
(52.9)
16.2
(61.2)
20.6
(69.1)
23.7
(74.7)
26.1
(79.0)
25.9
(78.6)
21.2
(70.2)
15.3
(59.5)
8.9
(48.0)
5.3
(41.5)
15.50
(59.90)
Daily mean °C (°F)1.8
(35.2)
2.8
(37.0)
6.7
(44.1)
10.7
(51.3)
15.2
(59.4)
18.2
(64.8)
20.3
(68.5)
19.9
(67.8)
15.6
(60.1)
10.7
(51.3)
5.7
(42.3)
2.8
(37.0)
10.85
(51.53)
Average low °C (°F)−1.3
(29.7)
−0.8
(30.6)
2.3
(36.1)
5.0
(41.0)
9.4
(48.9)
12.4
(54.3)
14.5
(58.1)
14.2
(57.6)
10.6
(51.1)
6.7
(44.1)
2.5
(36.5)
-0.0
(32.0)
6.28
(43.30)
Record low °C (°F)−18.7
(−1.7)
−21.1
(−6.0)
−13.6
(7.5)
−6.4
(20.5)
−0.1
(31.8)
4.0
(39.2)
4.7
(40.5)
5.3
(41.5)
2.5
(36.5)
−5.0
(23.0)
−8.7
(16.3)
−18.3
(−0.9)
−21.1
(−6.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)40.9
(1.61)
43.1
(1.70)
50.8
(2.00)
49.3
(1.94)
72.5
(2.85)
66.6
(2.62)
76.0
(2.99)
57.7
(2.27)
54.1
(2.13)
56.4
(2.22)
53.5
(2.11)
54.1
(2.13)
675.0
(26.57)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 55.285.6124.0180.2214.1219.1235.1222.1164.1108.859.044.91,712.2
Source: Data derived from Deutscher Wetterdienst [17]

Mannheim is located in Germany's warmest summer region, the "Rhine shift". In summer, temperatures sometimes rise up to 35 °C (95 °F) and higher. The highest recorded temperature was 39.8 °C (104 °F) on August 7, 2015. The daily lows during heat waves can be very high by north European standards (around 25 °C / 77 °F). In comparison to other regions of Germany, Mannheim has a higher humidity in summer which causes a higher heat index. Snow is rare, even in the cold months. Precipitation occurs mostly during afternoon thunderstorms during the warmer period (average days of thunderstorms in a year is 40–50). Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate). [18]

Main sights

Former City Hall and St. Sebastian's Church Mannheim Altes Rathaus St Sebastian 3600.jpg
Former City Hall and St. Sebastian's Church
University of Mannheim is housed in Mannheim Palace Universitaet Mannheim Schloss Ehrenhof.jpg
University of Mannheim is housed in Mannheim Palace
Jesuit Church (background) and Sternwarte (defunct observatory; in the foreground) Jesuitenkirche West.jpg
Jesuit Church (background) and Sternwarte (defunct observatory; in the foreground)
At the Mannheim fair (Mannheimer Messe), Oct. 2014 Mannemer Mess - Oct 2014.JPG
At the Mannheim fair (Mannheimer Messe), Oct. 2014

Industry

The successor to the Karl Benz automobile manufacturing companies begun in Mannheim, Daimler AG, has had a large presence in Mannheim. Today, diesel engines and buses are assembled there. The Swiss Hoffmann–La Roche Diagnostic group (formerly known as Boehringer Mannheim) has its division headquarters in Mannheim. Additionally, the city also hosts large factories and offices of ABB, Alstom, BASF (Ludwigshafen), Bilfinger Berger, Bombardier, Fuchs Petrolub AG, John Deere, Siemens, SCA, Südzucker, and other companies.

Transport

Roads

Roadmap of Mannheim. Mannheim-Strassenverkehr.png
Roadmap of Mannheim.

The Mannheim/Ludwigshafen area is surrounded by a ring of motorways connecting it to Frankfurt in the north, Karlsruhe in the south, Saarbrücken in the west and Nuremberg in the east.

Railway

Mannheim Hauptbahnhof (central station) is at the end of the Mannheim-Stuttgart high-speed rail line and is the most important railway junction in the southwest of Germany, served by ICE high-speed train system with connections to Frankfurt am MainBerlin, KarlsruheBasel, and StuttgartMunich. A new high speed line to Frankfurt also is planned to relieve the existing Mannheim–Frankfurt railway.

River transport

Mannheim Harbour is the second largest river port in Germany.

Airports

Mannheim City Airport Flugplatz mannheim von mario-andreya.jpg
Mannheim City Airport

Although Frankfurt International Airport is only 65 km (40 mi) to the north, at various times over the years there were daily passenger flights from Mannheim City Airport (IATA code MHG) to London, Dresden, Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, and Saarbrücken. Currently, scheduled commercial passenger flights serve the airports Berlin-Tegel and Hamburg.

Local Public Transport

Local public transport in Mannheim includes the RheinNeckar S-Bahn, eleven tram lines, and numerous bus lines operated by Rhein-Neckar-Verkehr (Rhine-Neckar transport) (RNV).

The RheinNeckar S-Bahn, established in 2003, connects most of the Rhine-Neckar area including lines into the Palatinate, Odenwald, and southern Hesse. All S-Bahn lines run through Mannheim Hauptbahnhof, except S5. Further S-Bahn stations are at present Mannheim-Rangierbahnhof, Mannheim-Seckenheim, and Mannheim-Friedrichsfeld-Süd.

The 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) metre gauge integrated Mannheim/Ludwigshafen tramway network also extends to Heidelberg. It is operated by RNV, a company wholly owned by the three cities mentioned and a couple of municipalities in the Palatinate. RNV is the result of a merger on 1 October 2009 between the region's five former municipal transportation companies. [19] Interurban trams are operated by RNV on a triangular route between Mannheim, Heidelberg, and Weinheim that was originally established by the Upper Rhine Railway Company (Oberrheinische Eisenbahn, OEG), and the company also operates interurban trams between Bad Dürkheim, Ludwigshafen, and Mannheim. In the 1970s a proposal to build a U-Bahn out of the Mannheim and Ludwigshafen tramways was begun, but only small sections were built due to lack of funds. The only underground station in Mannheim is the Haltestelle Dalbergstraße. U-Bahn planning now has stopped. All public transport is offered at uniform prices set by the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Neckar (Rhine-Neckar transport union, VRN).

Sport

Carl-Benz-Stadion, the home stadium of SV Waldhof Mannheim Carl-Benz-Stadion 2.jpg
Carl-Benz-Stadion, the home stadium of SV Waldhof Mannheim

There are two nationally renowned football clubs in Mannheim, SV Waldhof Mannheim, who currently are playing in the fourth tier Regionalliga Südwest, but who have played in the top tier, the Bundesliga; and VfR Mannheim, winner of the German championship in 1949, now playing in the fifth tier Oberliga Baden-Württemberg.

The Adler Mannheim (formerly MERC, Mannheimer Eis- und Rollsport-Club) is an ice hockey team playing in the professional Deutsche Eishockey Liga, having won the championship a total of six times.

The city is home to the Mannheim Tornados, the oldest operational baseball and softball club in Germany. The Tornados play in the first division of the Baseball Bundesliga and have won the championship 11 times, more than any other club. [20]

In 2003 the American football club MTG Rhein-Neckar Bandits was founded. The Bandits are playing in the first German Football League which is called GFL1. In the summer about 500 people watch each game.

Rhein-Neckar-Loewen (Lions) are a handball team (formerly SG Kronau-Oestringen) playing in the professional German Handball League.

The WWE visited Mannheim in 2008 and grossed more than half a million dollars with over 6,500 fans attending the event.

UFC fighter Dennis Siver lives and trains in Mannheim.

Mannheim hosted the European Show Jumping Championships in 1997, and the FEI European Jumping Championships in 2007 [21] 14–19 August, in the MVV-riding stadium.

2002 Hobby Horse Polo was invented in Mannheim, evoking the classical rivalry towards "polite society" in Heidelberg. [22] [23] [24]

Block Numbering and Computer Mapping

The center of the city uses an addressing system unique within Germany. Rather than street names and numbers, each block is given a code and a number is given to each building, i.e. C3, 17 is block C3, building 17. This practice dates back centuries, and is a result of the original use of the city center as a fort, with the fort's internal system being adopted when it became public streets. The street themselves are unnamed. The codes are laid out in a simple progressive pattern, i.e. C3 is between C2 and C4 in one direction and B3 and D3 in the other, but those unused to the system will often become lost. A street named Breite Straße goes through the middle of the blocks from south to north, with blocks A-K on the west side of the street and L-U on the east, with each row going 1 to at most 7 based on distance from this road. House numbers begin on the south corner nearest Breite Straße and go counterclockwise for A-K and Clockwise for L-U. [25]

This causes major issues with most mapping software, as the databases they use are based on the standard street-number system, and thus aren't able to accommodate a completely different system for a small area. A variety of fixes have been tried, none with a high level of success. In particular, these systems have issues because an address on a block can be on any of up to 4 roads, so attempts to fix the issue by giving the roads false names within the database have often failed to give accurate addressing, though such can still be seen on some platforms, like Google Maps. Finding an address in this area thus generally requires resorting to asking directions or using one of the many posted public maps. [26]

International relations

Telecommunication tower and Luisenpark Luisenpark Gondoletta 05.jpg
Telecommunication tower and Luisenpark

Twin towns – sister cities

Mannheim is twinned with: [27]

Notable people from Mannheim

See also: List of notable people from Mannheim  [ de ]

Notes and references

  1. "Bevölkerung nach Nationalität und Geschlecht am 31. Dezember 2017". Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg (in German). 2018.
  2. "Rhine-Neckar: Rhine-Neckar in figures". 7 July 2015. Archived from the original on 31 August 2014.
  3. "Metropolregion Rhein-Neckar". M-r-n.com. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
  4. "World's 15 Most Inventive Cities". Forbes.com. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
  5. "The Manhattan of Germany: the innovative Mannheim city". The New Economy. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  6. "The rise of the smart city". The New Economy. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  7. "Mannheim ist jetzt offiziell "Unesco City of Music"" (in German). RNZ. Archived from the original on 28 December 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  8. "Smart City knows who needs power, and when". CNN. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
  9. Sonja Steiner-Welz, 400 Jahre Stadt Mannheim (Dokumente zur Stadtgeschichte). Band 1: bis zur Kaiserzeit, vol. 1, 2004, ISBN   978-3-936041-96-5, p. 41.
  10. Germany and the Second World War. Books.google.com. 15 November 2001. ISBN   978-0-19-822888-2 . Retrieved 7 April 2011.
  11. Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939-1946 (Revised Edition, 2006), Stackpole Books.
  12. USAG BADEN-WÜRTTEMBERG PUBLIC AFFAIRS (9 June 2011). "Mannheim Deactivation Ceremony".
  13. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 September 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2007.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  14. "Staatsangehörigkeiten der Ausländerinnen und Ausländer zum 31.12.2017" . Retrieved 18 June 2018.
  15. Casebeer, Elizabeth. "Mannheim Elementary closes doors after 66 years: Teachers, students all attend ceremony to say goodb." U.S. Army. June 14, 2012. Retrieved on November 16, 2015.
  16. Montgomery, Nancy. "Closing of bases in Mannheim ends special relationship between Germans, U.S. troops." Stars and Stripes . May 22, 2011. Retrieved on November 16, 2015.
  17. "Ausgabe der Klimadaten: Monatswerte". udate=July 2014 fsource 2= "Dekadenrekorde".
  18. "Mannheim, Germany Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase.
  19. "Press release announcing the merger to form RNV (German-language)". 23 September 2009. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 6 October 2009.
  20. [ dead link ]
  21. "FEI European Jumping Championship, Mannheim". Em2007.de. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 7 April 2011.
  22. Express June 23 2013
  23. "Rheinpfalz July 25 2008".
  24. Eva Gerten, dpa (27 September 2014). "Steckenpferdpolo: Trendsportart in Düsseldorf im Rheinpark". SPIEGEL ONLINE.
  25. "Mannheim, Germany - 7 Awesome Things To Do". twomonkeystravelgroup.com.
  26. Tom Scott (19 February 2018). "The European City Centre With No Street Names" via YouTube.
  27. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 "Partner und Freundesstädte". Stadt Mannheim (in German). Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  28. "Oraşe înfrăţite (Twin cities of Minsk) [via WaybackMachine.com]" (in Romanian). Primăria Municipiului Chişinău. Archived from the original on 3 September 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
  29. "Swansea - Wales :Mannheim.de". Mannheim City website. Mannheim City. 2010. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
  30. Milken Archive of Jewish Music - Samuel Adler Biography on milkenarchive.org
  31. Coburn, Jesse (15 January 2017). "A German Writer Translates a Puzzling Illness Into a Best-Selling Book". The New York Times .

Further reading

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Upper Rhine Railway Company german railway company

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The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Mannheim, Germany.