Manuel Gómez Pedraza

Last updated
Manuel Gómez Pedraza y Rodríguez
6th President of Mexico
In office
24 December 1832 31 March 1833
Preceded by Melchor Múzquiz
Succeeded by Valentín Gómez Farías
8th Minister of War and Marine
In office
8 January 1825 7 June 1825
President Guadalupe Victoria
Preceded by José Castro
Succeeded byJosé Ignacio Esteva
In office
15 July 1825 9 February 1827
PresidentGuadalupe Victoria
Preceded byJosé Ignacio Esteva
Succeeded byManuel Rincón
In office
4 March 1827 3 December 1827
PresidentGuadalupe Victoria
Preceded byManuel Rincón
Succeeded byJosé Castro
Personal details
Born22 April 1789
Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro
Died14 May 1851 (aged 62)
Mexico City
NationalityBandera del Primer Imperio Mexicano.svg Mexican
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg New Spanish (prior to 1821)
Political partyModerate

Manuel Gómez Pedraza y Rodríguez (22 April 1789 14 May 1851) was a Mexican general and president of his country from 1832 to 1833.

Mexico Country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.

Contents

Biography

Born into the upper middle class, Gómez Pedraza was a student at the time of the Grito de Dolores (Cry of Independence) from Spain in 1810. He enlisted in the royalist army under General Félix María Calleja del Rey and became a lieutenant. He fought the Mexican insurgents during the War of Independence and contributed to the capture of José María Morelos. He was a deputy from New Spain to the Spanish Parliament (the Cortes Generales) in 1820. In 1821, after the fall of the viceregal government, he joined with Agustín de Iturbide, who became a personal friend. Iturbide made him commander of the Mexico City garrison. During the period of the First Mexican Empire under Iturbide (1821–1823), Gómez was an anti-federalist, but after the fall of Iturbide he converted to federalism.

Spain Kingdom in Southwest Europe

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

Mexican War of Independence armed conflict which ended the rule of Spain in the territory of New Spain

The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict, and the culmination of a political and social process which ended the rule of Spain in 1821 in the territory of New Spain. The war had its antecedent in Napoleon's French invasion of Spain in 1808; it extended from the Cry of Dolores by Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla on September 16, 1810, to the entrance of the Army of the Three Guarantees led by Agustín de Iturbide to Mexico City on September 27, 1821. September 16 is celebrated as Mexican Independence Day.

José María Morelos Mexican general

José María Teclo Morelos Pérez y Pavón was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and revolutionary rebel leader who led the Mexican War of Independence movement, assuming its leadership after the execution of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in 1811. Morelos and Ignacio López Rayón are credited with organizing the war of independence. Under Morelos the Congress of Anáhuac was installed on September 13, 1813 and in November 6 of the same year congress declared the country's independence. On October 22, 1814 a constitution, Decreto Constitucional para la Libertad de la América Mexicana, was drafted by the Congress which declared that Mexico would be a Republic.

In 1824, he was governor and military commander of Puebla. In 1825, President Guadalupe Victoria made him minister of war and the navy. He was later minister of internal and external affairs in Victoria's cabinet. He formed a political party with a diverse membership. This became the Partido Moderado (Moderate Party).

Puebla State of Mexico

Puebla, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Puebla is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 217 municipalities and its capital is the city of Puebla.

Guadalupe Victoria first president of Mexico

Guadalupe Victoria, born José Miguel Ramón Adaucto Fernández y Félix, was a Mexican general and political leader who fought for independence against the Spanish Empire in the Mexican War of Independence. He was a deputy in the Mexican Chamber of Deputies for Durango and a member of the Supreme Executive Power following the downfall of the First Mexican Empire. After the adoption of the Constitution of 1824, Victoria was elected as the first President of the United Mexican States.

Presidency elect and antidemocratic coup

He was a candidate for president of the republic in 1828 in opposition to Vicente Guerrero and actually won the election. However, on 3 December 1828, under military threat (the National Palace had been bombarded) by his adversaries, including Antonio López de Santa Anna, he "renounced" his victory and left the country. The election was annulled, and under the Plan de Perote, Vicente Guerrero assumed the presidency.

Vicente Guerrero leading revolutionary generals of the Mexican War of Independence and President of Mexico

Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña was one of the leading revolutionary generals of the Mexican War of Independence. He fought against Spain for independence in the early 19th century, and later served as President of Mexico, coming to power in a coup. He was of Afro-Mestizo descent, championed the cause of Mexico's common people, and abolished slavery during his brief term as president. His execution in 1831 by the conservative government that ousted him in 1829 was a shock to the nation.

Antonio López de Santa Anna 19th-century Mexican politician general

Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón, often known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna, was a Mexican politician and general who fought to defend royalist New Spain and then fought for Mexican independence. He greatly influenced early Mexican politics and government, and he was an adept soldier and cunning politician who dominated Mexican history in the first half of the nineteenth century to such an extent that historians often refer to it as the "Age of Santa Anna." He was called "the Man of Destiny" who "loomed over his time like a melodramatic colossus, the uncrowned monarch." Santa Anna first opposed the movement for Mexican independence from Spain, but then fought in support of it. He was one of the earliest caudillos of modern Mexico, and he "represents the stereotypical caudillo in Mexican history". Lucas Alamán wrote that "the history of Mexico since 1822 might accurately be called the history of Santa Anna's revolutions…. His name plays the major role in all the political events of the country and its destiny has become intertwined with his."

He returned to Veracruz in October 1830 from Bordeaux, France, but was immediately sent back into exile by his enemies. He then went to New Orleans, where he published a manifesto against the government of Anastasio Bustamante.

Veracruz State of Mexico

Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave, is one of the 31 states that, along with the Federal District, comprise the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided in 212 municipalities and its capital city is Xalapa-Enríquez.

Bordeaux Prefecture and commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.

France Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

President at last

Gómez Pedraza returned to Mexico on 5 November 1832. The Plan de Zavaleta recognized him as president, and he took office on 24 December 1832 in Puebla. He entered Mexico City on 3 January 1833 accompanied by Santa Anna. One of his first official acts was to enforce a decree of 22 February 1832 that expelled the remaining Spanish citizens from the country.

Mexico City Capital in Mexico

Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. Mexico City is one of the most important cultural and financial centres in the Americas. It is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft). The city has 16 boroughs.

Soon after being named president, he convoked the Congress, which, however, elected Santa Anna president and Valentín Gómez Farías vice-president. Because of the former's illness, Gómez Farías took office as president, on 1 April 1833, replacing Gómez Pedraza.

Later years

In 1841, Gómez Pedraza was named to Santa Anna's cabinet as minister of internal and external affairs. Also in 1841, he was a deputy to the constituent congress, and was detained when that congress was dissolved. As a federal deputy beginning in 1844, he was known for his eloquent orations. That year he spoke in the Senate against the personal dictatorship of Santa Anna.

In 1846, he became a member of the Council of Government, and the following year he returned as minister of relations, when the government was transferred to Querétaro because of the U.S. occupation of Mexico City. He was president of the Mexican Senate during the debate and approval of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo that ended the war (February 1848). His speech to the Senate on 24 May 1848 about the war with the United States has been described as "one of the most brilliant pieces of oratory in the history of the Mexican Parliament." [1]

In 1850, he ran again for president, but was defeated by General Mariano Arista. He was director of the Nacional Monte de Piedad when he died in Mexico City in 1851, refusing the last rites. The clergy did not allow his burial in sacred ground.

See also

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References

Footnotes

  1. García Puron, México y sus gobernantes, v. 2, p. 22.
Political offices
Preceded by
Melchor Múzquiz
President of Mexico
24 December 1832 31 March 1833
Succeeded by
Valentín Gómez Farías