Manuel Gómez Pedraza y Rodríguez
|6th President of Mexico|
24 December 1832 –31 March 1833
|Preceded by||Melchor Múzquiz|
|Succeeded by||Valentín Gómez Farías|
|8th Minister of War and Marine|
8 January 1825 –7 June 1825
|Preceded by||José Castro|
|Succeeded by||José Ignacio Esteva|
15 July 1825 –9 February 1827
|Preceded by||José Ignacio Esteva|
|Succeeded by||Manuel Rincón|
4 March 1827 –3 December 1827
|Preceded by||Manuel Rincón|
|Succeeded by||José Castro|
|Born||22 April 1789|
Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro
|Died||14 May 1851 (aged 62)|
Manuel Gómez Pedraza y Rodríguez (22 April 1789 – 14 May 1851) was a Mexican general and president of his country from 1832 to 1833.
Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.
Born into the upper middle class, Gómez Pedraza was a student at the time of the Grito de Dolores (Cry of Independence) from Spain in 1810. He enlisted in the royalist army under General Félix María Calleja del Rey and became a lieutenant. He fought the Mexican insurgents during the War of Independence and contributed to the capture of José María Morelos. He was a deputy from New Spain to the Spanish Parliament (the Cortes Generales) in 1820. In 1821, after the fall of the viceregal government, he joined with Agustín de Iturbide, who became a personal friend. Iturbide made him commander of the Mexico City garrison. During the period of the First Mexican Empire under Iturbide (1821–1823), Gómez was an anti-federalist, but after the fall of Iturbide he converted to federalism.
Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.
The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict, and the culmination of a political and social process which ended the rule of Spain in 1821 in the territory of New Spain. The war had its antecedent in Napoleon's French invasion of Spain in 1808; it extended from the Cry of Dolores by Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla on September 16, 1810, to the entrance of the Army of the Three Guarantees led by Agustín de Iturbide to Mexico City on September 27, 1821. September 16 is celebrated as Mexican Independence Day.
José María Teclo Morelos Pérez y Pavón was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and revolutionary rebel leader who led the Mexican War of Independence movement, assuming its leadership after the execution of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in 1811. Morelos and Ignacio López Rayón are credited with organizing the war of independence. Under Morelos the Congress of Anáhuac was installed on September 13, 1813 and in November 6 of the same year congress declared the country's independence. On October 22, 1814 a constitution, Decreto Constitucional para la Libertad de la América Mexicana, was drafted by the Congress which declared that Mexico would be a Republic.
In 1824, he was governor and military commander of Puebla. In 1825, President Guadalupe Victoria made him minister of war and the navy. He was later minister of internal and external affairs in Victoria's cabinet. He formed a political party with a diverse membership. This became the Partido Moderado (Moderate Party).
Puebla, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Puebla is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 217 municipalities and its capital is the city of Puebla.
Guadalupe Victoria, born José Miguel Ramón Adaucto Fernández y Félix, was a Mexican general and political leader who fought for independence against the Spanish Empire in the Mexican War of Independence. He was a deputy in the Mexican Chamber of Deputies for Durango and a member of the Supreme Executive Power following the downfall of the First Mexican Empire. After the adoption of the Constitution of 1824, Victoria was elected as the first President of the United Mexican States.
He was a candidate for president of the republic in 1828 in opposition to Vicente Guerrero and actually won the election. However, on 3 December 1828, under military threat (the National Palace had been bombarded) by his adversaries, including Antonio López de Santa Anna, he "renounced" his victory and left the country. The election was annulled, and under the Plan de Perote, Vicente Guerrero assumed the presidency.
Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña was one of the leading revolutionary generals of the Mexican War of Independence. He fought against Spain for independence in the early 19th century, and later served as President of Mexico, coming to power in a coup. He was of Afro-Mestizo descent, championed the cause of Mexico's common people, and abolished slavery during his brief term as president. His execution in 1831 by the conservative government that ousted him in 1829 was a shock to the nation.
Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón, often known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna, was a Mexican politician and general who fought to defend royalist New Spain and then fought for Mexican independence. He greatly influenced early Mexican politics and government, and he was an adept soldier and cunning politician who dominated Mexican history in the first half of the nineteenth century to such an extent that historians often refer to it as the "Age of Santa Anna." He was called "the Man of Destiny" who "loomed over his time like a melodramatic colossus, the uncrowned monarch." Santa Anna first opposed the movement for Mexican independence from Spain, but then fought in support of it. He was one of the earliest caudillos of modern Mexico, and he "represents the stereotypical caudillo in Mexican history". Lucas Alamán wrote that "the history of Mexico since 1822 might accurately be called the history of Santa Anna's revolutions…. His name plays the major role in all the political events of the country and its destiny has become intertwined with his."
He returned to Veracruz in October 1830 from Bordeaux, France, but was immediately sent back into exile by his enemies. He then went to New Orleans, where he published a manifesto against the government of Anastasio Bustamante.
Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave, is one of the 31 states that, along with the Federal District, comprise the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided in 212 municipalities and its capital city is Xalapa-Enríquez.
Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
Gómez Pedraza returned to Mexico on 5 November 1832. The Plan de Zavaleta recognized him as president, and he took office on 24 December 1832 in Puebla. He entered Mexico City on 3 January 1833 accompanied by Santa Anna. One of his first official acts was to enforce a decree of 22 February 1832 that expelled the remaining Spanish citizens from the country.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. Mexico City is one of the most important cultural and financial centres in the Americas. It is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft). The city has 16 boroughs.
Soon after being named president, he convoked the Congress, which, however, elected Santa Anna president and Valentín Gómez Farías vice-president. Because of the former's illness, Gómez Farías took office as president, on 1 April 1833, replacing Gómez Pedraza.
In 1841, Gómez Pedraza was named to Santa Anna's cabinet as minister of internal and external affairs. Also in 1841, he was a deputy to the constituent congress, and was detained when that congress was dissolved. As a federal deputy beginning in 1844, he was known for his eloquent orations. That year he spoke in the Senate against the personal dictatorship of Santa Anna.
In 1846, he became a member of the Council of Government, and the following year he returned as minister of relations, when the government was transferred to Querétaro because of the U.S. occupation of Mexico City. He was president of the Mexican Senate during the debate and approval of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo that ended the war (February 1848). His speech to the Senate on 24 May 1848 about the war with the United States has been described as "one of the most brilliant pieces of oratory in the history of the Mexican Parliament."
In 1850, he ran again for president, but was defeated by General Mariano Arista. He was director of the Nacional Monte de Piedad when he died in Mexico City in 1851, refusing the last rites. The clergy did not allow his burial in sacred ground.
José María Bocanegra was a Mexican lawyer and politician who was briefly interim president of Mexico in 1829.
Juan Nepomuceno Álvarez Hurtado de Luna, generally known as Juan Álvarez, was a general, long-time caudillo in southern Mexico, and interim president of Mexico for two months in 1855, following the liberals ouster of Antonio López de Santa Anna. Álvarez had risen to power in the Tierra Caliente, in southern Mexico with the support of indigenous peasants whose lands he protected. He fought along with heroes of the insurgency, José María Morelos and Vicente Guerrero in the War of Independence, and went on to fight in all the major wars of his day, from the "Pastry War", to the Mexican–American War, and the War of the Reform to the war against the French Intervention. A liberal reformer, a republican and a federalist, he was the leader of a revolution in support of the Plan de Ayutla in 1854, which led to the deposition of Santa Anna from power and the beginning of the political era in Mexico's history known as the Liberal Reform. "Álvarez was most important as a champion of the incorporation of Mexico's peasant masses into the polity of [Mexico] ... advocating universal male suffrage and municipal autonomy."
Martín Carrera Sabat was a Mexican general and interim president of the country for about a month in 1855. He was a moderate Liberal. His family still influences Mexican politics, and some of his grandsons, were revolutionaries in the Mexican Revolution.
Juan Bautista Ceballos was interim president of Mexico from 6 January to 8 February 1853. He was a moderate Liberal.
José Joaquín Antonio de Herrera, a moderate Mexican politician, served as president of Mexico three times, and as a general in the Mexican Army during the Mexican–American War of 1846-1848.
José Manuel de la Peña y Peña was a Mexican politician and lawyer, interim president of Mexico from 26 September 1847 to 13 November 1847 and president from 8 January 1848 to 3 June 1848.
Valentín Gómez Farías was the President of Mexico for five short periods in the 1830s and 1840s. During his term in 1833, he enacted significant liberal reforms that were aimed at undermining the power of the Roman Catholic Church and the army in Mexico.
José Mariano de Salas was a Mexican general and politician who served twice as interim president of Mexico. He was also a member of the executive triumvirate of the Second Mexican Empire that invited Maximilian of Habsburg to take the throne.
Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga was a Conservative Mexican general and president. He took power via a coup d'état in 1846. He was the president at the start of the Mexican–American War.
José Valentín Raimundo Canalizo Bocadillo, known as General Valentín Canalizo, son of Vicente Canalizo and María Josefa Bocadillo and baptized on 16 February 1795 at the Metropolitan Cathedral of Monterrey, was a Mexican President, state governor, city mayor, army general, defense minister and conservative politician. He is as yet the only Mexican President from the city of Monterrey. He was a supporter of a centralist national government, and a confidante of President of Mexico General Antonio López de Santa Anna. Canalizo was President of Mexico two times, for a total of about one year in 1843 and 1844, during the complex Mexican historical times after the one decade-long Mexican War of Independence and before the Mexican–American War. Valentín Canalizo had previously been the Mayor of Mexico City, after being Governor of Puebla state, and years before, Mayor of the city of Cuernavaca.
José Pedro Antonio Vélez de Zúñiga was a Mexican politician and lawyer. He was also head of the Governing Board of Mexico in 1829.
In Mexican history, a plan was a declaration of principles announced in conjunction with a rebellion, usually armed, against the central government of the country. Mexican plans were often more formal than the pronunciamientos that were their equivalent elsewhere in Spanish America and Spain. Some were as detailed as the United States Declaration of Independence, though some plans merely announced that the current government was null and void and that the signer of the plan was the new president.
Melchor de Eca y Múzquiz was a Mexican soldier and politician. From August to December 1832, he was president of Mexico.
Miguel Francisco Barragán Andrade was a Mexican general and centralist politician. He served as Minister of War in the government of Antonio López de Santa Anna in 1833 and 1834, then as president of Mexico from 28 January 1835 to 27 February 1836.
Anastasio Bustamante y Oseguera was president of Mexico three times, from 1830 to 1832, from 1837 to 1839 and from 1839 to 1841. A Conservative, he first came to power by leading a coup against President Vicente Guerrero. Bustamante was deposed twice and exiled to Europe both times.
José Ignacio Pavón was a Mexican lawyer, jurist and politician. From 13 August 1860 to 15 August 1860, he served as unconstitutional interim conservative president of Mexico in opposition to Benito Juárez, the constitutional president.
The 1832 Plan of Veracruz was a statement made on January 2 of that year by Mexican military commander Ciriaco Vazquez. His goal was to remove ministers from the cabinet of Anastasio Bustamante, acting president of the United Mexican States, and remove Bustamante from office. Antonio López de Santa Anna, the plan's instigator and spokesman for the protesters, led an armed uprising five days later. Although the plan and uprising were initially opposed by most of the garrisons and state legislatures, the political and military forces gradually joined the fight against Bustamante's conservative regime.
| President of Mexico |
24 December 1832 – 31 March 1833
Valentín Gómez Farías