Manuel I of Portugal

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Manuel I
D. Manuel (Roque Gameiro, Historia da Colonizacao Portuguesa do Brasil, 1921).png
Reconstructed likeness by Roque Gameiro, based on the contemporary statue by Chantereine on the western portal of Jerónimos Monastery, Lisbon
King of Portugal
Reign25 October 1495 13 December 1521
Coronation27 October 1495
Predecessor John II
Successor John III
Born31 May 1469
Alcochete, Portugal
Died13 December 1521(1521-12-13) (aged 52)
Lisbon, Portugal
Burial
Spouses
Issue
see details...
House Aviz
Father Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu
Mother Beatrice of Portugal
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature Assinatura de D. Manuel I.svg

Manuel I [lower-alpha 1] (European Portuguese:  [mɐnuˈɛɫ] ; 31 May 1469 13 December 1521), known as the Fortunate (Portuguese : O Venturoso), was King of Portugal from 1495 to 1521. A member of the House of Aviz, Manuel was Duke of Beja and Viseu prior to succeeding his cousin, John II of Portugal, as monarch. Manuel ruled over a period of intensive expansion of the Portuguese Empire owing to the numerous Portuguese discoveries made during his reign. His sponsorship of Vasco da Gama led to the Portuguese discovery of the sea route to India in 1498, resulting in the creation of the Portuguese India Armadas, which guaranteed Portugal's monopoly on the spice trade. Manuel began the Portuguese colonization of the Americas and Portuguese India, and oversaw the establishment of a vast trade empire across Africa and Asia.

Contents

Manuel established the Casa da Índia, a royal institution that managed Portugal's monopolies and its imperial expansion. He financed numerous famed Portuguese navigators, including Pedro Álvares Cabral (who discovered Brazil), Afonso de Albuquerque (who established Portuguese hegemony in the Indian Ocean), and João Vaz Corte-Real (who discovered Newfoundland in Canada), among numerous others. The income from Portuguese trade monopolies and colonized lands made Manuel the wealthiest monarch in Europe, allowing him to be one of the great patrons of the Portuguese Renaissance, which produced many significant artistic and literary achievements. Manuel patronized numerous Portuguese intellectuals, including playwright Gil Vicente (called the father of Portuguese and Spanish theatre), physician Garcia de Orta (who pioneered tropical medicine), and mathematician Pedro Nunes (who developed the nonius and the rhumb line). The Manueline style, considered Portugal's national architecture, is named for the king.

Early life

Depiction of Manuel in prayer in his illuminated Gradual, c. 1500 (Austrian National Library). D. Manuel I - Missae partes decantari solitae, c. 1500 (Osterreichischen Nationalbibliothek).png
Depiction of Manuel in prayer in his illuminated Gradual, c. 1500 (Austrian National Library).

Manuel was born in Alcochete on 31 May 1469, the ninth child of Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu and Beatriz of Portugal. His father, Ferdinand, was the son of Duarte, King of Portugal and the brother of Afonso V of Portugal, while his mother, Beatriz, was granddaughter of King John I of Portugal. In addition, his sister Eleanor of Viseu was the wife of King John II of Portugal. [1]

Manuel grew up amidst conspiracies of the Portuguese noble families against King John II. In 1483, Fernando II, Duke of Braganza, leader of Portugal's most powerful feudal house, was executed for treason. Later, Manuel's older brother, Diogo, Duke of Viseu, was accused of leading a conspiracy against the crown and was stabbed to death in 1484 by the king himself. [2]

Manuel thus would have had every reason to worry when he received a royal order in 1493 to present himself to the king, but his fears were groundless: John II wanted to name him heir to the throne after the death of his son Prince Afonso and the failed attempts to legitimise Jorge de Lencastre, Duke of Coimbra, his illegitimate son. [3] As a result of this stroke of luck, Manuel was nicknamed the Fortunate, and succeeded on John's death in 1495.

Reign

Imperial expansion

King Manuel's royal standard, depicting an armillary sphere, became a symbol of the Portuguese Empire's global expanse and eventually Portugal itself. It can still be seen in Portugal's coat of arms and its flag. Flag Manuel I of Portugal.svg
King Manuel's royal standard, depicting an armillary sphere, became a symbol of the Portuguese Empire's global expanse and eventually Portugal itself. It can still be seen in Portugal's coat of arms and its flag.

Manuel would prove a worthy successor to his cousin John II for his support of Portuguese exploration of the Atlantic Ocean and development of Portuguese commerce. During his reign, the following achievements were realized:

1498 – The discovery of a maritime route to India by Vasco da Gama.
1500 – The discovery of Brazil by Pedro Álvares Cabral.
1501 – The discovery of Labrador by Gaspar and Miguel Corte-Real.
1505 – The appointment of Francisco de Almeida as the first viceroy of India.
1503–1515 – The establishment of monopolies on maritime trade routes (mare clausum) to the Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf by Afonso de Albuquerque.

The capture of Malacca in modern-day Malaysia in 1511 was the result of a plan by Manuel I to thwart the Muslim trade in the Indian Ocean by capturing Aden, blocking trade through Alexandria, capturing Ormuz to block trade through the Persian Gulf and Beirut, and capturing Malacca to control trade with China. [4]

All these events made Portugal wealthy from foreign trade as it formally established a vast overseas empire. Manuel used the wealth to build a number of royal buildings (in the "Manueline" style) and to attract scientists and artists to his court.

Commercial treaties and diplomatic alliances were forged with Ming dynasty of China and the Persian Safavid dynasty. Pope Leo X received a monumental embassy from Portugal during his reign designed to draw attention to Portugal's newly acquired riches to all of Europe. [5]

Judicial reform

In Manuel's reign, royal absolutism was the method of government. The Portuguese Cortes (the assembly of the kingdom) met only three times during his reign, always in Lisbon, the king's seat.

Stained-glass depiction of Manuel at Batalha Monastery; attributed to Francisco Henriques, c. 1514-18. Pormenor de D. Manuel, capela-mor da igreja do Mosteiro da Batalha.png
Stained-glass depiction of Manuel at Batalha Monastery; attributed to Francisco Henriques, c. 1514-18.

He reformed the courts of justice and the municipal charters with the crown, modernizing taxes and the concepts of tributes and rights. During his reign, the laws in force in the kingdom of Portugal were recodified with the publication of the Manueline Ordinations.

Portuguese Inquisition

Manuel with his second wife Maria of Aragon and their eight children; by Colijn de Coter, c. 1515-17. Fons Vitae (c. 1515-1517) - Colijn de Coter (attributed).png
Manuel with his second wife Maria of Aragon and their eight children; by Colijn de Coter, c. 1515-17.

Manuel was a very religious man and invested a large amount of Portuguese income to send missionaries to the new colonies, among them Francisco Álvares, and sponsor the construction of religious buildings, such as the Monastery of Jerónimos. Manuel also endeavoured to promote another crusade against the Turks.

His relationship with the Portuguese Jews started out well. At the outset of his reign, he released all the Jews who had been made captive during the reign of John II. Unfortunately for the Jews, he decided that he wanted to marry Infanta Isabella of Aragon, then heiress of the future united crown of Spain (and widow of his nephew Prince Afonso). Her parents Ferdinand and Isabella had expelled the Jews in 1492 and would never marry their daughter to the king of a country that still tolerated their presence. In the marriage contract, Manuel I agreed to persecute the Jews of Portugal.

In December 1496, it was decreed that all Jews either convert to Christianity or leave the country without their children. [6] However, those expelled could only leave the country in ships specified by the king. When those who chose expulsion arrived at the port in Lisbon, they were met by clerics and soldiers who tried to use coercion and promises in order to baptize them and prevent them from leaving the country.

This period of time technically ended the presence of Jews in Portugal. Afterwards, all converted Jews and their descendants would be referred to as "New Christians", and they were given a grace period of thirty years in which no inquiries into their faith would be allowed; this was later extended to end in 1534. [7]

During the course of the Lisbon massacre of 1506, people invaded the Jewish Quarter and murdered thousands of accused Jews; the leaders of the riot were executed by Manuel.

Later life

Manuel's funeral in 1521. Livro de Horas de D. Manuel I ~ Oficio dos Mortos (enterro de D. Manuel) -.jpg
Manuel's funeral in 1521.

Isabella died in childbirth in 1498, thus putting a damper on Portuguese ambitions to rule in Spain, which various rulers had harbored since the reign of King Ferdinand I (1367–1383). Manuel and Isabella's young son, Miguel da Paz, was named Prince of Asturias, Prince of Portugal, and Prince of Girona, making him heir apparent of Castile, Portugal, and Aragon until his death in 1500, at the age of two years, ended the ambitions of the Catholic Monarchs and Manuel. [5]

Manuel's next wife, Maria of Aragon, was his first wife's younger sister. Two of their sons later became kings of Portugal. [5] Maria died in 1517 but the two sisters were survived by an older sister, Joanna of Castile, who was born in 1479 and had married the Archduke Philip (Maximilian I's son) and had a son, Charles V who would eventually inherit Spain and the Habsburg possessions.

Manuel I was awarded the Golden Rose by Pope Julius II in 1506 and by Pope Leo X in 1514. Manuel I became the first individual to receive more than one Golden Rose after Emperor Sigismund von Luxembourg.

Death

In December 1521, while Lisbon was dealing with an outbreak of the Black Plague, Manuel and his court were quarantined inside Ribeira Palace. On 4 December, Manuel began displaying symptoms of an intense fever which incapacitated him by the 11th. He died on 13 December 1521, at the age of 52, and was succeeded by his son, John III of Portugal.

The next day, his body was transported to the Belém district of Lisbon, in a black velvet-draped coffin, followed by masses of mourners. He was provisionally buried at Restelo Church, while the royal pantheon of the House of Aviz was furnished inside Jerónimos Monastery. His coffin was buried by four of the most prominent nobles of the kingdom, the Duke of Braganza, the Duke of Coimbra, and the Marquis of Vila Real, in a private ceremony attended only by the royal family and the Portuguese nobility. His remains were transferred to Jerónimos Monastery in 1551, along with his second wife Maria of Aragon.

Genealogy

Ancestry

Issue

NamePortraitLifespanNotes
By Isabel of Aragon (2 October 1470 – 23 August 1498; married 30 September 1497)
Miguel, Prince of Asturias & Portugal Miguel de la Paza (La Virgen de los Reyes Catolicos).jpg 23 August 1498 
19 July 1500
Heir to all of the Iberian kingdoms of Portugal, Castile, and Aragon as Prince of Asturias, Prince of Portugal, and Prince of Girona, until premature death.
By Maria of Aragon (19 June 1482 – 7 March 1517; married 30 October 1500)
John III of Portugal D. Joao III - Cristovao Lopes (attrib).png 7 June 1502 
11 June 1557
King of Portugal from 1521 until 1557. He was married to Catherine of Austria, daughter of King Philip I of Castile and Queen Joana I of Castile. He had nine children from this marriage.
Isabel, Holy Roman Empress La emperatriz Isabel de Portugal, por Tiziano (cropped).jpg 24 October 1503 
1 May 1539
Married Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. She had five children from this marriage.
Beatriz, Duchess of Savoy Princess Beatrice of Portugal, Duchess of Savoy.jpg 31 December 1504 
8 January 1538
Married Charles III, Duke of Savoy. She had seven children from this marriage.
Luís, Duke of Beja Infante D. Luis in Fons Vitae - Colijn de Coter.png 3 March 1506 
27 November 1555
Never married but had an illegitimate son, António, Prior of Crato, who tried to claim the throne of Portugal during the 1580 dynastic crisis.
Fernando, Duke of Guarda Fernando - Guarda & Trancoso.jpg 5 June 1507 
7 November 1534
Married Guiomar Coutinho, Countess of Marialva and Loulé. He had two children from this marriage.
Afonso, Cardinal-Archbishop of Lisbon Cardeal Infante D. Afonso - (cropped).jpg 23 April 1509 
21 April 1540
He was a Cardinal-Infante, Prince of the Church, Archbishop of Lisbon, and Bishop of Évora.
Henry I of Portugal Cardeal D. Henrique, copia de original de c. 1590 (cropped).jpg 31 January 1512 
31 January 1580
King of Portugal from 1578 until 1580. He was a Cardinal-Infante, Prince of the Church, Archbishop of Lisbon, and the only cardinal in history to reign as king.
Infanta Maria3 February 1513She was born stillborn.
Duarte, Duke of Guimarães Ambito Fiammingo, Palazzo della Pilotta - Don Duarte del Portogallo.jpg 7 October 1515 
20 September 1540
Married Isabel of Braganza. He had three children from this marriage. Great-grandfather of John IV.
Infante António9 September 1516He was born stillborn.
By Leonor of Austria (15 November 1498 – 25 February 1558; married 16 July 1518)
Infante Carlos18 February 1520 
14 April 1521
He died at the age of 1, of a fever.
Maria, Duchess of Viseu Maria von Portugal, Anthonis Mor (cropped).jpg 18 June 1521 
10 October 1577
Never married. She was the richest woman in Europe of her time.

See also

Notes

  1. In archaic Portuguese, Manoel.

Related Research Articles

History of Portugal (1415–1578) first European power to begin a colonial empire

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John II of Portugal King of Portugal from 1481 to 1495

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Eleanor of Viseu Queen consort of Portugal

Eleanor of Viseu was a Portuguese infanta (princess) and later queen consort of Portugal.

House of Aviz Portuguese dynasty

The House of Aviz, also known as the Joanine Dynasty, was a dynasty of Portuguese origin which flourished during the Renaissance and the period of the Portuguese discoveries, when Portugal expanded its power globally.

Manueline

The Manueline, occasionally known as Portuguese late Gothic, is the sumptuous, composite Portuguese architectural style originating in the 16th century, during the Portuguese Renaissance and Age of Discoveries. Manueline architecture incorporates maritime elements and representations of the discoveries brought from the voyages of Vasco da Gama and Pedro Álvares Cabral. This innovative style synthesizes aspects of Late Gothic Flamboyant architecture with original motifs and influences of the Plateresque, Mudéjar, Italian, and Flemish architecture. It marks the transition from Late Gothic to Renaissance. The construction of churches and monasteries in Manueline was largely financed by proceeds of the lucrative spice trade with Africa and India.

Timeline of Portuguese history (Second Dynasty)

This is a historical timeline of Portugal.

John, Constable of Portugal Constable of Portugal

Infante John, Constable of Portugal was a Portuguese infante (prince) of the House of Aviz, Constable of Portugal and master of the Portuguese Order of St. James (Santiago). In Portugal, he is commonly referred to as the O Infante Condestável.

Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu Duke of Viseu and Beja

Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu and Beja was the third son of Edward, King of Portugal and his wife Eleanor of Aragon.

Cardinal-Infante Afonso of Portugal Cardinal-Priest of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo

Cardinal-Infante Afonso was a Portuguese infante (prince), son of King Manuel I of Portugal and his wife Maria of Aragon.

Rui de Pina

Ruide Pina (1440–1522) was a Portuguese chronicler.

Isabella of Aragon, Queen of Portugal Queen consort of Portugal and the Algarves

Isabella, Princess of Asturias was the eldest daughter and heir presumptive of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile. She was Queen of Portugal as the wife of King Manuel I from their marriage on 30 September 1497 until her death the next year. Her younger siblings were John, Prince of Asturias, and Queens Joanna of Castile, Maria of Portugal and Catherine of England.

Ribeira Palace

Ribeira Palace was the main residence of the Kings of Portugal, in Lisbon, for around 250 years. Its construction was ordered by King Manuel I of Portugal when he found the Royal Alcáçova of São Jorge unsuitable. The palace complex underwent numerous reconstructions and reconfigurations from the original Manueline design, ending with its final Mannerist and Baroque form.

Beatriz of Portugal, Duchess of Viseu Duchess of Viseu

Infanta Beatriz of Portugal was a Portuguese infanta, daughter of John, Constable of Portugal and Isabella of Barcelos a daughter of Afonso I, Duke of Braganza.

Isabel of Viseu Duchess of Braganza

Isabel of Viseu (1459–1521) was a daughter of Infante Fernando, Duke of Viseu and his wife and cousin Infanta Beatrice, Duchess of Viseu. She was a member of the House of Aviz and later, House of Braganza.

Diogo, Duke of Viseu

Infante Diogo of Viseu (1450–1484) was the second son of Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, and his wife Beatriz, Duchess of Viseu.

The Ínclita Geração is a term commonly used by Portuguese historians to refer to a group of 15th-century infantes (princes) of the House of Aviz, specifically the sons of King John I of Portugal and his wife Philippa of Lancaster : the future king Edward of Portugal; the future regent Peter of Coimbra; Prince Henry the Navigator; the constable John of Reguengos; and the martyr Ferdinand the Holy Prince.

Portuguese Cortes

In the Medieval Kingdom of Portugal, the Cortes was an assembly of representatives of the estates of the realm – the nobility, clergy and bourgeoisie. It was called and dismissed by the King of Portugal at will, at a place of his choosing. Cortes which brought all three estates together are sometimes distinguished as Cortes-Gerais, in contrast to smaller assemblies which brought only one or two estates, to negotiate a specific point relevant only to them.

Portuguese nobility

The Portuguese nobility was a social class enshrined in the laws of the Kingdom of Portugal with specific privileges, prerogatives, obligations and regulations. The nobility ranked immediately after royalty and was itself subdivided into a number of subcategories which included the titled nobility and nobility of blood at the top and civic nobility at the bottom, encompassing a small, but not insignificant proportion of Portugal's citizenry.

Descendants of Manuel I of Portugal

The Descendants of Manuel I of Portugal, of the House of Aviz, left a lasting mark on Portuguese history and royalty, and European history and royalty as a whole. Manuel married three times, each time providing children. He first married Isabel of Aragon and Castille, followed by Maria of Aragon and Castille and lastly Eleanor of Austria.

Royal Palace of Évora

The Royal Palace of Évora, also known as the Royal Palace of São Francisco and the Palace of King Manuel I, is a former royal residence of the Kings of Portugal, in Évora, the capital of Alentejo.

References

  1. Rebelo 2003, p. 534
  2. Marques 1972, p. 210
  3. Bergenroth, G A. "Spain: December 1495 Pages 72-79 Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 1, 1485-1509. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1862". British History Online. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
  4. Malabar Manual by William Logan p.312
  5. 1 2 3 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Emanuel I."  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 9 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 305.
  6. Lowenstein, Steven (2001). The Jewish Cultural Tapestry: International Jewish Folk Traditions. Oxford University Press. p. 36. ISBN   9780195313604.
  7. Arthur Benveniste. "500th Anniversary of the Forced Conversion of the Jews of Portugal." Address at Sephardic Temple Tifereth Israel, Los Angeles, October 1997
  8. 1 2 3 4 Stephens, Henry Morse (1903). The Story of Portugal. G.P. Putnam's Sons. p. 139. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  9. 1 2 de Sousa, Antonio Caetano (1735). Historia genealogica da casa real portugueza [Genealogical History of the Royal House of Portugal] (in Portuguese). 2. Lisboa Occidental. p. 497.
  10. 1 2 3 4 de Sousa, Antonio Caetano (1735). Historia genealogica da casa real portugueza [Genealogical History of the Royal House of Portugal] (in Portuguese). 2. Lisboa Occidental. p. 167.
  11. 1 2 Liss, Peggy K. (10 November 2015). Isabel the Queen: Life and Times. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 11. ISBN   9780812293203.

Bibliography

Manuel I of Portugal
Cadet branch of the House of Burgundy
Born: 31 May 1469 Died: 13 December 1521
Regnal titles
Preceded by
João II
King of Portugal
1495–1521
Succeeded by
João III
Portuguese royalty
Preceded by
Afonso
Prince of Portugal
1491–1495
Succeeded by
Miguel de Paz
Preceded by
Diogo
Duke of Beja
1484–1495
Vacant
Title next held by
Luís
Duke of Viseu
1484–1495
Vacant
Title next held by
Maria