Manuel Robles Pezuela
|Provisional President of Mexico |
by the Plan of Tacubaya
24 December 1858 –23 January 1859
|Preceded by||Félix Zuloaga|
|Succeeded by||José Mariano Salas|
|Born||23 May 1817|
|Died||23 March 1862 (aged 44)|
Ciudad Serdán, Puebla
Manuel Robles Pezuela (23 May 1817 – 23 March 1862). He was unconstitutional provisional President of Mexico from 1858 to 1859 on the conservative side in the Mexican War of the Reform, serving by appointment of a military junta in opposition to the constitutional President Benito Juárez, who was the head of the liberal party.
Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometers (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fourth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 129 million people, Mexico is the tenth most populous country and the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states plus Mexico City (CDMX), which is the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the country include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, and León.
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization. The central tenets of conservatism include tradition, organic society, hierarchy, authority, and property rights. Conservatives seek to preserve a range of institutions such as religion, parliamentary government, and property rights, with the aim of emphasizing social stability and continuity. The more traditional elements—reactionaries—oppose modernism and seek a return to "the way things were".
A military junta is a government led by a committee of military leaders. The term junta comes from Spanish and Portuguese and means committee, specifically a board of directors. Sometimes it becomes a military dictatorship, though the terms are not synonymous.
During the War of the French Intervention, Robles Pezuela was captured and shot under direct orders of Benito Juárez for siding with his enemy faction.
Benito Pablo Juárez García was a Mexican lawyer and president of Mexico, of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca.
Benito Juárez is one of the eleven municipalities of the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. Most of its population reside in the municipal seat, Cancún. It is named after the 19th century president and statesman Benito Juárez.
Benito Juárez is one of the 81 municipalities of Guerrero, in south-western Mexico. The municipal seat lies at San Jerónimo de Juárez. The municipality covers an area of 284.9 km².
Benito Juárez, is one of the 16 alcaldías (boroughs), formerly delegaciones, into which Mexico City is divided. It is a largely residential area, located to the south of historic center of Mexico City, although there are pressures for areas to convert to commercial use. It was named after Benito Juárez, president in the 19th century. The borough has the highest socioeconomic index in the country as it is primarily populated by the middle and upper middle classes. The borough is home to a number of landmarks such as the World Trade Center Mexico City, the Estadio Azul, the Plaza México and the Polyforum Cultural Siqueiros.
Ignacio Gregorio Comonfort de los Ríos, known as Ignacio Comonfort, was a Mexican politician and soldier. He became President of Mexico in 1855 after the outbreak of the Revolution of Ayutla that overthrew Santa Anna.
Miguel Gregorio de la Luz Atenógenes Miramón y Tarelo, known as Miguel Miramón, was a Mexican conservative general and politician. He served as anti-constitutional interim conservative President of Mexico in opposition to the constitutional president, Benito Juárez of the Liberal Party. He was one the youngest rulers and the first not born during Spanish colonial rule.
Félix María Zuloaga Trillo was a Mexican general and a Conservative leader in the War of Reform. In the late 1850s and early 1860s, Zuloaga served as unconstitutional interim conservative president of Mexico in opposition to the constitutional president Benito Juárez of the Liberal Party.
The War of Reform in Mexico, during the Second Federal Republic of Mexico, was the three-year civil war (1857–1860) between members of the Liberal Party who had taken power in 1855 under the Plan of Ayutla, and members of the Conservative Party resisting the legitimacy of the government and its radical restructuring of Mexican laws, known as La Reforma. The Liberals wanted to eliminate the political, economic, and cultural power of the Catholic church as well as reduce the role of the Mexican Army. Both the Catholic Church and the Army were protected by corporate or institutional privileges (fueros) established in the colonial era. Liberals sought to create a modern nation-state founded on liberal principles. The Conservatives wanted a centralist government, some even a monarchy, with the Church and military keeping their traditional roles and powers, and with landed and merchant elites maintaining their dominance over the majority mixed-race and indigenous populations of Mexico.
Benito Juarez Community Academy,, is a public 4–year high school located in the Pilsen neighborhood on the west side of Chicago, Illinois, United States. Juarez is named for Mexican president Benito Pablo Juárez García. The school is a part of the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) district. As of 2014 it is the largest high school in Pilsen. It was designed by architect Pedro Ramírez Vázquez.
The Benito Juárez Autonomous University of Oaxaca is a public university located in the city of Oaxaca de Juárez in state of Oaxaca, Mexico.
Benito Juárez is one of the 212 municipalities of the Mexican state of Veracruz. It is located in the state's Huasteca Baja region. The municipal seat is the village of Benito Juárez, Veracruz.
The Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1857 often called simply the Constitution of 1857 is the liberal constitution drafted by 1857 Constituent Congress of Mexico during the presidency of Ignacio Comonfort. It was ratified on February 5, 1857, establishing individual rights such as freedom of speech; freedom of conscience; freedom of the press; freedom of assembly; and the right to bear arms. It also reaffirmed the abolition of slavery, eliminated debtor prison, and eliminated all forms of cruel and unusual punishment, including the death penalty.
José Santos Degollado Sánchez was a Mexican Liberal politician and military leader. During his service in the Mexican Army, Degollado fought against López de Santa Anna and later alongside Benito Juárez. He was deputy, and later governor of the state of Michoacán. During Benito Juárez's presidency he served as Secretary of War and Navy and as Secretary of External Affairs. Degollado was a colleague of Melchor Ocampo and fought by his side in many battles. His remains were interred at the Panteón de Dolores in Mexico City, in the Rotunda of Illustrious Persons on November 26, 1936.
The Second Federal Republic of Mexico is the name given to the second attempt to achieve a federalist government in Mexico. Officially called the United Mexican States, a federal republic was implemented again on August 22, 1846 when interim president José Mariano Salas issued a decree restoring the 1824 constitution. Like the Mexican Empire, the First Federal Republic and the Centralist Republic it was a chaotic period, marked by political instability that resulted in several internal conflicts. Mexico's loss of the war with the United States saw half the territory Mexico claimed become part of the United States. Even though Antonio López de Santa Anna played a major role in much of this history, he returned to the presidency yet again, selling northern territory coveted by the United States contiguous to territory it just gained in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The sale of the Mesilla Valley was for many the final straw, and liberals promulgated of the Plan of Ayutla, calling for the overthrow of Santa Anna. Santa Anna went into exile and the liberals set about implementing their vision of Mexico.
Plan of Tacubaya, also known as Tacubaya Plan or War of the Three Years was formulated to abolish the Reform Laws by Benito Juárez. In Mexico the new constitution was rejected by a large part of society, which had the support of the clergy and the army. Comonfort, aware of the limitations imposed by the new regime, proposed reforms to strengthen the government and mitigate "radical" measures; however, Congress rejected them. Given the delicate situation, Félix Zuloaga and other generals convinced Comonfort to convene another congress to draft a new constitution more in keeping with the customs of the nation. On December 17, 1857, Zuloaga proclaimed the Plan of Tacubaya. Comonfort joined the Plan of Tacubaya, which began the three-year war.
Events in the year 1862 in Mexico.
The Conservative Party was a Mexican political party that sought to preserve the organization and colonial Spanish values, both in government and in society. Although as a party it was founded in 1849, after the defeat of Mexico in the war with the United States, most of the political ideology directly descended from the Jesuits expelled in the 18th century, and the establishment of a Criollism or Hispanism sentiment, which then emerged and were strongly influenced by conservative European thoughts. It also advocated the preservation and supremacy of the Criollos élite culture over those of mestizo or indigenous. It was a party of the élite, established by white landowners and aristocrats. The Conservative Party disappeared in 1867, after the fall of Maximilian I of Mexico.
Benito Juárez is an outdoor bronze sculpture of Benito Juárez by Moises Cabrera Orozco, located in Bryant Park in Manhattan, New York. Donated by the State of Oaxaca on behalf of the Mexican Government and the Mexican Trade Center, the portrait sculpture was cast in Mexico in 2002 and installed on October 9, 2004. It is the most recent statue in the park, and the first to depict a Mexican.
Benito Juarez is one of two sculptures of the Mexican president of the same name, created by Julian Martinez. One full-length statue is installed in Chicago, in the U.S. state of Illinois, and another bust is installed in Hermann Park's McGovern Centennial Gardens, in Houston, Texas. The Chicago statue replaces a previously installed bust.
The Regency of the Mexican Empire was a period of transition in the history of the Mexican monarchy in the absence of the Emperor of Mexico and presided by a president of the same during the First Mexican Empire (1821-1823) and the Second Mexican Empire (1863-1867). The regency is the government of a State during the minor age, absence or incapacity of its legitimate prince.
| Provisional President of Mexico |
24 December 1858 – 23 January 1859
José Mariano Salas
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