Manuel Trujillo Durán
Manuel María Segundo de la Trinidad Trujillo Durán
8 January 1871
|Died||14 March 1933 62)(aged|
|Known for||Pioneering film in Venezuela|
|possibly Un célebre especialista sacando muelas en el gran Hotel Europa and Muchachos bañándose en el lago|
Manuel Trujillo Durán (Maracaibo, 8 January 1871 – 14 March 1933)was a Venezuelan photographer and is considered one of the country's pioneers in film.
At age 14, Trujillo began studying at the Colegio Federal de Varones. He then embarked on his photography career, founding his "El rayo de luz" photo studio in 1896, in front of the Baralt Theatre.Here, he would produce and develop images for his magazine of the same name from 1897. It is suggested that he built the studio himself, as he was eager and attentive to carpentry. He also founded the Gutenberg newspaper. Several of his photographs were used in other publications, too, including national ones. He then founded the Trujillo y Arraga photographic hall, with the painter Julio Arraga, as an exhibition centre for "photographic art and artistic creation [to come] together".
El Teatro Baralt is an important Venezuelan cultural institution dating from the first half of the 19th century, and headquartered in downtown Maracaibo, at the north-western corner of Plaza Bolivar, at the intersection of the streets Urdaneta and Venezuela. Its famous home, today's Baralt Theater has undergone a long history of constructions.
Trujillo was a photographer by trade and an associate of Luis Manuel Méndez who learned how to use a Vitascope, and be a film technician,when Méndez acquired one and brought it to Venezuela in 1896. For many years it was believed that Trujillo had brought the technology to Venezuela himself, and this still appears in some records, but as film scholarship appeared in the nation records showed Méndez to have been the man who got the film projector in New York City. Trujillo's past relationship dealing with the Edison Company is evidence used to support his pioneering claims; as well as travel records, Méndez had ties to the Kinetoscope Company, which produced and sold the projectors.
Vitascope was an early film projector first demonstrated in 1895 by Charles Francis Jenkins and Thomas Armat. They had made modifications to Jenkins patented Phantoscope, which cast images via film and electric light onto a wall or screen. The Vitascope is a large electrically-powered projector that uses light to cast images. The images being cast are originally taken by a kinetoscope mechanism onto gelatin film. Using an intermittent mechanism, the film negatives produced up to fifty frames per second. The shutter opens and closes to reveal new images. This device can produce up to 3,000 negatives per minute. With the original Phantoscope and before he partnered with Armat, Jenkins displayed the earliest documented projection of a filmed motion picture in June 1894 in Richmond, Indiana.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York City is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
It is perhaps fortunate that Méndez brought the technology to Maracaibo, where Trujillo lived, allowing Trujillo to become the second man in Venezuela to be able to show films, and so he can be counted as a pioneer in this way. It is also possible that Trujillo produced the first Venezuelan films, shown in Maracaibo in 1897,or that he worked on them with his brother Guillermo. However, film scholarship considers this "very unlikely" due to the facts he would not have had a cinema camera and that he was in Táchira when the films were screened. His reason for being in Táchira, though, was to distribute and promote the Vitascope, so he was still doing good work introducing cinema to other parts of the country.
Maracaibo is a city and the municipal seat of Maracaibo Municipality in northwestern Venezuela, on the western shore of the strait that connects Lake Maracaibo to the Gulf of Venezuela. It is the second-largest city in the country and the capital of the state of Zulia. The population of the city is approximately 1,495,200 with the metropolitan area estimated at 2,108,404 as of 2010. Maracaibo is nicknamed La Tierra del Sol Amada.
Táchira State is one of the 23 states of Venezuela. The state capital is San Cristóbal.
Though it is generally now agreed that Trujillo was only employed to operate the projector during Venezuela's first film screenings in 1896,it is still a widespread belief in the nation — and, indeed, worldwide — that he did make the first Venezuelan films in 1897. In an article, film scholar Arturo Serrano discusses this, saying there are "two tendencies" in the nation's history: one promoting Trujillo as "the most important pioneer of Venezuelan cinema", with the other tendency seeing him as an employee and artist adjacent to the true pioneers. Serrano also mentions that even the first tendency does not say with certainty that Trujillo made the first films, but believe that it's "very likely".
This hasn't stopped Trujillo from becoming a legend in Venezuela, with the population generally seeing him as their national father of film, and the National Short Film Festival founded in 1990 named after him.He has been reverently described as "a transhuman entrepreneur of spectacle in Maracaibo and elsewhere [in Venezuela]", and a "journalist, painter and apprentice of everything human", with biographers claiming that "his presence gave wings to Maracaibo, allowed thought and illusions, criticism and theory to circulate".
Zulia State is one of the 23 states of Venezuela. The state capital is Maracaibo. As of the 2011 census, it has a population of 3,704,404, the largest population among Venezuela's states. It is also one of the few states in Venezuela in which voseo is widely used.
Charles Francis Jenkins was an American pioneer of early cinema and one of the inventors of television, though he used mechanical rather than electronic technologies. His businesses included Charles Jenkins Laboratories and Jenkins Television Corporation. Over 400 patents were issued to Jenkins, many for his inventions related to motion pictures and television.
Thomas J. Armat was an American mechanic and inventor, a pioneer of cinema best known through the co-invention of the Edison Vitascope.
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The decade of the 1890s in film involved some significant events.
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