Villa del Socorro, Santander, Viceroyalty of New Granada
Manuela Beltrán was a Neogranadine woman who organized a peasant revolt against excess taxation in 1780.
The information concerning the biography of Manuela Beltran is scarce and fragmented. It is believed she was of peasant origin, was born around 1750, and lived most of her life in Villa del Socorro, Santander, where she ran her own small grocery store, at the main square of Socorro; at the time, in the Viceroyalty of New Granada, it was very uncommon for a woman to own her own business. Besides, Beltran was one of the few people in the region that could read and write, given the virtually complete illiteracy of the population due to the absence of education facilities.
During the first half of the 18th century, the Spanish Empire was focused on the improvement of its military force, especially the Infanteria de Marina, since the main economic interests of the empire depended of the complete control of its American colonies. By 1717, the Cuerpo de Batallones de Marina was definitively settled and organized, reaching its full strength of twelve battalions. The first ones were named: Armada, Bajeles, Marina, Oceano, Mediterráneo and Barlovento. Their mission was to form the "Main body of landing columns and ship's soldiers tasks" in a time when boarding was still a critical part of battle at sea.
The major actions they took part in during this period were: Sardinia, 1717; Naples and Sicily, 1732; Defense of Havana, 1762; Algiers expedition, 1775; Siege of Pensacola, (1781) and Siege of Toulon (1793).
These military actions demanded a large amount of money and resources, which resulted in larger taxations for the people living in the colonies. The new harsh taxation regimen (implemented and promoted by General Visitor Juan Francisco Gutiérrez de Piñeres, and ratified by the Viceroy and Archbishop Antonio Caballero y Góngora) included the raise on the Alcabala, taxes over the consumption of Aguardiente and Tobacco, taxes over the entry of merchandises, and a sales tax.
The edict of the new taxation regimen was placed in the main square of Socorro on March 16, 1781. Since Beltran could read, she informed the crowd about the dispositions, which was greeted with general outrage. She tore apart the document and led the strike action which extended to over sixty cities and towns in the Andean Region of Colombia and Llanos. The revolt eventually ended with a fake negotiation offered by the Viceroy, followed by the capture and execution of most of the revolt leaders including José Antonio Galán. Whether or not Manuela Beltran was also executed remains unclear.
The Viceroyalty of New Granada was the name given on 27 May 1717, to the jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in northern South America, corresponding to modern Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. Created in 1717 by king Felipe V, inside of a new territorial control policy, it was suspended in 1723 due to financial problems and was restored in 1739 until the independence movement suspended it again in 1810. The territory corresponding to Panama was incorporated later in 1739, and the provinces of Venezuela were separated from the Viceroyalty and assigned to the Captaincy General of Venezuela in 1777. In addition to these core areas, the territory of the Viceroyalty of New Granada included Guyana, southwestern Suriname, parts of northwestern Brazil, and northern Peru.
Santander is a department of Colombia. Santander inherited the name of one of the nine original states of the United States of Colombia. It is located in the central northern part of the country, borders the Magdalena River to the east, Boyacá to the south and southeast, the Norte de Santander Department to the northeast, the Cesar Department to the north, and the Bolivar and Antioquia Departments to the west. Its capital is the city of Bucaramanga.
The Revolt of the Comuneros was a popular uprising in the Viceroyalty of New Granada against the Spanish authorities from March through October 1781. The revolt was in reaction to the increase in taxation to raise funds for defense of the region against the British, a rise in the price of tobacco and brandy, which were part of the late eighteenth-century Bourbon reforms. The initial revolt was local and not well known outside the region of Socorro, but in the late nineteenth century, historian Manuel Briceño saw the massive revolt as a precursor to independence. Prior to the 1781 revolt, residents in New Granada had protested, at times violently, crown policy implementation there between 1740 and 1779.
The Revolt of the Comuneros was a series of uprisings by settlers in Paraguay in the Viceroyalty of Peru against the Spanish authorities from 1721–1725 and 1730–1735. The underlying cause of the unrest was strong anti-Jesuit feelings among the Paraguayans and dislike for any governor seen as favoring the Jesuits. In the resumption of the revolt in 1730, economic issues came to fore as well. The rebel organization split in its second phase, as the rural poor and the urban elite each formed their own factions with similar grievances against the Jesuits, but incompatible politics. Paraguay had an unusually strong tradition of self-rule; the colonists did not have a tradition of strict obedience to everything the Spanish Crown's governor decreed. This independence helped push the revolt forward.
The Revolt of the Comuneros was an uprising by citizens of Castile against the rule of Charles I and his administration between 1520 and 1521. At its height, the rebels controlled the heart of Castile, ruling the cities of Valladolid, Tordesillas, and Toledo.
The Spanish Naval Infantry is the naval infantry unit of the Spanish Navy responsible for conducting amphibious warfare by utilizing naval platforms and resources. The Marine Corps is fully integrated into the Armada's structure.
Beltrán is a Spanish male given name and surname. In non-Spanish speaking countries, the accent is usually omitted as Beltran. It derives from the Germanic words berht ("bright") and hramn ("raven"). It shares this same Germanic origin with Bertrand (French) and Bertram (German).
Antonio Caballero y Góngora was a Spanish Roman Catholic prelate in the colonial Viceroyalty of New Granada, and from 1782 to 1789 the viceroy of New Granada.
Antonio Ricaurte was a patriot of the Independence of Colombia and Venezuela and captain of Bolívar's army. He is remembered as the martyr of the Battle of San Mateo, where, in a heroic action, he blasted an enemy stronghold by immolating himself.
Socorro is a town and municipality in the Santander Department in northeastern Colombia. It was founded in 1681 by José de Archila and José Díaz Sarmiento.The town was very influential in the history of Colombia. There began the revolt of the Comuneros of 1781 against the oppression of Spanish rule.
Tibasosa is a town and municipality in the Sugamuxi Province, part of the Colombian department of Boyacá. Tibasosa borders Duitama and Nobsa in the north, Nobsa and Sogamoso in the east, Firavitoba in the south and Paipa in the west.
Don José de Solano y Bote Carrasco y Díaz, Marquess of Socorro, was a Spanish naval officer.
The Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II was an uprising of native and mestizo peasants against the Bourbon reforms in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru. While Túpac Amaru II, an early leader of the rebellion, was captured and executed in 1781, the rebellion continued for at least another year under other leaders.
José Antonio Galán was a Colombian historical figure of the 18th century. He was the leader of the Comuneros insurrection in 1781, who was then sentenced and executed by the Spanish.
Luis Castellanos Tapias was a Colombian attorney, historian, politician, publisher and writer.
The Colombian Declaration of Independence refers to the events of July 20, 1810, in Santa Fe de Bogota, in the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of New Granada. They resulted in the establishment of a Junta de Santa Fe that day. The experience in self-government eventually led to the creation of the Republic of Colombia.(Note: The initial ambitious area, in accordance with the Viceroyalty of New Granada and Captaincy of Venezuela, included much more than current Colombia; to differentiate it, historians call this supra-nation: Republic of Gran Colombia.)
Diego de los Reyes y Balmaseda was the Governor of Paraguay from February 5, 1717 to August 20, 1721. His governorship was deeply unpopular with the inhabitants of Asunción, and an investigation by judge José de Antequera y Castro of the Real Audiencia of Charcas concluded that Reyes had abused his office, and he was deposed. Antequera took the governorship of Paraguay upon himself afterward, the beginning of the Revolt of the Comuneros. Reyes never recovered his governorship, and was eventually exiled from the province after a year-long imprisonment.
Fernando de Villanueva y Armendaris was a Spanish soldier, judge and politician who served as governor of Spanish New Mexico between 1665 and 1668.