The Marashiyan or Marashis (Mazandarani: مرعشیون, Persian : مرعشیان) were an Iranian Sayyid Twelver Shiʿite dynasty of Mazandarani origin, ruling in Mazandaran from 1359 to 1596. The dynasty was founded by Mir-i Buzurg, a Sayyid native to Dabudasht.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.
The Iranian peoples, or the Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
Sayyid (Arabic: سيد [ˈsæj.jɪd], Persian: [sejˈjed]; meaning "Mister"; plural: Saadat or Sadat Arabic: سادة sādah is an honorific title denoting people accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his cousin Imam Ali through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Imam Husayn ibn Ali, sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and son-in-law Ali.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.
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The Buyid dynasty or the Buyids, also known as Buwaihids, Bowayhids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, was a Shia Iranian dynasty of Daylamite origin. Coupled with the rise of other Iranian dynasties in the region, the approximate century of Buyid rule represents the period in Iranian history sometimes called the 'Iranian Intermezzo' since, after the Muslim conquest of Persia, it was an interlude between the rule of the Abbasid Caliphate and the Seljuk Empire.
Sayyida Shirin, also simply known as Sayyida, was a Bavandid princess, who was the wife of Buyid ruler of Ray, Fakhr al-Dawla. She was the de facto ruler of Ray during the reign of her son, Majd al-Dawla.
The Kakuyids were a Daylamite dynasty that held power in western Persia, Jibal and Persian Iraq. They later became atabegs (governors) of Yazd, Isfahan and Abarkuh from c. 1051 to 1141. They were related to the Buyids.
Daylam, also known in the plural form Daylaman, was the name of a mountainous region of inland Gilan, Iran. It was so named for its inhabitants, known as the Daylamites.
Roger Savory is a British-born Professor Emeritus at the University of Toronto who is an Iranologist and specialist on the Safavids. His numerous writings on Safavid political, military history, administration, bureaucracy, and diplomacy-translated into several language have had a great impact in understanding this period.
The Kar-Kiya dynasty, or Kia dynasty, was a Zaydi Shia dynasty which ruled over Bia pish from the 1370s to 1592. They claimed Sasanian ancestry as well.
The Afrasiyab or Chalavi dynasty was a small Iranian Shia dynasty of Mazandaran and flourished in the late medieval, pre-Safavid period; it is also called the Kia dynasty. It was founded by Kiya Afrasiyab, who conquered the Bavand kingdom in 1349 and made himself king of the region. In 1504, Ismail I invaded Mazandaran and ended Afrasiyab rule of the region.
Abuʾl-Ḥasan al-Qāsim Aḥmad ibn Ḥasan Maymandī, better known as Ahmad Maymandi, and also known by his honorific title of Shams al-Kufat, was a Persian vizier of the Ghaznavid Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni and the latter's son Mas'ud I of Ghazni.
Kiya Afrasiyab, was the founder of the Afrasiyab dynasty, ruling from 1349 to 1359.
Iskandar-i Shaykhi, was ruler of the Afrasiyab dynasty from 1393 to 1403. He was the son and successor of Kiya Afrasiyab.
Qavam al-Din ibn Abdallah al-Marashi, better known as Mir Buzurg or Mir Bozorg, was the founder of the Marashi dynasty, ruling from 1359 to 1362.
Nasrallah ibn Muhammad ibn Abd al-Hamid Shirazi, better known as Abu'l-Ma'ali Nasrallah, was a Persian poet and statesman who served as the vizier of the Ghaznavid Sultan Khusrau Malik.
Abd al-Hamid ibn Ahmad ibn Abd al-Samad Shirazi, better known as Abd al-Hamid Shirazi, was a Persian vizier of the Ghaznavid Sultan Ibrahim and the latter's son Mas'ud III.
Vishtasp Jalali was a local Iranian ruler of Sari during the struggle that ensured after the death of the Bavandid ruler Hasan II between the local rulers of Mazandaran. He was from the Jalali family, a family native to Mazandaran which ruled Sari as governors of the Bavandids.
Hossein Beg Laleh Shamlu was a Qizilbash officer of Turkoman origin, who occupied high offices under the Safavid king Ismail I and was the first person to serve as the vakil (vicegerent) of the empire.
Abu'l-Muzaffar Khusrau Malik ibn Khusrau-Shah, better simply known as Khusrau Malik, was the last Sultan of the Ghaznavid Empire, ruling from 1160 to 1186. He was the son and successor of Khusrau-Shah.
Hasan I, was the ruler of the Bavand dynasty from 1165 to 1173. He was the son and successor of Shah Ghazi Rustam IV. He was murdered in 1173 by his Turkic slave-soldiers (ghilman) and was succeeded by his son Ardashir I.
Khwaja Abu Nasr Ahmad, better known as Ahmad Shirazi, also known as Ahmad(-e) Abd al-Samad, was a Persian vizier of the Ghaznavid Sultan Mas'ud I and the latter's son Mawdud from 1032 to 1043. He was the son of the Samanid secretary Abu Tahir Shirazi, and had a son named Abd al-Hamid Shirazi, who would also later serve as vizier.
The Khalifeh family, also known as the Khalifeh sayyids, were a branch of the Marashi dynasty of Mazandaran, whose ancestor, Amir Nezam al-Din, had settled in the Golbar quarter of Isfahan in the 15th-century.