Marathi language

Last updated

मराठी, 𑘦𑘨𑘰𑘙𑘲
Devanagari and Modi scripts.svg
"Marathi" in Devanagari and Modi script
Pronunciation [məˈɾaʈʰi]
Native to India
Region Maharashtra
Ethnicity Marathis
Native speakers
120 million (2011) [1]
L2 speakers: 12 million [1]
Early form
Indian Signing System
Official status
Official language in
Flag of India.svg  India
Regulated by Ministry of Marathi Language and various other institutions
Language codes
ISO 639-1 mr
ISO 639-2 mar
ISO 639-3 Either:
mar   Modern Marathi
omr   Old Marathi
omr Old Marathi
Glottolog mara1378  Modern Marathi
oldm1244  Old Marathi
Linguasphere 59-AAF-o
Marathi speaker map.svg
  regions where Marathi is the language of the majority or plurality
  regions where Marathi is the language of a significant minority

Marathi (English: /məˈrɑːti/ ; [5] मराठी, Marāṭhī, Marathi:  [məˈɾaːʈʰiː] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by around 120 million Marathi people of Maharashtra, India. It is the official language and co-official language in the Maharashtra and Goa states of Western India, respectively and is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. With 83 million speakers as 2011, Marathi ranks 10th in the list of languages with most native speakers in the world. Marathi has the third largest number of native speakers in India, after Hindi and Bengali. [6] The language has some of the oldest literature of all modern Indian languages, dating from around 600 AD. [7] The major dialects of Marathi are Standard Marathi and the Varhadi dialect. [8] Koli, Agri and Malvani Konkani have been heavily influenced by Marathi varieties.


Marathi distinguishes inclusive and exclusive forms of 'we' and possesses a three-way gender system that features the neuter in addition to the masculine and the feminine. In its phonology, it contrasts apico-alveolar with alveopalatal affricates and alveolar with retroflex laterals ([l] and [ɭ] (Marathi letters and respectively). [9]

Geographic distribution

Marathi is primarily spoken in Maharashtra [10] and parts of neighbouring states of Gujarat (in Vadodara), Madhya Pradesh, Goa, Chhattisgarh and Karnataka (in the districts of Belgaum and Bidar), Telangana, union-territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. [11] The former Maratha ruled cities of Baroda, Indore, Gwalior, Jabalpur and Tanjore have had sizable Marathi speaking populations for centuries.[ citation needed ] Marathi is also spoken by Maharashtrian migrants to other parts of India and overseas. [10] For instance, the people from western India, that emigrated to Mauritius in the early 19th century also speak Marathi. [12]

Poster showcasing comparison of Marathi language speakers with Germany and Netherlands. Marathi Speaker Comparison Plain File.jpg
Poster showcasing comparison of Marathi language speakers with Germany and Netherlands.

There were 83 million native Marathi speakers in India, according to the 2011 census, making it the third most spoken native language after Hindi and Bengali. Native Marathi speakers form 6.86% of India's population. Native speakers of Marathi formed 70.34% of the population in Maharashtra, 10.89% in Goa, 7.01% in Dadra and Nagar Haveli, 4.53% in Daman and Diu, 3.38% in Karnataka, 1.7% in Madhya Pradesh, and 1.52% in Gujarat. [6]


The following list consist of Marathi languages' total speakers worldwide in the 2019 edition of Ethnologue, a language reference published by SIL International, which is based in the United States. [13]

International geograhic distribution as per Ethnologue. [14]
CountrySpeaker populationNotes
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 13,1002016 census
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 8,3002016 census
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 11,000Leclerc 2018a
Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius 17,000Leclerc 2018c
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 2,9002013 census
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  UK 6,4102011 census
Flag of the United States.svg  USA 73,6002015 census


Marathi is the official language of Maharashtra and co-official language in the union territories of Daman and Diu [4] and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. [15] In Goa, Konkani is the sole official language; however, Marathi may also be used for all official purposes in any case. Marathi is included among the languages which stand a part of the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India, thus granting it the status of a "scheduled language". [16] The Government of Maharashtra has submitted an application to the Ministry of Culture to grant classical language status to Marathi. [17]

Rajya Marathi Vikas Sanstha is the main regulator of Marathi Rajya Marathi sanstha.PNG
Rajya Marathi Vikas Sanstha is the main regulator of Marathi

The contemporary grammatical rules described by Maharashtra Sahitya Parishad and endorsed by the Government of Maharashtra are supposed to take precedence in standard written Marathi. Traditions of Marathi Linguistics and the above-mentioned rules give special status to tatsamas, words adapted from Sanskrit. This special status expects the rules for tatsamas to be followed as in Sanskrit. This practice provides Marathi with a large corpus of Sanskrit words to cope with the demands of new technical words whenever needed.

In addition to all universities in Maharashtra, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda in Vadodara, [19] Osmania University in Hyderabad, [20] Karnataka University in Dharwad, [21] Gulbarga University in Kalaburagi, [22] Devi Ahilya University in Indore [23] and Goa University in Goa [24] have special departments for higher studies in Marathi linguistics. Jawaharlal Nehru University (New Delhi) has announced plans to establish a special department for Marathi. [25]

Marathi Day is celebrated on 27 February, the birthday of the poet Kusumagraj (Vishnu Vaman Shirwadkar). [26]


Indian languages, including Marathi, that belong to the Indo-Aryan language family are derived from early forms of Prakrit. Marathi is one of several languages that further descend from Maharashtri Prakrit. Further change led to the Apabhraṃśa languages like Old Marathi, however, this is challenged by Bloch (1970), who states that Apabhraṃśa was formed after Marathi had already separated from the Middle Indian dialect. [27]

981 A.D. Marathi inscription at the foot of Bahubali statue at Jain temple in Shravanabelagola is the earliest known Marathi inscription found. It was derived from Prakrit language. Foot bahubali2.jpg
981 A.D. Marathi inscription at the foot of Bahubali statue at Jain temple in Shravanabelagola is the earliest known Marathi inscription found. It was derived from Prakrit language.

The earliest example of Maharashtri as a separate language dates to approximately 3rd century BCE: a stone inscription found in a cave at Naneghat, Junnar in Pune district had been written in Maharashtri using Brahmi script. A committee appointed by the Maharashtra State Government to get the Classical status for Marathi has claimed that Marathi existed at least 2300 years ago alongside Sanskrit as a sister language. [28] Marathi, a derivative of Maharashtri, is probably first attested in a 739 CE copper-plate inscription found in Satara. Several inscriptions dated to the second half of the 11th century feature Marathi, which is usually appended to Sanskrit or Kannada in these inscriptions. [29] The earliest Marathi-only inscriptions are the ones issued during the Shilahara rule, including a c. 1012 CE stone inscription from Akshi taluka of Raigad district, and a 1060 or 1086 CE copper-plate inscription from Dive that records a land grant ( agrahara ) to a Brahmin. [30] A 2-line 1118 CE Marathi inscription at Shravanabelagola records a grant by the Hoysalas. These inscriptions suggest that Marathi was a standard written language by the 12th century. However, there is no record of any literature produced in Marathi until the late 13th century. [31]

Yadava period

After 1187 CE, the use of Marathi grew substantially in the inscriptions of the Seuna (Yadava) kings, who earlier used Kannada and Sanskrit in their inscriptions. [30] Marathi became the dominant language of epigraphy during the last half century of the dynasty's rule (14th century), and may have been a result of the Yadava attempts to connect with their Marathi-speaking subjects and to distinguish themselves from the Kannada-speaking Hoysalas. [29] [32]

Further growth and usage of the language was because of two religious sects – the Mahanubhava and Varkari panthan s – who adopted Marathi as the medium for preaching their doctrines of devotion. Marathi was used in court life by the time of the Seuna kings. During the reign of the last three Seuna kings, a great deal of literature in verse and prose, on astrology, medicine, Puranas, Vedanta, kings and courtiers were created. Nalopakhyan, Rukmini swayamvar and Shripati's Jyotishratnamala (1039) are a few examples.

The oldest book in prose form in Marathi, Vivēkasindhu (विवेकसिंधु), was written by Mukundaraja, a Nath yogi and arch-poet of Marathi. Mukundaraja bases his exposition of the basic tenets of the Hindu philosophy and the yoga marga on the utterances or teachings of Shankaracharya. Mukundaraja's other work, Paramamrta, is considered the first systematic attempt to explain the Vedanta in the Marathi language

Notable examples of Marathi prose are "Līḷācarītra" (लीळाचरीत्र), events and anecdotes from the miracle-filled the life of Chakradhar Swami of the Mahanubhava sect compiled by his close disciple, Mahimbhatta, in 1238. The Līḷācarītra is thought to be the first biography written in the Marathi language. Mahimbhatta's second important literary work is the Shri Govindaprabhucharitra or Rudhipurcharitra, a biography of Shri Chakradhar Swami's guru, Shri Govind Prabhu. This was probably written in 1288. The Mahanubhava sect made Marathi a vehicle for the propagation of religion and culture. Mahanubhava literature generally comprises works that describe the incarnations of gods, the history of the sect, commentaries on the Bhagavad Gita , poetical works narrating the stories of the life of Krishna and grammatical and etymological works that are deemed useful to explain the philosophy of sect.

Medieval and Deccan Sultanate period

The 13th-century varkari saint Dnyaneshwar (1275–1296) wrote a treatise in Marathi on Bhagawat Gita popularly called Dnyaneshwari and Amrutanubhava .

Mukund Raj was a poet who lived in the 13th century and is said to be the first poet who composed in Marathi. [33] He is known for the Viveka-Siddhi and Parammruta which are metaphysical, pantheistic works connected with orthodox Vedantism.

The 16th century saint-poet Eknath (1528–1599) is well known for composing the Eknāthī Bhāgavat, a commentary on Bhagavat Purana and the devotional songs called Bharud. [34] Mukteshwar translated the Mahabharata into Marathi; Tukaram (1608–49) transformed Marathi into a rich literary language. His poetry contained his inspirations. Tukaram wrote over 3000 abhangs or devotional songs. [35]

Marathi was widely used during the Sultanate period. Although the rulers were Muslims, the local feudal landlords and the revenue collectors were Hindus and so was the majority of the population. To simplify administration and revenue collection, the sultans promoted use of Marathi in official documents. However, the Marathi language from the era is heavily persianised in its vocabulary. [36] The Persian influence continues to this day with many Persian derived words used in every day speech such as bāg (Garden), kārkhānā (factory), shahar (city), bāzār (market), dukān (shop), hushār (clever), kāḡaḏ (paper), khurchi (chair), jamin (land), jāhirāt (advertisement), and hazār (thousand) [37] Marathi also became language of administration during the Ahmadnagar Sultanate. [38] Adilshahi of Bijapur also used Marathi for administration and record keeping. [39]

Maratha Empire

Marathi gained prominence with the rise of the Maratha Empire beginning with the reign of Chhatrapti Shivaji. Under him, the language used in administrative documents became less persianised. Whereas in 1630, 80% of the vocabulary was Persian, it dropped to 37% by 1677. [40] Samarth Ramdas was a contemporary of Shivaji. He advocated the unity of Marathas to propagate hindu dharma. [35] Unlike varkari saints, his writing has a strong anti-oppressor expression to it. Subsequent Maratha rulers extended the empire northwards to Peshawar, eastwards to Odisha, and southwards to Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu. These excursions by the Marathas helped to spread Marathi over broader geographical regions. This period also saw the use of Marathi in transactions involving land and other business. Documents from this period, therefore, give a better picture of the life of common people. There are a lot of Bakharis written in Marathi and Modi script from this period. But by the late 18th century, the Maratha Empire's influence over a large part of the country was on the decline.

Marathi inscription inside Brihadisvara temple complex, Thanjavur Ancient scriptures on the walls in Big Temple, Thanjavur - 2.JPG
Marathi inscription inside Brihadisvara temple complex, Thanjavur

In the 18th century during Peshwa rule, some well-known works such as Yatharthadeepika by Vaman Pandit, Naladamayanti Swayamvara by Raghunath Pandit, Pandava Pratap, Harivijay, Ramvijay by Shridhar Pandit and Mahabharata by Moropant were produced. Krishnadayarnava and Sridhar were poets during the Peshwa period. New literary forms were successfully experimented with during the period and classical styles were revived, especially the Mahakavya and Prabandha forms. The most important hagiographies of Varkari Bhakti saints were written by Mahipati in the 18th Century. [41] [35] Other well known literary scholars of the 17th century were Mukteshwar and Shridhar. [42] Mukteshwar was the grandson of Eknath and is the most distinguished poet in the Ovi meter. He is most known for translating the Mahabharata and the Ramayana in Marathi but only a part of the Mahabharata translation is available and the entire Ramayana translation is lost. Shridhar Kulkarni came from the Pandharpur area and his works are said to have superseded the Sanskrit epics to a certain extent. This period also saw the development of Powada (ballads sung in honor of warriors), and Lavani (romantic songs presented with dance and instruments like tabla). Major poet composers of Powada and Lavani songs of the 17th and the 18th century were Anant Phandi, Ram Joshi and Honaji Bala. [42]

British colonial period

The British colonial period starting in early 1800s saw standardisation of Marathi grammar through the efforts of the Christian missionary William Carey. Carey's dictionary had fewer entries and Marathi words were in Devanagari. Translations of the Bible were first books to be printed in Marathi. These translations by William Carey, the American Marathi mission and the Scottish missionaries led to the development of a peculiar pidginized Marathi called "Missionary Marathi” in the early 1800s. [43] The most comprehensive Marathi-English dictionary was compiled by Captain James Thomas Molesworth and Major Thomas Candy in 1831. The book is still in print nearly two centuries after its publication. [44] The colonial authorities also worked on standardizing Marathi under the leadership of James Thomas Molesworth and Candy. They used Brahmins of Pune for this task and adopted the Sanskrit dominated dialect spoken by the elite in the city as the standard dialect for Marathi. [45] [46] [47] [48]

The first Marathi translation of the New Testament was published in 1811 by the Serampore press of William Carey. [49] The first Marathi newspaper called Durpan was started by Balshastri Jambhekar in 1832. [50] Newspapers provided a platform for sharing literary views, and many books on social reforms were written. First Marathi periodical Dirghadarshan was started in 1840. The Marathi language flourished, as Marathi drama gained popularity. Musicals known as Sangeet Natak also evolved. [51] Keshavasut, the father of modern Marathi poetry published his first poem in 1885. The late-19th century in Maharashtra saw the rise of essayist Vishnushastri Chiplunkar with his periodical, Nibandhmala that had essays that criticized social reformers like Phule and Gopal Hari Deshmukh. He also founded the popular Marathi periodical of that era called Kesari in 1881. [52] Later under the editorship of Lokmanya Tilak, the newspaper was instrumental in spreading Tilak's nationalist and social views. [53] [54] [55] Tilak was also opposed to intercaste marriage, particularly the match where an upper caste woman married a lower caste man. [55] Phule and Deshmukh also started their own periodicals, Deenbandhu and Prabhakar, that criticised the prevailing Hindu culture of the day. [56] The 19th century and early 20th century saw several books published on Marathi grammar. Notable grammarians of this period were Tarkhadkar, A.K.Kher, Moro Keshav Damle, and R.Joshi [57]

The first half of the 20th century was marked by new enthusiasm in literary pursuits, and socio-political activism helped achieve major milestones in Marathi literature, drama, music and film. Modern Marathi prose flourished: for example, N.C.Kelkar's biographical writings, novels of Hari Narayan Apte, Narayan Sitaram Phadke and V. S. Khandekar, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar's nationalist literature and plays of Mama Varerkar and Kirloskar.

Marathi since Indian independence

The popular Marathi language newspapers at a newsstand in Mumbai, 2006 Marathinewspapers.jpg
The popular Marathi language newspapers at a newsstand in Mumbai, 2006

After Indian independence, Marathi was accorded the status of a scheduled language on the national level. In 1956, the then Bombay state was reorganized which brought most Marathi and Gujarati speaking areas under one state. Further re-organization of the Bombay state on 1 May 1960, created the Marathi speaking Maharashtra and Gujarati speaking Gujarat state respectively. With state and cultural protection, Marathi made great strides by the 1990s. A literary event called Akhil Bharatiya Marathi Sahitya Sammelan (All-India Marathi Literature Meet) is held every year. In addition, the Akhil Bharatiya Marathi Natya Sammelan (All-India Marathi Theatre Convention) is also held annually. Both events are very popular among Marathi speakers.

Notable works in Marathi in the latter half of 20th century include Khandekar's Yayati, which won him the Jnanpith Award. Also Vijay Tendulkar's plays in Marathi have earned him a reputation beyond Maharashtra. P.L. Deshpande (popularly known as PuLa), Vishnu Vaman Shirwadkar, P.K. Atre & Prabodhankar Thackeray, were also known for their writings in Marathi in the fields of drama, comedy and social commentary. [58]

In 1958 the term "Dalit literature" was used for the first time, when the first conference of Maharashtra Dalit Sahitya Sangha (Maharashtra Dalit Literature Society) was held at Mumbai, a movement inspired by 19th century social reformer, Jyotiba Phule and eminent dalit leader, Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar. [59] Baburao Bagul (1930–2008) was a pioneer of Dalit writings in Marathi. [60] His first collection of stories, Jevha Mi Jat Chorali (जेव्हा मी जात चोरली, "When I Stole My Caste"), published in 1963, created a stir in Marathi literature with its passionate depiction of a cruel society and thus brought in new momentum to Dalit literature in Marathi. [61] [62] Gradually with other writers like Namdeo Dhasal (who founded Dalit Panther), these Dalit writings paved way for the strengthening of Dalit movement. [63] Notable Dalit authors writing in Marathi include Arun Kamble, Shantabai Kamble, Raja Dhale, Namdev Dhasal, Daya Pawar, Annabhau Sathe, Laxman Mane, Laxman Gaikwad, Sharankumar Limbale, Bhau Panchbhai, Kishor Shantabai Kale, Narendra Jadhav, Keshav Meshram, Urmila Pawar, Vinay Dharwadkar, Gangadhar Pantawane, Kumud Pawde and Jyoti Lanjewar. [64] [65] [66] [67]

In recent decades there has been a trend among Marathi speaking parents of all social classes in major urban areas of sending their children to English medium schools. There is some concern that this may lead to the marginalization of the language. [68]


Standard Marathi is based on dialects used by academics and the print media.

Indic scholars distinguish 42 dialects of spoken Marathi. Dialects bordering other major language areas have many properties in common with those languages, further differentiating them from standard spoken Marathi. The bulk of the variation within these dialects is primarily lexical and phonological (e.g. accent placement and pronunciation). Although the number of dialects is considerable, the degree of intelligibility within these dialects is relatively high. [69]


Varhadi (Varhādi) (वऱ्हाडी) or Vaidarbhi (वैदर्भी) is spoken in the Western Vidarbha region of Maharashtra. In Marathi, the retroflex lateral approximant [ ɭ ] is common, while in the Varhadii dialect, it corresponds to the palatal approximant y (IPA: [j]), making this dialect quite distinct. Such phonetic shifts are common in spoken Marathi and, as such, the spoken dialects vary from one region of Maharashtra to another.

Zadi Boli

Zadi Boli or Zhadiboli [70] (झाडीबोली) is spoken in Zadipranta (a forest rich region) of far eastern Maharashtra or eastern Vidarbha or western-central Gondwana comprising Gondia, Bhandara, Chandrapur, Gadchiroli and some parts of Nagpur of Maharashtra.

Zadi Boli Sahitya Mandal and many literary figures are working for the conservation of this important and distinct dialect of Marathi.

Southern Indian Marathi

Thanjavur Marathi, Namadeva Shimpi Marathi, Arey Marathi and Bhavsar Marathi are some of the dialects of Marathi spoken by many descendants of Maharashtrians who migrated to Southern India.

These dialects retain the 17th-century basic form of Marathi and have been considerably influenced by the Dravidian languages [71] after the migration. These dialects have speakers in various parts of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

Ahirani/Khandeshi language

This is the dialect of Marathi language it has most number of speakers in districts like jalgaon, dhule and northern talukas of nashik district like baglan, deola, kalwan, Malegaon and nandurbar district at some extinct. This language is also spoken in outside of Maharashtra like burhanpur district of Madhya pradesh, and borderd districts of gujarat.

This language has influence of hindi and Gujarati language.


Other Marathi–Konkani languages and dialects spoken in Maharashtra include Maharashtrian Konkani, Malvani, Sangameshwari, Agri, Andh, Warli, Vadvali and Samavedi.


The phoneme inventory of Marathi is similar to that of many other Indo-Aryan languages. An IPA chart of all contrastive sounds in Marathi is provided below.

Consonants [72]
  Labial Dental Alveolar Retroflex (Alveolo-)
Velar Glottal
Nasal plainmnɳ(ɲ)(ŋ)
aspirated ~fʈʰt͡ɕʰ~t͡ʃʰ
Fricative sʂɕ~ʃh~ɦ
Approximant plainʋlɭj
murmuredʋʱ() [73]
Flap/Trill plainɾ ɺ̢ [74]
Highi u
Low a 

There are two more vowels in Marathi to denote the pronunciations of English words such as of a in act and a in all. These are written as and . The IPA signs for these are [æ] and [ɒ], respectively. Maharashtri Prakrit, the ancestor of modern Marathi, is a particularly interesting case. Maharashtri was often used for poetry and as such, diverged from proper Sanskrit grammar mainly to fit the language to the meter of different styles of poetry. The new grammar stuck, which led to the unique flexibility of vowels lengths – amongst other anomalies – in Marathi. Marathi retains the original Sanskrit pronunciation of certain letters such as the anusvāra (for instance, saṃhar, compared to sanhar in Hindi). Moreover, Marathi preserves certain Sanskrit patterns of pronunciation, as in the words purṇa and rāma compared to purṇ and rām in Hindi.


Modi script was used to write Marathi Dnyaneshwari Verse In Modi Script.png
Modi script was used to write Marathi
An effort to conserve the "Modi Script" under India Post's My Stamp scheme. Here, the word 'Marathi' is printed in the "Modi Script". Marathi Modi script stamp.png
An effort to conserve the "Modi Script" under India Post's My Stamp scheme. Here, the word 'Marathi' is printed in the "Modi Script".

The Kadamba script and its variants have been historically used to write Marathi in the form of inscriptions on stones and copper plates. [75] The Marathi version of Devanagari, called Balbodh, is similar to the Hindi Devanagari alphabet except for its use for certain words. Some words in Marathi preserve the schwa, which has been omitted in other languages which use Devanagari. For example, the word 'रंग' (colour) is pronounced as 'ranga' in Marathi & 'rang' in other languages using Devanagari, and 'खरं' (true), despite the anuswara, is pronounced as 'khara'. The anuswara in this case is used to avoid schwa deletion in pronunciation; most other languages using Devanagari show schwa deletion in pronunciation despite the presence of schwa in the written spelling. From the 13th century until the beginning of British rule in 19th century, Marathi was written in the Modi script for administrative purposes but in Devanagari for literature. Since 1950 it has been written in the Balbodh style of Devanagari. Except for Father Stephen's Krista Purana in the Latin script in the 1600s, Marathi has mainly been printed in Devanagari because William Carey, the pioneer of printing in Indian languages, was only able to print in Devanagari. He later tried printing in Modi but by that time, Balbodh Devanagari had been accepted for printing. [76]


Marathi is usually written in the Balbodh [77] [78] [79] [80] version of Devanagari script, an abugida consisting of 36 consonant letters and 16 initial-vowel letters. It is written from left to right. The Devanagari alphabet used to write Marathi is slightly different from the Devanagari alphabets of Hindi and other languages: there are a couple of additional letters in the Marathi alphabet, and Western punctuation is used.

As with a large part of India, a traditional duality existed in script usage between Devanagari by religiously educated people (most notably Brahmins) and Modi for common usage among administrators, businesspeople, and others. As observed in 1807,

Although in the Mahratta country the Devanagari character is well known to men of education, yet a character is current among the men of business which is much smaller, and varies considerably in form from the Nagari, though the number and power of the letters nearly correspond. [81]


IPA [ ə ][ a ][ i ][iː][ u ][uː][ru][ e ][əi][ o ][əu][əm][əɦa][ æ ][ ɒ ]

Vowel ligatures with Consonant क/ka



क ख ग घ ङ
च छ ज झ ञ
ट ठ ड ढ ण
त थ द ध न
प फ ब भ म
य र
श ष स ह ळ
क्ष ज्ञ

ka kha ga gha ṅa

ca cha ja jha ña

ṭa ṭha ḍa ḍha ṇa

ta tha da dha na

pa pha ba bha ma

ya ra la va

śa ṣa sa ha ḷa

kṣa jña

It is written from left to right. Devanagari used to write Marathi is slightly different than that of Hindi or other languages. It uses additional vowels and consonants that are not found in other languages that also use Devanagari.

The Modi alphabet

From the thirteenth century until 1950, Marathi, especially for business use, was written in the Modi alphabet, a cursive script designed for minimising the lifting of pen from paper while writing. [82]

Consonant clusters in Devanagari

In Devanagari, consonant letters by default come with an inherent schwa. Therefore, तयाचे will be 'təyāche', not 'tyāche'. To form 'tyāche', you will have to write it as त् + याचे, giving त्याचे.

When two or more consecutive consonants are followed by a vowel then a jodakshar (consonant cluster) is formed. Some examples of consonant clusters are shown below:

In writing, Marathi has a few digraphs that are rarely seen in the world's languages, including those denoting the so-called "nasal aspirates" (ṇh (ण्ह), nh (न्ह) and mh (म्ह)) and liquid aspirates (rh, ṟh, lh (ल्ह), and vh व्ह). Some examples are given above.

Eyelash reph/raphar

The eyelash reph/raphar (रेफ/ रफार) (र्‍) exists in Marathi as well as Nepali. The eyelash reph/raphar (र्‍) is produced in Unicode by the sequence [ra] + [virāma ्] + [ZWJ] and [rra]+ [virāma ्] + [ZWJ]. [83] In Marathi, when ‘र’ is the first consonant of a consonant cluster and occurs at the beginning of a syllable, it is written as an eyelash reph/raphar. [84]


Minimal pairs [85]

Using the (Simple) Reph/RapharUsing the Eyelash Reph/Raphar
आचार्यास (to the teacher)आचार्‍यास (to the cook)
दर्या (ocean)दर्‍या (valleys)


In February 2008, Swagat Thorat published India's first Braille newspaper, the Marathi Sparshdnyan, a news, politics and current affairs fort nightly magazine. [86]


Marathi grammar shares similarities with other modern Indo-Aryan languages. Jain Acharya Hemachandra is the grammarian of Maharashtri Prakrit. The first modern book exclusively concerning Marathi grammar was printed in 1805 by William Carey.

Marathi employs agglutinative, inflectional and analytical forms. [87] Unlike most other Indo-Aryan languages, Marathi has kept three grammatical genders: masculine, feminine and neuter. The primary word order of Marathi is subject–object–verb [88] Marathi follows a split-ergative pattern of verb agreement and case marking: it is ergative in constructions with either perfective transitive verbs or with the obligative ("should", "have to") and it is nominative elsewhere. [89] An unusual feature of Marathi, as compared to other Indo-European languages, is that it displays inclusive and exclusive we, common to the Austronesian and Dravidian languages. Other similarities to Dravidian include the extensive use of participial constructions [87] and also to a certain extent the use of the two anaphoric pronouns swətah and apəṇ. [90] Numerous scholars have noted the existence of Dravidian linguistic patterns in the Marathi language. [91]

Sharing of linguistic resources with other languages

Marathi neon signboard at Maharashtra Police headquarters in Mumbai. Marathi sign board.JPG
Marathi neon signboard at Maharashtra Police headquarters in Mumbai.

Over a period of many centuries, the Marathi language and people came into contact with many other languages and dialects. The primary influence of Prakrit, Maharashtri, Apabhraṃśa and Sanskrit is understandable. Marathi borrows a lot of its vocabulary from Sanskrit. [92]

Marathi has also shared directions, vocabulary, and grammar with languages such as Indian Dravidian languages, [92] and foreign languages such as Persian, [37] Arabic, English and also from Romance languages like French, Spanish, Portuguese and other European languages. [92]

Marathi words coined by Vinayak savarkar

Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, a noted Hindutva ideologue, writer, and poet, contributed to the Marathi language by coining new Marathi equivalents for words from other languages, mostly English. [93] Prior to these Marathi equivalents, words from other languages were widely used, which was unacceptable to Savarkar. [93] He opined that foreign words polluted the Marathi language and also made original Marathi words with the same meanings obsolete. [93] Per Deshpande, Savarkar's bhashashuddhi was a failure in Marathi. [94] The following are some of the words allegedly coined by Savarkar:

Morphology and etymology

Spoken Marathi contains a high number of Sanskrit-derived ( tatsama ) words. [ citation needed ] Such words are for example nantar (from nantara or after), purṇa (purṇa or complete, full, or full measure of something), ola (ola or damp), karaṇ (karaṇa or cause), puṣkaḷ (puṣkala or much, many), satat (satata or always), vichitra (vichitra or strange), svatah (svatah or himself/herself), prayatna (prayatna or effort, attempt), bhīti (from bhīti, or fear) and bhāṇḍa (bhāṇḍa or vessel for cooking or storing food). Other words ("tadbhavas") have undergone phonological changes from their Sanskrit roots, for example dār (dwāra or door), ghar (gṛha or house), vāgh (vyāghra or tiger), paḷaṇe (palāyate or to run away), kiti (kati or how many) have undergone more modification. Examples of words borrowed from other Indian and foreign languages include:

A lot of English words are commonly used in conversation and are considered to be assimilated into the Marathi vocabulary. These include "pen" (native Marathi lekhaṇii) and "shirt" (sadaraa).


Marathi uses many morphological processes to join words together, forming compounds. For example, ati + uttam gives the word atyuttam, miith-bhaakar ("salt-bread"), udyog-patii ("businessman"), ashṭa-bhujaa ("eight-hands", name of a Hindu goddess).


Like many other languages, Marathi uses distinct names for the numbers 1 to 20 and each multiple of 10, and composite ones for those greater than 20.

As with other Indic languages, there are distinct names for the fractions 14, 12, and 34. They are paava, ardhaa, and pauṇa, respectively. For most fractions greater than 1, the prefixes savvaa-, saaḍe-, paavaṇe- are used. There are special names for 32 (diiḍ), 52 (aḍich), and 72 (aut).

Powers of ten are denoted by separate specific words as depicted in the table below.

Number power to 10Marathi Number name [95] [96] In Devanagari
100Ek, Ekakएक/एकक
101dahaa, dashakदहा/दशक
102Shambhar, Shatakशंभर/शतक
103Hazaar (Sahasra, Ayut)सहस्र/हजार
104Daha Hazaar (dash-sahasra)दशसहस्र/दशहजार
105Laakh (laksha)लाख/लक्ष
106DahaaLaakh (Dasha-Laksha)दशलक्ष
107Koti (Karoda)कोटी
109Abja (Arbud, Arab)अब्ज
1012Kharv (Kharab)खर्व
1013Nikharv (Neela)निखर्व
1015Mahaapadm (padma)महापद्म
1017Shanku (shankha)शंकू
1019jaladhi (samudra)जलधी

A positive integer is read by breaking it up from the tens digit leftwards, into parts each containing two digits, the only exception being the hundreds place containing only one digit instead of two. For example, 1,234,567 is written as 12,34,567 and read as 12 lakh 34 Hazara 5 she 67.

Every two-digit number after 18 (11 to 18 are predefined) is read backward. For example, 21 is read एक-वीस (1-twenty). Also, a two digit number that ends with a 9 is considered to be the next tens place minus one. For example, 29 is एकुणतीस/एकोणतीस (एक-उणे-तीस) (thirty minus one). Two digit numbers used before Hazara, etc. are written in the same way.

Marathi on computers and the Internet

Shrilipee, Shivaji, kothare 2,4,6, Kiran fonts KF-Kiran [97] and many more (about 48) are clip fonts that were used prior to the introduction of Unicode standard for Devanagari script. Clip fonts are in vogue on PCs even today since most computers use English keyboards. Even today a large number of printed publications such as books, newspapers and magazines are prepared using these ASCII based fonts. However, clip fonts cannot be used on internet since those did not have Unicode compatibility.

Earlier Marathi suffered from weak support by computer operating systems and Internet services, as have other Indian languages. But recently, with the introduction of language localization projects and new technologies, various software and Internet applications have been introduced. Marathi typing software is widely used and display interface packages are now available on Windows, Linux and macOS. Many Marathi websites, including Marathi newspapers, have become popular especially with Maharashtrians outside India. Online projects such as the Marathi language Wikipedia, with 36,000+ articles, the Marathi blogroll, and Marathi blogs have gained immense popularity. [98]

Marathi Language Day

Marathi Language Day (मराठी दिन/मराठी दिवस transl.Marathi Din/Marathi Diwasis celebrated on 27 February every year across the Indian states of Maharashtra and Goa. This day is regulated by the Ministry of Marathi Language. It is celebrated on the Birthday of eminent Marathi Poet Vi. Va. Shirwadkar, popularly known as Kusumagraj. [99] [100]

Essay competitions and seminars are arranged in schools and colleges, and government officials are asked to conduct various events. [101]

See also

Related Research Articles

Devanagari Writing script for many Indian and Nepalese languages

Devanagari, also called Nagari, is a left-to-right abugida writing system, based on the ancient Brāhmī script, used in the Indian subcontinent. It was developed in ancient India from the 1st to the 4th century CE and was in regular use by the 7th century CE. The Devanagari script, composed of 47 primary characters including 14 vowels and 33 consonants, is the fourth most widely adopted writing system in the world, being used for over 120 languages.

Hindi Indo-Aryan language spoken in India

Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in India. Hindi has been described as a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language, which itself is based primarily on the Khariboli dialect of Delhi and neighbouring areas of Northern India. Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, is one of the two official languages of the Government of India, along with the English language. It is an official language in 9 States and 3 Union Territories and an additional official language in 3 other States. Hindi is also one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India.

Prakrit Group of vernacular Middle Indo-Aryan languages of the 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE

The Prakrits are a group of vernacular Middle Indo-Aryan languages used in India from around the 3rd century BCE to the 8th century CE. The term Prakrit is usually applied to the middle period of Middle Indo-Aryan languages, excluding earlier inscriptions and the later Pali. The Prakrits were used contemporaneously with the Classical Sanskrit of higher social classes. Prākṛta literally means "natural", as opposed to saṃskṛta, which literally means "constructed" or "refined".

Sanskrit Ancient Indo-Aryan language of South Asia

Sanskrit is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor languages had diffused there from the northwest in the late Bronze Age. Sanskrit is the sacred language of Hinduism, the language of classical Hindu philosophy, and of historical texts of Buddhism and Jainism. It was a link language in ancient and medieval South Asia, and upon transmission of Hindu and Buddhist culture to Southeast Asia, East Asia and Central Asia in the early medieval era, it became a language of religion and high culture, and of the political elites in some of these regions. As a result, Sanskrit had a lasting impact on the languages of South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia, especially in their formal and learned vocabularies.

Malayalam Dravidian language

Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken in the Indian state of Kerala and the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry by the Malayali people. It is one of 22 scheduled languages of India and is spoken by 2.88% of Indians. Malayalam has official language status in Kerala, Lakshadweep and Puducherry (Mahé), and is spoken by 34 million people worldwide. Malayalam is also spoken by linguistic minorities in the neighbouring states; with significant number of speakers in the Kodagu and Dakshina Kannada districts of Karnataka, and Nilgiris and Kanyakumari, districts of Tamil Nadu. Due to Malayali expatriates in the Persian Gulf, Malayalam is also widely spoken in the Gulf countries.

Kannada Dravidian language

Kannada is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by the people of Karnataka in the southwestern region of India. The language is also spoken by linguistic minorities in the states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Kerala and Goa; and also by Kannadigas abroad. The language had roughly 43 million native speakers by 2011. Kannada is also spoken as a second and third language by over 12.9 million non-native speakers in Karnataka, which adds up to 56.9 million speakers. It is one of the scheduled languages of India and the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka. Kannada was the court language of some of the most powerful empires of South and Central India, such as the Chalukya dynasty, the Rashtrakuta dynasty, the Vijayanagara Empire and the Hoysala Empire.

Telugu language Dravidian language

Telugu is a Dravidian language spoken by Telugu people predominantly living in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, where it is also the official language. It stands alongside Hindi and Bengali as one of the few languages with primary official language status in more than one Indian state. Telugu is also an official language in the Yanam district of Puducherry and a linguistic minority in the states of Odisha, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Punjab, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It is one of six languages designated a classical language of India by the country's government.

Languages of India Languages spoken in the Republic of India

Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 78.05% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 19.64% of Indians. Languages spoken by the remaining 2.31% of the population belong to the Austroasiatic, Sino–Tibetan, Tai–Kadai and a few other minor language families and isolates. India has the world's fourth highest number of languages (447), after Nigeria (524), Indonesia (710) and Papua New Guinea (840).

Konkani language Indo-Aryan language spoken in India

Konkani is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Konkani people, primarily along the western coastal region (Konkan) of India. It is one of the 22 Scheduled languages mentioned in the 8th schedule of the Indian Constitution and the official language of the Indian state of Goa. The first Konkani inscription is dated 1187 A.D. It is a minority language in Karnataka, Maharashtra, Kerala, Gujarat and Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu.

Saurashtra language

Saurashtra is an Indo-Aryan language spoken primarily by the Saurashtrians of Southern India who migrated from the Lata region of present-day Gujarat to south of Vindhyas in the Middle Ages.

Marathi literature is the body of literature of Marathi, an Indo-Aryan language spoken mainly in the Indian state of Maharashtra and written in the Devanagari and Modi script.

Maharashtri or Maharashtri Prakrit, is a language of ancient as well as medieval India and the ancestor of Marathi and Konkani.

Malvani is a dialect of Konkani with significant Marathi influences and loanwords. Though Malvani does not have a unique script, script of Devnagari language is used. Devanagari is used by most of the speakers. Malvani is a very popular language, used for sarcastic newspaper articles and local folk stage dramas known as Dashavatar.

Linguistic history of India History of the languages of India

The languages of India are divided into various language families, of which the Indo-Aryan and the Dravidian languages are the most widely spoken. There are also many languages belonging to unrelated language families such as Austroasiatic and Sino-Tibetan, spoken by smaller groups. Linguistic records begin with the appearance of the Brāhmī script from about the 3rd century BCE.

Thanjavur Marathi, also commonly spelled as Tanjore Marathi, is a dialect of Marathi spoken by Thanjavur Maharashtrians who migrated south, along with Shivaji's half brother Venkoji, to the areas surrounding the city of Thanjavur in India, back in the 17th century.

Canarese Konkani

Canarese Konkani is a minority language spoken by the Konkani people of Karnataka and in some parts of Kerala.

Konkani is a southern Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages spoken in the Konkan coast of India. It has approximately 3.6 million speakers.

Konkani alphabets refers to the five different scripts currently used to write the Konkani language.

The Konkani language agitations were a series of protests and demonstrations that happened in the Indian state of Goa during the post-Independence period. The agitations involved several mass protests, riots, student& political movements in Goa, concerning the uncertain future and the official status of the Konkani language, prevailing at the time in territory of Goa and Damaon in the Indian Republic.

Balabodh is a slightly modified style of the Devanagari script used to write the Marathi language and the Korku language. What sets balabodha apart from the Devanagari script used for other languages is the more frequent and regular use of both ळ /ɭ/ and र्‍.


  1. 1 2 Modern Marathi at Ethnologue (22nd ed., 2019)
    Old Marathi at Ethnologue (22nd ed., 2019)
  2. Campbell, George L. (1999). Concise compendium of the world's languages (Paperback ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN   978-0415160490 . Retrieved 8 January 2017.
  3. "Proposal" (PDF).
  4. 1 2 3 The Goa, Daman, and Diu Official Language Act, 1987 makes Konkani the official language but provides that Marathi may also be used "for all or any of the official purposes". The Government also has a policy of replying in Marathi to correspondence received in Marathi. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, , pp. para 11.3 Archived 19 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  5. Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh
  6. 1 2 "Abstract of Language Strength in India: 2011 Census" (PDF).
  7. "arts, South Asian". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2007 Ultimate Reference Suite.
  8. Dhoṅgaḍe, Rameśa; Wali, Kashi (2009). "Marathi". London Oriental and African Language Library. John Benjamins Publishing Company. 13: 101, 139. ISBN   9789027238139.
  9. Dhongde & Wali 2009, pp. 11–15.
  10. 1 2 "Marathi".
  11. "C-16 Population By Mother Tongue". Retrieved 3 April 2021.
  12. "Marathi Culture, History and Heritage in Mauritius" (PDF). Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  13. "Summary by language size". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 March 2019. For items below #26, see individual Ethnologue entry for each language.
  14. "Marathi". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
  15. Archived 7 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  16. "SCHEDULE".
  17. "Marathi may become the sixth classical language". Indian Express. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  18. "राज्य मराठी विकास संस्था". Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  19. "Dept. of Marathi, M.S. University of Baroda". Archived from the original on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  20. "University College of Arts and Social Sciences".
  21. kudadmin. "Departments and Faculty". Archived from the original on 27 June 2014.
  22. "Department of P.G. Studies and Research in Marathi".
  23. "Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore". Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  24. "Dept.of Marathi, Goa University". 27 April 2012. Archived from the original on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  25. "01 May 1960..."
  26. "मराठी भाषा दिवस - २७ फेब्रुवारी".
  27. Bloch 1970, p. 32.
  28. Clara Lewis (16 April 2018). "Clamour grows for Marathi to be given classical language status". The Times of India . Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  29. 1 2 Christian Lee Novetzke 2016, p. 53.
  30. 1 2 Christian Lee Novetzke 2016, pp. 53-54.
  31. Christian Lee Novetzke 2016, p. 54.
  32. Cynthia Talbot (20 September 2001). Precolonial India in Practice: Society, Region, and Identity in Medieval Andhra. Oxford University Press. pp. 211–213. ISBN   978-0-19-803123-9.
  33. Kher 1895, pp. 446–454.
  34. Keune, Jon Milton (2011). Eknāth Remembered and Reformed: Bhakti, Brahmans, and Untouchables in Marathi Historiography. New York, NY, USA: Columbia University press. p. 32. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  35. 1 2 3 Natarajan, ed. by Nalini (1996). Handbook of twentieth century literatures of India (1. publ. ed.). Westport, Conn. [u.a.]: Greenwood Press. p. 209. ISBN   978-0313287787.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  36. Kulkarni, G.T. (1992). "DECCAN (MAHARASHTRA) UNDER THE MUSLIM RULERS FROM KHALJIS TO SHIVAJI : A STUDY IN INTERACTION, PROFESSOR S.M KATRE Felicitation". Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. 51/52: 501–510. JSTOR   42930434.
  37. 1 2 Qasemi, S. H. "MARATHI LANGUAGE, PERSIAN ELEMENTS IN". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
  38. Gordon, Stewart (1993). Cambridge History of India: The Marathas 1600-1818. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University press. p. 16. ISBN   978-0-521-26883-7.
  39. Kamat, Jyotsna. "The Adil Shahi Kingdom (1510 CE to 1686 CE)". Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  40. Eaton, Richard M. (2005). The new Cambridge history of India (1. publ. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 154. ISBN   0-521-25484-1 . Retrieved 25 March 2016.
  41. Callewaert, Winand M.; Snell, Rupert; Tulpule, S G (1994). According to Tradition: Hagiographical Writing in India. Wiesbaden, Germany: Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 166. ISBN   3-447-03524-2 . Retrieved 9 April 2015.
  42. 1 2 Kosambi, Meera (Editor); Ranade, Ashok D. (Author) (2000). Intersections : socio-cultural trends in Maharashtra. London: Sangam. pp. 194–210. ISBN   978-0863118241.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  43. Ray, Mohit K. (Editor); Sawant, Sunil (Author) (2008). Studies in translation (2nd rev. and enl. ed.). New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. pp. 134–135. ISBN   9788126909223.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  44. James, Molesworth, Thomas Candy, Narayan G Kalelkar (1857). Molesworth's, Marathi-English dictionary (2nd ed.). Pune: J.C. Furla, Shubhada Saraswat Prakashan. ISBN   81-86411-57-7.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  45. Chavan, Dilip (2013). Language politics under colonialism : caste, class and language pedagogy in western India. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars. p. 174. ISBN   978-1443842501.
  46. Chavan, Dilip (2013). Language politics under colonialism : caste, class and language pedagogy in western India (first ed.). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars. pp. 136–184. ISBN   978-1443842501 . Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  47. Natarajan, Nalini (editor); Deo, Shripad D. (1996). Handbook of twentieth century literatures of India (1. publ. ed.). Westport, Conn. [u.a.]: Greenwood Press. p. 212. ISBN   978-0313287787.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  48. Goparaju Sambasiva Rao (editor); Rajyashree (author) (1994). Language Change: Lexical Diffusion and Literacy. Academic Foundation. pp. 45–58. ISBN   978-81-7188-057-7.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  49. Smith, George (2016). Life of William Carey: Shoemaker and Missionary. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. p. 258. ISBN   978-1536976120.
  50. Tucker, R., 1976. Hindu Traditionalism and Nationalist Ideologies in Nineteenth-Century Maharashtra. Modern Asian Studies, 10(3), pp.321-348.
  51. Govind, Ranjani (29 May 2019). "Musical drama brings epic to life". The Hindu. ISSN   0971-751X . Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  52. Rosalind O'Hanlon (22 August 2002). Caste, Conflict and Ideology: Mahatma Jotirao Phule and Low Caste Protest in Nineteenth-Century Western India. Cambridge University Press. p. 288. ISBN   978-0-521-52308-0.
  53. Rao, P.V. (2008). "Women's Education and the Nationalist Response in Western India: Part II–Higher Education". Indian Journal of Gender Studies. 15 (1): 141–148. doi:10.1177/097152150701500108. S2CID   143961063.
  54. Rao, P.V. (2007). "Women's Education and the Nationalist Response in Western India: Part I-Basic Education". Indian Journal of Gender Studies. 14 (2): 307. doi:10.1177/097152150701400206. S2CID   197651677.
  55. 1 2 Gail Omvedt (1974). "Non-Brahmans and Nationalists in Poona". Economic and Political Weekly. 9 (6/8): 201–219. JSTOR   4363419.
  56. Natarajan, Nalini (editor); Deo, Shripad D. (1996). Handbook of twentieth century literatures of India (1. publ. ed.). Westport, Conn. [u.a.]: Greenwood Press. pp. 213–214. ISBN   978-0313287787.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  57. Pardeshi, Prashant (2000). The Passive and Related Constructions in Marathi. Kobe papers in linguistics, 2, pp.123-146 (PDF). Kobe, Japan. pp. 123–146.
  58. Deshpande, G. P. (1997). "Marathi Literature since Independence: Some Pleasures and Displeasures". Economic and Political Weekly. 32 (44/45): 2885–2892. JSTOR   4406042.
  59. Natarajan, Nalini; Emmanuel Sampath Nelson (1996). "Chap 13: Dalit Literature in Marathi by Veena Deo". Handbook of twentieth-century literatures of India. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 363. ISBN   0-313-28778-3.
  60. Issues of Language and Representation: Babu Rao Bagul Handbook of twentieth-century literatures of India, Editors: Nalini Natarajan, Emmanuel Sampath Nelson. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1996. ISBN   0-313-28778-3. Page 368.
  61. Mother 1970 Indian short stories, 1900–2000, by E.V. Ramakrishnan, I. V. Ramakrishnana. Sahitya Akademi. Page 217, Page 409 (Biography).
  62. Jevha Mi Jat Chorali Hoti (1963) Encyclopaedia of Indian literature vol. 2. Editors Amaresh Datta. Sahitya Akademi, 1988. ISBN   81-260-1194-7. Page 1823.
  63. "Of art, identity, and politics". The Hindu . 23 January 2003. Archived from the original on 2 July 2003.
  64. Mathur, Barkha (28 March 2018). "City hails Pantawane as 'father of Dalit literature'". The Times of India . Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  65. Deo, Veena; Zelliot, Eleanor (1994). "Dalit Literaturetwenty-Five Years of Protest? Of Progress?". Journal of South Asian Literature. 29 (2): 41–67. JSTOR   25797513.
  66. Feldhaus, Anne (1996). Images of Women in Maharashtrian Literature and Religion. SUNY Press. p. 78. ISBN   9780791428375 . Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  67. Maya Pandit (27 December 2017). "How three generations of Dalit women writers saw their identities and struggle?". The Indian Express . Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  68. Assayag, Jackie; Fuller, Christopher John (2005). Globalizing India: Perspectives from Below. London, UK: Anthem Press. p. 80. ISBN   1-84331-194-1.
  69. Khodade, 2004
  70. "झाडी बोली (मराठी भाषेतील सौंदर्यस्थळे) | मिसळपाव". Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  71. "Marathi | South Asian Languages and Civilizations". Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  72. In Kudali dialect
  73. Masica (1991:97)
  74. Sohoni, Pushkar (May 2017). "Marathi of a single type: the demise of the Modi script". Modern Asian Studies. 51 (3): 662–685. doi:10.1017/S0026749X15000542. S2CID   148081127.
  75. Rao, Goparaju Sambasiva (1994). Language Change: Lexical Diffusion and Literacy. Delhi: Academic Foundation. p. 49. ISBN   81-7188-057-6.
  76. Masica, Colin P. (1993). The Indian Languages. Cambridge University Press. p. 437. ISBN   9780521299442. Archived from the original on 7 December 2014.
  77. Rao, Goparaju Sambasiva (1994). Language Change: Lexical Diffusion and Literacy. Academic Foundation. pp. 48 and 49. ISBN   9788171880577. Archived from the original on 7 December 2014.
  78. Ajmire, P.E.; Dharaskar, RV; Thakare, V M (22 March 2013). "A Comparative Study of Handwritten Marathi Character Recognition" (PDF). International Journal of Computer Applications. INTRODUCTION. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December 2014.
  79. Bhimraoji, Rajendra (28 February 2014). "Reviving the Modi Script" (PDF). Typoday. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December 2014.
  80. Carey, William. "Memoir Relative to the Translations" 1807: Serampore Mission Press.
  81. Archived 16 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  82. Indic Working Group (7 November 2004). "Devanagari Eyelash Ra". The Unicode Consortium. Archived from the original on 27 May 2014.
  83. Kalyan, Kale; Soman, Anjali (1986). Learning Marathi. Pune: Shri Vishakha Prakashan. p. 26.
  84. Naik, B.S. (1971). Typography of Devanagari-1. Bombay: Directorate of Languages.
  85. Menon, Sudha (15 January 2008). "Marathi magazine to be launched in Feb is first Braille fortnightly". mint. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  86. 1 2 Bhosale, G.; Kembhavi, S.; Amberkar, A.; Mhatre, M.; Popale, L.; Bhattacharyya, P. (2011), "Processing of Kridanta (Participle) in Marathi" (PDF), Proceedings of ICON-2011: 9th International Conference on Natural Language Processing, Macmillan Publishers, India
  87. "". Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  88. Dhongde & Wali 2009, pp. 179–80.
  89. Dhongde & Wali 2009, p. 263.
  90. Polomé, Edgar C. (1 January 1992). Reconstructing Languages and Cultures. Walter De Gruyter. p. 521. ISBN   9783110867923.
  91. 1 2 3 J. Bloch (1970). Formation of the Marathi Language. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 33, 180. ISBN   978-81-208-2322-8.
  92. 1 2 3 Thube, Surajkumar (31 August 2020). "VD Savarkar's language purification project was a precursor to creating a 'Hindu language'". Archived from the original on 31 August 2020. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  93. Reddy, N. Manohar. "Vernacular Discourse as Politics of Liberation: An Interview with Professor G.P. Deshpande." Social Scientist 42, no. 9/10 (2014): 85-98. Accessed April 9, 2021.
  94. "Indian Numbering System". Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  95. Sushma Gupta, Sushma, Gupta. "Indian Numbering System". Archived from the original on 30 April 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2012.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  96. "Welcome to". Archived from the original on 31 October 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  97. Askari, Faiz. "Inside the Indian Blogosphere". Express Computer. Archived from the original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 10 October 2008.
  98. "मराठी भाषा दिवस - २७ फेब्रुवारी". Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  99. "jagatik Marathi bhasha din celebration -". divyabhaskar. 27 February 2012. Archived from the original on 1 March 2016. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  100. "आम्ही मराठीचे शिलेदार!". Loksatta. 22 February 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2016.


  • Bloch, J (1970). Formation of the Marathi Language. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN   978-81-208-2322-8.
  • Dhongde, Ramesh Vaman; Wali, Kashi (2009). Marathi. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Pub. Co. ISBN   978-90-272-38139.
  • A Survey of Marathi Dialects. VIII. Gāwḍi, A. M. Ghatage & P. P. Karapurkar. The State Board for Literature and Culture, Bombay. 1972.
  • Marathi: The Language and its Linguistic Traditions - Prabhakar Machwe, Indian and Foreign Review, 15 March 1985.
  • 'Atyavashyak Marathi Vyakaran' (Essential Marathi Grammar) - Dr. V. L. Vardhe
  • 'Marathi Vyakaran' (Marathi Grammar) - Moreshvar Sakharam More.
  • 'Marathi Vishwakosh, Khand 12 (Marathi World Encyclopedia, Volume 12), Maharashtra Rajya Vishwakosh Nirmiti Mandal, Mumbai
  • 'Marathyancha Itihaas' by Dr. Kolarkar, Shrimangesh Publishers, Nagpur
  • 'History of Medieval Hindu India from 600 CE to 1200 CE, by C. V. Vaidya
  • Marathi Sahitya (Review of the Marathi Literature up to I960) by Kusumavati Deshpande, Maharashtra Information Centre, New Delhi
  • Christian Lee Novetzke (2016). The Quotidian Revolution: Vernacularization, Religion, and the Premodern Public Sphere in India. Columbia University Press. ISBN   978-0-231-54241-8.