|Born||Marcel Paul Pagnol|
28 February 1895
Aubagne, Provence, Third French Republic
|Died||18 April 1974 79) (aged|
|Notable works|| Marius |
Jean de Florette
Manon des sources
La Gloire de mon père
Le Château de ma mère
|French literary history|
Marcel Paul Pagnol (French: [maʁsɛl pɔl paɲɔl] ; 28 February 1895 – 18 April 1974) was a French novelist, playwright, and filmmaker. Regarded as an auteur, in 1946, he became the first filmmaker elected to the Académie française. Although his work is less fashionable than it once was, Pagnol is still generally regarded as one of France's greatest 20th-century writers and is notable for the fact that he excelled in almost every medium—memoir, novel, drama and film.
Pagnol was born on 28 February 1895 in Aubagne, Bouches-du-Rhône department, in southern France near Marseille, the eldest son of schoolteacher Joseph Pagnol A and seamstress Augustine Lansot. BMarcel Pagnol grew up in Marseille with his younger brothers Paul and René, and younger sister Germaine.
In July 1904, the family rented the Bastide Neuve,– a house in the sleepy Provençal village of La Treille – for the summer holidays, the first of many spent in the hilly countryside between Aubagne and Marseille. About the same time, Augustine's health, which had never been robust, began to noticeably decline and on 16 June 1910 she succumbed to a chest infection ("mal de poitrine") and died, aged 36. Joseph remarried in 1912.
In 1913, at the age of 18, Marcel passed his baccalaureate in philosophyand started studying literature at the University in Aix-en-Provence. When World War I broke out, he was called up into the infantry at Nice but in January 1915 he was discharged because of his poor constitution ("faiblesse de constitution''). On 2 March 1916, he married Simone Colin in Marseille and in November graduated in English. He became an English teacher, teaching in various local colleges and at a lycée in Marseille.
In 1922, he moved to Paris, where he taught English until 1927,when he decided instead to devote his life to playwriting. During this time, he belonged to a group of young writers, in collaboration with one of whom, Paul Nivoix, he wrote the play, Merchants of Glory, which was produced in 1924. This was followed, in 1928, by Topaze , a satire based on ambition. Exiled in Paris, he returned nostalgically to his Provençal roots, taking this as his setting for his play Marius , which later became the first of his works to be adapted into a film in 1931.
Separated from Simone Collin since 1926 (though not divorced until 1941), he formed a relationship with the young English dancer Kitty Murphy. Their son Jacques Pagnol was born on 24 September 1930.(Jacques later became his father's assistant and subsequently a cameraman for France 3 Marseille.)
In 1929, on a visit to London, Pagnol attended a screening of one of the first talking films and he was so impressed that he decided to devote his efforts to cinema.He contacted Paramount Picture studios and suggested adapting his play Marius for cinema. This was directed by Alexander Korda and released on 10 October 1931. It became one of the first successful French-language talking films.
In 1932 Pagnol founded his own film production studios in the countryside near Marseille.Over the next decade Pagnol produced his own films, taking many different roles in the production – financier, director, script writer, studio head, and foreign-language script translator – and employing the greatest French actors of the period. On 4 April 1946, Pagnol was elected to the Académie française, taking his seat in March 1947, the first filmmaker to receive this honour.
In his films, Pagnol transfers his playwriting talents onto the big screen. His editing style is somberly reserved, placing emphasis on the content of an image. As a pictorial naturalist, Pagnol relies on film as art to convey a deeper meaning rather than solely as a tool to tell a story. Pagnol also took great care in the type of actors he employed, hiring local actors to appear in his films to highlight their unique accents and culture. Like his plays, Pagnol's films emphasize dialogue and musicality. The themes of many of Pagnol's films revolve around the acute observation of social rituals. Using interchangeable symbols and recurring character roles, such as proud fathers and rebellious children, Pagnol illuminates the provincial life of the lower class. Notably, Pagnol also frequently compares women and land, showing both can be barren or fertile. Above all, Pagnol uses all this to illustrate the importance of human bonds and their renewal.
In 1945, Pagnol remarried, to Jacqueline Bouvier (the actress Jacqueline Pagnol).They had two children together, Frédéric (born 1946) and Estelle (born 1949). Estelle died at the age of two. Pagnol was so devastated that he fled the south and returned to live in Paris. He went back to writing plays, but after his next piece was badly received he decided to change his job once more and began writing a series of autobiographical novels – Souvenirs d'enfance – based on his childhood experiences.
In 1957, the first two novels in the series, La Gloire de mon père and Le château de ma mère were published to instant acclaim.The third Le Temps des secrets was published in 1959, the fourth Le Temps des Amours was to remain unfinished and was not published until 1977, after his death. In the meantime, Pagnol turned to a second series, L'Eau des Collines – Jean de Florette and Manon des Sources – which focused on the machinations of Provençal peasant life at the beginning of the twentieth century and were published in 1962.
Pagnol adapted his own film Manon des Sources, with his wife Jacqueline in the title role, into two novels, Jean de Florette and Manon des Sources, collectively titled L'Eau des Collines .
Marcel Pagnol died in Paris on 18 April 1974.He is buried in Marseille at the cemetery La Treille, along with his mother, father, brothers, and wife. His boyhood friend, David Magnan (Lili des Bellons in the autobiographies), died at the Second Battle of the Marne in July 1918, and is buried nearby.
Pagnol was also known for his translations of Shakespeare (from English) and Virgil (from Latin):
Pagnol's Hamlet is still performed in France, although some have criticized his portrayal of Hamlet as somewhat effeminate.
In 1986, Jean de Florette and Manon des Sources were remade by filmmaker Claude Berri.
In 1990, La Gloire de mon père and Le château de ma mère , Pagnol's affectionate reminiscences of childhood, were filmed by Yves Robert.
In 2000, Jacques Nahum produced Marius, Fanny, and César for French television.
In 2011, La Fille du puisatier was filmed by Daniel Auteuil.
In 2013, Marius and Fanny were remade by Daniel Auteuil.
On 28 February 2020 Google celebrated his 125th birthday with a Google Doodle.
Daniel Auteuil is a French actor and director who has appeared in a wide range of film genres, including period dramas, romantic comedies, and crime thrillers. In 1996 he won the Best Actor Award at the Cannes Film Festival together with Belgian actor Pascal Duquenne. He is also the winner of two César Awards for Best Actor, one in 1987 as Ugolin Soubeyran in Jean de Florette and Manon des Sources and one for his role in Girl on the Bridge. For his role in Jean de Florette he also won the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role. Auteuil is considered one of France's most respected actors.
Jean de Florette is a 1986 period drama film directed by Claude Berri, based on a novel by Marcel Pagnol. It is followed by Manon des Sources. The story takes place in rural Provence, where two local farmers plot to trick a newcomer out of his newly inherited property. The film starred three of France's most prominent actors – Gérard Depardieu, Daniel Auteuil, who won a BAFTA award for his performance, and Yves Montand in one of his last roles.
Jules Auguste Muraire, whose stage name was Raimu, was a French actor. He is most famous for playing César in the 'Marseilles trilogy'.
Pierre Fresnay was a French stage and film actor.
Port of Seven Seas is a 1938 drama film starring Wallace Beery and featuring Frank Morgan and Maureen O'Sullivan. The movie was written by Preston Sturges based on the plays of Marcel Pagnol and the films based on them, and was directed by James Whale, the director of Frankenstein (1931) and The Invisible Man (1933). The cinematography is by Karl Freund, who filmed Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1927) and I Love Lucy (1951-1957).
Marius is a 1931 French drama film directed by Alexander Korda. It is based on the 1929 play of the same title by Marcel Pagnol. The film is a part of the Marseille Trilogy which includes the films Fanny and César. The film was selected to be screened in the Cannes Classics section of the 2015 Cannes Film Festival. The restored film was also given a limited re-release in the United States by Janus Films on 4 January 2017, first premiering at Film Forum.
La Treille is a quartier on the outskirts of the 11th arrondissement of Marseille, in the Department of Bouches-du-Rhône, France. It has approximately 900 inhabitants. At the centre of the quartier is the seventeenth century hillside village of La Treille.
Souvenirs d'enfance is a series of autobiographical novels by French filmmaker and académicien, Marcel Pagnol (1895–1974). Souvenirs d'enfance comprises four volumes covering the years from his birth in 1895 to about 1910, which were spent in Marseille, with family summer holidays in La Treille, about ten kilometres away. The four volumes in order are La Gloire de mon père ; Le Château de ma mère ; Le Temps des secrets ; and Le Temps des amours. The first two were published in 1957, the third in 1960, and the fourth, which was unfinished, was published posthumously in 1977. The first two were made into films, directed by Yves Robert.
Fanny is a 1932 French romantic drama film directed by Marc Allégret and starring Orane Demazis, Raimu and Alida Rouffe. It is based on the 1931 play by Marcel Pagnol. It is the second part of the Marseillaise film trilogy that begins with Marius (1931) and concludes with César (1936). Like Marius, the film was a box office success in France and is still considered to be a classic of French cinema. It was shot at the Billancourt Studios in Paris and on location in Marseille. The film's sets were designed by the art director Gabriel Scognamillo.
César is a 1936 French film, written and directed by Marcel Pagnol. It is the final part of his Marseille trilogy, which began with the film Marius and was followed by Fanny. Unlike the other two films in the trilogy, César was not based on a play by Pagnol, but written directly as a film script. In 1946 Pagnol adapted the script as a stage play.
Orane Demazis was a French actress.
Alida Rouffe (1874–1949) was a French actress.
The Water of the Hills is the collective name for two novels by Marcel Pagnol, Jean de Florette and Manon des Sources, both originally published in 1963 and first published in English in 1966, the latter translation under the title Manon of the Springs. The books are set in the hills of Provence near Marseille in Southern France in the early twentieth century, and together they tell a tale of deception, betrayal and revenge. Manon des Sources was a Pagnol film released in 1952 for which he had also written the original screenplay, and he subsequently developed the two novels from his own 1952 film. The books were then remade as two separate films in 1986, Jean de Florette and Manon des Sources.
Jacqueline Andrée Pagnol was a French actress. She acted in many French films in the 1940s and 1950s. She was the wife of French author and filmmaker Marcel Pagnol.
Milly Mathis was a French actress who appeared in more than 100 films during her career. Born on September 8, 1901 as Emilienne Pauline Tomasini in Marseilles, France, she made her film debut with a small, uncredited role in the 1927 German film, Die Liebe der Jeanne Ney. Most of her parts would be in featured or supporting roles. Her final performance would be in a featured role in French film, Business (1960). She was also an occasional performer on France's legitimate stage. She died on March 30, 1965 in Salon-de-Provence, France, and was buried in the Cimetière Saint-Pierre in Marseilles.
Max Maurey was a French playwright born in Paris in 1866 and died in Neuilly-sur-Seine in 1947. He was also the theatre manager of the Théâtre des Variétés from 1914 to 1940 and from 1944 to 1947, and director of the Théâtre du Grand Guignol.
Topaze is a 1936 French comedy film directed by Marcel Pagnol and starring Alexandre Arnaudy, Sylvia Bataille and Pierre Asso. It is based on the Pagnol's own 1928 play Topaze. A separate adaptation Topaze had been directed by Louis J. Gasnier three years earlier.
Louis Alfred Doumet, known by his stage name of Doumel, was a French actor and comedian active in the inter-war years.
Marius is a 1929 play by the French writer Marcel Pagnol. It takes place in Marseilles, where a young man named Marius working in a café dreams of going to sea, his obsession eventually overcoming his developing romance with Fanny, a local girl.
Longing for the Sea is a 1931 French-Swedish drama film directed by John W. Brunius and starring Edvin Adolphson, Carl Barcklind and Inga Tidblad. It is the Swedish-language version of the French film Marius directed by Alexander Korda and based on the 1929 play play of the same title by Marcel Pagnol. It was shot at the Joinville Studios in Paris and on location in Marseilles. The film's sets were designed by the art director Vincent Korda.