This article needs additional citations for verification . (August 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|March 1st Movement|
|Official name||March 1st Movement|
|Also called||Manse Demonstrations|
|Observed by||March 1, National holiday in South Korea since 1949|
|Significance||Marks one of the first public displays of Korean resistance during the Japanese occupation of Korea|
|Date||March 1, 1919|
|March 1st Movement|
|Revised Romanization||Samil Undong|
The March 1st Movement, also known as Sam-il (3-1) Movement (Hangul: 삼일 운동; Hanja: 三一 運動) was one of the earliest public displays of Korean resistance during the rule of Korea by Japan from 1910 to 1945. The name refers to an event that occurred on March 1, 1919, hence the movement's name, literally meaning "Three-One Movement" or "March First Movement" in Korean. It is also sometimes referred to as the Man-se Demonstrations (Hangul : 만세운동; Hanja : 萬歲 運動 ; RR : Manse Undong).
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great. It may also be written as Hangeul following the standard Romanization.
Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. More specifically, it refers to those Chinese characters borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language with Korean pronunciation. Hanja-mal or Hanja-eo refers to words that can be written with Hanja, and hanmun refers to Classical Chinese writing, although "Hanja" is sometimes used loosely to encompass these other concepts. Because Hanja never underwent major reform, they are almost entirely identical to traditional Chinese and kyūjitai characters, though the stroke orders for some characters are slightly different. For example, the characters 教 and 研 are written as 敎 and 硏. Only a small number of Hanja characters are modified or unique to Korean. By contrast, many of the Chinese characters currently in use in Japan and Mainland China have been simplified, and contain fewer strokes than the corresponding Hanja characters.
Korea under Japanese rule began with the end of the short-lived Korean Empire in 1910 and ended at the conclusion of World War II in 1945. Japanese rule over Korea was the outcome of a process that began with the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876, whereby a complex coalition of the Meiji government, military, and business officials sought to integrate Korea both politically and economically into the Empire of Japan. A major stepping-stone towards the Japanese occupation of Korea was the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905, in which the then-Korean Empire was declared a protectorate of Japan. The annexation of Korea by Japan was set up in the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910, which was never actually signed by the Korean Regent, Gojong.
The Samil Movement arose in reaction to the repressive nature of colonial occupation under the de facto military rule of the Japanese Empire following 1905, and inspired by the "Fourteen Points" outlining the right of national "self-determination", which was proclaimed by President Woodrow Wilson at the Paris Peace Conference in January 1919. After hearing news of Wilson's speech, Korean students studying in Tokyo published a statement demanding freedom from colonial rule.
In law and government, de facto describes practices that exist in reality, even if not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure, which refers to things that happen according to law. Unofficial customs that are widely accepted are sometimes called de facto standards.
The Fourteen Points was a statement of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I. The principles were outlined in a January 8, 1918 speech on war aims and peace terms to the United States Congress by President Woodrow Wilson. But his main Allied colleagues were skeptical of the applicability of Wilsonian idealism.
The right of a people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law, binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms. It states that people, based on respect for the principle of equal rights and fair equality of opportunity, have the right to freely choose their sovereignty and international political status with no interference.
Former Emperor Gojong died on January 21, 1919. There was widespread suspicion that he had been poisoned, credible since previous attempts (the "coffee plot") were well-known, and other leaders had been assassinated by Japanese agents.
Gojong, the Emperor Gwangmu, was the last king of Joseon and the first Emperor of Korea.
At 2 p.m. on March 1, 1919, 33 activists who formed the core of the Samil Movement convened at Taehwagwan Restaurant in Seoul; they read out loud the Korean Declaration of Independence, which had been drawn up by historian Choe Nam-seon. The activists initially planned to assemble at Tapgol Park in downtown Seoul, but chose a more private location out of fear that the gathering might turn into a riot. The leaders of the movement signed the document and sent a copy to the Governor General.
Seoul, officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. With surrounding Incheon metropolis and Gyeonggi province, Seoul forms the heart of the Seoul Capital Area. Seoul is ranked as the fourth largest metropolitan economy in the world and is larger than London and Paris.
The Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the 33 ethnic representatives meeting at Taehwagwan, the restaurant located in Insa-dong, Jongno District, Seoul on March 1, 1919, after World War I, which announced that Korea would no longer tolerate Japanese rule.
Choe Nam-seon was a prominent modern Korean historian, pioneering poet and publisher, and a leading member of the Korean independence movement. He was born into a jungin family in Seoul, Korea, under the late Joseon Dynasty, and educated in Seoul. In 1904, he went to study in Japan, and was greatly impressed by the Meiji Restoration reforms. Upon his return to Korea, Choe became active in the Patriotic Enlightenment Movement, which sought to modernize Korea.
We herewith proclaim the independence of Korea and the liberty of the Korean people. This we proclaim to all the nations of the world in witness of human equality. This we proclaim to our descendants so that they may enjoy in perpetuity their inherent right to nationhood.
In as much as this proclamation originates from our five-thousand-year history, in as much as it springs from the loyalty of twenty million people, in as much as it affirms our yearning for the advancement of everlasting liberty, in as much as it expresses our desire to take part in the global reform rooted in human conscience, it is the solemn will of heaven, the great tide of our age, and a just act necessary for the co-existence of all humankind. Therefore, no power in this world can obstruct or suppress it!
The movement leaders telephoned the central police station to inform them of their actions and were publicly arrested afterwards.
Before the formal declaration, Korea also published and broadcast the following complaints, in order to be heard by the Japanese people through papers and media:
These grievances were highly influenced by Wilson's declaration of the principle of self determination as outlined in his "Fourteen Points" speech.
Massive crowds assembled in Pagoda Park to hear a student, Chung Jae-yong, read the declaration publicly. Afterwards, the gathering formed into a peaceable procession, which the Japanese military police attempted to suppress. Special delegates associated with the movement also read copies of the independence proclamation from appointed places throughout the country at 2 p.m. on that same day.
As the processions continued to grow, the Japanese local and military police could not control the crowds. The panicked Japanese officials called in military forces to quell the crowds, including the naval forces. As the public protests continued to grow, the suppression turned to violence, resulting in Japanese massacres of Koreans and other atrocities.
Approximately 2,000,000 Koreans had participated in the more than 1,500 demonstrations. Several thousand were massacred by the Japanese police force and army. : 한국독립운동지혈사; Hanja : 韓國獨立運動之血史) by Park Eun-sik reported 7,509 people killed, 15,849 wounded, and 46,303 arrested. From March 1 to April 11, Japanese officials reported 553 people killed, and more than 12,000 arrested. They said that 8 policemen and military were killed, and 158 wounded. As punishment, some of the arrested demonstrators were executed in public.The frequently cited The Bloody History of the Korean Independence Movement (Hangul
Park Eunsik was a Korean historian and the second President of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in Shanghai during part of 1925. Soon after the impeachment of Syngman Rhee from the presidency, Park was elected the president, but he soon died from illness while in office. Park was succeeded by Yi Sang-ryong as the president.
In 1920, the Battle of Cheongsanri broke out in Manchuria between exiled Korean independence fighters and the Japanese Army.
The March 1st Movement provided a catalyst for the Korean Independence Movement. Given the ensuing suppression and hunting down of activists by the Japanese, many Korean leaders went into exile in Manchuria, Shanghai and other parts of China, where they continued their activities. The Movement was a catalyst for the establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in Shanghai in April 1919. It also influenced the growth of nonviolent resistance in India and many other countries.The Korean Liberation Army was subsequently formed and allowed to operate in China by the Nationalist Government of China. During this period, there was a mobilization of Catholic and Protestant activists in Korea, with activism encouraged among the diaspora in the U.S., China and Russia.
The Japanese government reacted to the March 1st Movement by heightening its suppression of dissent and dismissing the Movement as the "Chosun Manse Violent Public Disorder Incident" (조선 공공 만세 폭력 사건). Governor-General Hasegawa Yoshimichi accepted responsibility for the loss of control (although most of the repressive measures leading to the uprising had been put into place by his predecessors); he was replaced by Saito Makoto. The military police were replaced by a civilian force. Limited press freedom was permitted under what was termed the 'cultural policy'. Many of these lenient policies were reversed during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II.
On May 24, 1949, South Korea designated March 1st as a national holiday. General Choe Hong-hui dedicated the first of the three patterns (삼일 틀 – Sam-il teul) trained by III-degree black belts of taekwon-do to the Sam-il Movement.
President Woodrow Wilson issued his Fourteen Points in January 1918. The points included… in terms of US relations with Korea, "a free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims."
However, as manifested at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, Wilson was not interested in challenging global power relations. Since Japan was one of the victors and Korea was its colony, a discussion of the status of Korea was not undertaken.
In April 1919, the US State Department told the ambassador to Japan that "the consulate [in Seoul] should be extremely careful not to encourage any belief that the United States will assist the Korean nationalists in carrying out their plans and that it should not do anything which may cause Japanese authorities to suspect [the] American Government sympathizes with the Korean nationalist movement."
Japan violently suppressed the March First Movement. The United States remained silent.Despite this, the Korean National Association planned a three-man delegation in the United States to attend the Paris Peace Conference and attempt to represent Korea's interests. Dr. Rhee (representing Hawai'i), Rev. Chan Ho Min (representing the West Coast) and Dr. Henry Han Kyung Chung (representing the Midwest) were selected, but they were unable to attend. They encountered visa problems and feared that the delegates may not be allowed to reenter the United States.
A delegation of overseas Koreans, from Japan, China, and Hawai'i, did make it to Paris. Included in this delegation, was Kim Kyu-sik (김규식), a representative from the Korean Provisional Government in Shanghai.After considerable effort, he managed to arrange passage with members of the Chinese delegation to the peace conference. He traveled on a Chinese passport and under a Chinese name in order to evade the Japanese police. The Chinese were eager for the opportunity to embarrass Japan at the international forum, and several top Chinese leaders at the time, including Sun Yat-sen, told U.S. diplomats that the peace conference should take up the question of Korean independence. Beyond that, however, the Chinese, locked in a struggle themselves against the Japanese, could do little for Korea.
The United States did not pay any substantial attention to these individuals, and the delegation was blocked from official participation as Korea was classified as a Japanese colony.
The failure of the Korean nationalists to gain support from the Paris Peace Conference ended the possibility of foreign support.
Syngman Rhee was a South Korean politician, the first and the last Head of State of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, and President of South Korea from 1948 to 1960. His three-term presidency of South Korea was strongly affected by Cold War tensions on the Korean Peninsula.
Son Byong-hi was a Korean nationalist and Korean independence activist. He was born in Cheongju, in Chungcheong province. In 1884 he heard of the Donghak religion and its ideals of supporting the nation and comforting the people, and decided to become a member.
From April 1948 to May 1949, the Korean province of Jeju Island was subjected to a communist insurgency and subsequent anticommunist suppression campaign, during which between 14,000 and 30,000 people were killed. The proximate cause of the rebellion was the scheduling of elections for May 10, 1948, by the United Nations Temporary Commission on Korea (UNTCOK) in the hope of creating a new government for all of Korea. The elections, however, were only planned for the south of the country, the area controlled by UNTCOK. Fearing the elections would further reinforce division, guerrilla fighters of the communist South Korean Labor Party (SKLP) reacted with protests by attacking local police and rightist paramilitary groups stationed on Jeju Island.
The Korean independence movement was a military and diplomatic campaign to achieve the independence of Korea from Japan. After the Japanese annexation of Korea in 1910, Korea's domestic resistance has peaked in the March 1st Movement, which was crushed and sent Korean leaders to flee into China. In China, Korean independence activists built ties with the National Government of the Republic of China which supported the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea (KPG), as a government in exile. At the same time, the Korean Liberation Army, which operated under the Chinese National Military Council and then the KPG, led attacks against Japan.
The Korean Provisional Government (KPG), formally the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was a partially recognized Korean government-in-exile, based in Shanghai, China, and later in Chungking, during the Japanese colonial rule of Korea.
Reverend Young Shik Rhee was the founder of Daegu University in Daegu, South Korea, a pioneer of special education in Korea, and a Korean independence movement leader in Daegu.
Seodaemun Prison History Hall is a museum and former prison in Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, South Korea. It was constructed beginning in 1907. The prison was opened on October 21, 1908, under the name Gyeongseong Gamok. During the early part of the Japanese colonial period it was known as Keijo Prison. Its name was changed to Seodaemun Prison in 1923, and it later had several other names.
Yu Gwan-sun, also known as Ryu Gwansun, was an organizer in what would come to be known as the March 1st Movement against Imperial Japanese colonial rule of Korea in South Chungcheong. The March 1st Movement was considered a peaceful demonstration by the Korean people against Japanese rule. Yu Gwan-sun became one of the most well-known participants in this movement, and eventually, a symbol of Korea's fight for independence.
This is a timeline of the history of Korea. Some dates prior to the 5th century are speculative or approximate.
Kim Chwa-chin or Kim Chwa-jin, sometimes called the "Korean Makhno" or by his pen name Baekya, played an important role in the attempt of development of anarchism in Korea.
The Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army was the main anti-Japanese guerrilla army in Northeast China (Manchuria) after the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931. Its predecessors were various anti-Japanese volunteer armies organized by locals and the Manchuria branches of the Communist Party of China (CPC). In February 1936, the CPC, in accordance with the instructions of the Communist International, issued The Declaration of the Unified Organization of Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army and marked the official formation of the organization.
Anarchism in Korea dates to the Korean independence movement under Japan's early 20th century occupation. Korean anarchists federated across their end of the continent but their efforts were perforated by regional and world wars.
Yun Chi-ho was an important political activist and thinker during the late 1800s and early 1900s in Joseon Korea. His penname was Jwa-ong ; his courtesy name was Sungheum (성흠;聖欽), or Sungheum (성흠;成欽). Yun was a prominent member of reformist organizations such as the Independence Club (독립협회;獨立協會), led by Seo Jae-pil, the People's Joint Association (만민공동회;萬民共同會), and the Shinminhwae (신민회;新民會). He was a strong nationalist especially in his early years; pushing for reform and modernization of the Joseon government.. He also served in various government positions and was a strong supporter of Christianity in Korea.
The Hunchun incident was a reported raid on a Japanese consulate in Manchuria resulting in the death of thirteen Japanese. The Japanese government used this incident to justify sending thousands of Imperial Japanese troops into Manchuria on October 5, 1920. These escalations culminated with the Battle of Qingshanli between Japan and the Korean Independence Army, where Korean rebels fought Japanese soldiers.
Events in the year 1919 in Japan. It corresponds to Taishō 8 (大正8年) in the Japanese calendar.
The June 10th Movement or Yuk-ship Undong , ko:6.10 만세운동 was one of the earliest public displays of Korean resistance during the occupation of the Korean Empire by Japan. The name refers to an event that occurred on June 10th 1926. It is sometimes referred to as the Manse Demonstrations.
The first Korean student movement begun in 1919, when students took part in the Sam-il Movement of 1 March to call for the end of Japanese colonization. The student movement has since then played a major part in several big political changes in Korea. Before liberation of Korea from Japanese rule in 1945, the main focus of the student movement was opposing this rule and demanding Korea's independence. After 1945, the student movement was mainly concerned with righting the wrongs in Korean government. Students rose for instance against the South Korea's government of Syngman Rhee after the rigged elections in March 1960. 1980 marked a turning point in the South Korean student movement. After the Gwangju massacre in May 1980, the student movement got a clear vision, partly based on Marxism, and had a pivotal role in the democratization of South Korean society. Student activism is still common on the 21st century South Korean political scene.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to March 1st Movement .|
|Korean Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|