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|March to Reims|
|Part of the Hundred Years' War|
Coronation of Charles VII in Reims (miniature from the Vigiles du roi Charles VII de Martial d'Auvergne, Paris, BnF, département of Manuscrits).
|Kingdom of France|| Kingdom of England |
|Commanders and leaders|
Charles VII of France
After the lifting of the Siege of Orléans and the decisive French victory at the Battle of Patay, the Anglo-Burgundian threat was ended. Joan of Arc convinced the Dauphin Charles to go to be crowned at Reims. The march though the heart of territory controlled by the hostile Burgundians was successful and would give the throne of the French monarchy to Charles VII, who had been ousted therefrom by the Treaty of Troyes.
Main article: Treaty of Troyes and Joan of Arc.
Since the Treaty of Troyes in 1420, the dauphin had been disinherited in favour of Henry V of England following the assassination of John the Fearless. The former married the daughter of King Charles VI of France, and his son Henry VI was to be his successor on the thrones of France and England. But Henry V died in 1422 and his son was not yet one year old; the regency was entrusted to John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford. The intervention of Joan of Arc with the Dauphin Charles would be seen as miraculous, even more so after the lifting of the Siege of Orléans and the Battle of Patay.
For the first time in the history of France, the king did not let the crown pass to his eldest son. Charles VI of France disinherited his son, leaving the kingdom of France to Henry VI of England, who was the son of his daughter Catherine. After Charles VI died, his son challenged his disinheritance and claimed the throne. Despite the French victory in the Battle of Patay on 18 June, which caused the decline of the English in Paris, the dauphin Charles VII refused to continue to Reims, which was in the hands of the Burgundians, remaining in Sully-sur-Loire and withdrew his army to Orléans to be crowned there as was Louis VI; Nevertheless, a coronation in Reims would have a much greater impact because it would be seen as a new miracle, attesting to his divine legitimacy. After initially meeting the Dauphin on 23 May 1429 at the Royal City of Loches, Joan of Arc next met him again on 21 June at four o'clock in the Fleury Abbey to persuade him to go to Reims. The next day, the dauphin's council met in Châteauneuf-sur-Loire and ordered the army to gather at Gien.
On 24 June, preceded by her page, Louis de Coutes, who held her banner emblazoned "Jhesus Maria," Joan of Arc — arriving at Gien with her armor forged in Tours, her armor and sword of Fierbois — found Charles VII. The next day the king's army gathered in Gien. The French army took Bonny-sur-Loire and Saint-Fargeau. Joan of Arc broke her sword on the back of a prostitute who followed the army, and two days later the Dauphin finally ordered the march to the city of the coronation: the march began at Gien on 29 June 1429. The ease of the march showed both the fragility of the Anglo-Burgundian rule and the restoration of confidence in the cause of Charles VII of France. According to Jean de Dunois the bluff was the only tactic that opened the gates of the city. The Marshal of France, Gilles de Rais, rode to Reims, hoping to use this victorious march to retrieve a ransom of land taken from "collaborators." Joan of Arc was escorted from Gien by her captains: Tugdual Kermoysan, La Hire, André of Lohéac, Pierre Rieux, Jean V de Bueil, Pierre Bessonneau, Jacques de Chabannes, Jacques Dinan, and Jean Poton de Xaintrailles. On the road to Reims, the Constable de Richemont sent Pierre Rostrenen to ask leave of the dauphin to serve at his coronation. Rostrenen accompanied the constable to Parthenay. During the march, the Burgundian garrison located in Auxerre refused to open its gates. Georges de la Trémoille was given two thousand gold écus by the minister of the city, for the city to remain neutral and allow the French army to resupply itself and to camp outside its walls (on 1 and 2 July). The army of the Dauphin left again; Saint-Florentin submitted immediately, as did Brienon l’Archevêque — on 4 July, the army reached Troyes, five to six percent of whose occupants were Burgundians, who refused to open the gates.
After four days of siege, the majority of the dauphin's council wanted to lift the siege and continue on the road without entering the city. On the fifth day of the siege, 9 July, Troyes capitulated (for fear of attack), but only Charles VII and the captains were able to enter. The soldiers spent the night in Saint-Phal, under the command of Ambroise de Loré. Gilles de Rais was one of the leaders of the army who reduced Troyes to obedience.
Fewer than 2000 English soldiers of the captain of Paris, John of Lancaster occupied Paris, which had as its provost Simon Morhier, and as Governor Jean de La Baume. Philip the Good of Burgundy opted to leave Laon for Paris, where he arrived on 10 July, appointed the Master of the Louvre Jean de Villiers de L'Isle-Adam governor, and committed to him the safety of Paris in the absence of Lancaster. Philip sent ambassadors to the Dauphin Charles VII to sue for peace.
On 11 July the Dauphin's army left Troyes for the first time to head to Châlons-en-Champagne, which opened its gates on 14 July to let him spend the night.
On Saturday 16 July, in the morning, Philip the Good left Paris to return to Laon, while the Archbishop of Reims, Renault Chartres, left Reims in the hands of William, Lord of Châtillon-sur-Marne and of the Sire de Saveuses; the dauphin arrived at the castle of the Archbishop of Reims in Sept-Saulx (located 21 km from Reims). The dauphin summoned the people of Reims to open their gates, despite their vow to resist him for six weeks until the arrival of relief by Lancaster and Philip the Good. After negotiations and dinner, Charles VII entered and slept in Reims. That same day, René of Anjou brought the homage of Lorraine and Barrois to the Dauphin.
On Sunday 17 July 1429 Charles VII was crowned King of France in Reims: he received the Holy Ampulla from the hands of the Archbishop Renault Chartres. "Noble King, now is executed the pleasure of God who wished I lift the siege of Orléans, and I bring you into this city of Rheims to receive your holy coronation to show you are the true king, and the one to whom the kingdom of France must belong," declared Joan of Arc, paying tribute to her king. The coronation ceremony, given the circumstances, took place in simplicity, because the crown, the scepter, and the globe, were still in Saint-Denis, which was controlled by the English; among the peers, only three of the spiritual peers attended the ceremony: the Archbishop of Reims Renault Chartres, the Bishop of Laon William of Champeaux, the bishop of Châlons Jean Saarbrücken. But the essential rite was performed: the eighth sacrament (anointing of the king), which makes kings and which marks the sacred sign of legitimate power, was then given to Charles VII, making him the rightful monarch, representing the House of Valois, authentically appointed by God, against John of Lancaster, whom enemy arms had imposed, and against the irresponsible signature of a mad king.
For the fifth centennial of the campaign, and in the context of the canonization of Joan of Arc, a series of plaques was mounted on the route that Joan followed to retake Reims and crown the king.
Joan of Arc, nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" or "Maid of Lorraine", is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War, and was canonized as a saint. She was born to Jacques d'Arc and Isabelle Romée, a peasant family, at Domrémy in the Vosges of northeast France. Joan said that she received visions of the archangel Michael, Saint Margaret, and Saint Catherine of Alexandria instructing her to support Charles VII and recover France from English domination late in the Hundred Years' War. The as-yet-unanointed King Charles VII sent Joan to the siege of Orléans as part of a relief army. She gained prominence after the siege was lifted only nine days later. Several additional swift victories led to Charles VII's consecration at Reims. This long-awaited event boosted French morale and paved the way for the final French victory at Castillon in 1453.
Reims is the most populous city in the department of Marne. Its population in 2013 was 182,592 in the city proper and 317,611 in the surrounding metropolitan area, making Reims the most populated sub-prefecture in France. The city lies 129 km (80 mi) east-northeast of Paris. Its primary river, the Vesle, is a tributary of the Aisne.
The siege of Orléans was the watershed of the Hundred Years' War between France and England. It was the French royal army's first major military victory to follow the crushing defeat at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, and also the first while Joan of Arc was with the army. The siege took place at the pinnacle of English power during the later stages of the war. The city held strategic and symbolic significance to both sides of the conflict. The consensus among contemporaries was that the English regent, John of Lancaster, would have succeeded in realizing his brother the English king Henry V's dream of conquering all of France if Orléans fell. For half a year the English and their French allies appeared to be winning, but the siege collapsed nine days after Joan's arrival.
Charles VII, called the Victorious or the Well-Served, was King of France from 1422 to his death in 1461.
Charles VI, called the Beloved and later the Mad, was King of France from 1380 until his death in 1422. He is known for his mental illness and psychotic episodes which plagued him throughout his life. Charles's reign would see his army crushed at the Battle of Agincourt, leading to the signing of the Treaty of Troyes, which made his future son-in-law Henry V of England his regent and heir to the throne of France. However, Henry would die shortly before Charles, which gave the House of Valois the chance to continue the fight against the English, leading to their eventual victory and the end of the Hundred Years' War in 1453.
The Treaty of Troyes was an agreement that King Henry V of England and his heirs would inherit the French throne upon the death of King Charles VI of France. It was formally signed in the French city of Troyes on 21 May 1420 in the aftermath of Henry's successful military campaign in France. It forms a part of the backdrop of the latter phase of the Hundred Years' War finally won by the French at the Battle of Castillon in 1453, and in which various English kings tried to establish their claims to the French throne.
Pierre Cauchon was Bishop of Beauvais from 1420 to 1432. A strong partisan of English interests in France during the latter years of the Hundred Years' War, his role in arranging the execution of Joan of Arc led most subsequent observers to condemn his extension of secular politics into an ecclesiastical trial. The Catholic Church overturned his verdict in 1456 and he was excommunicated posthumously in 1457.
Isabeau of Bavaria was queen of France between 1385 and 1422. She was born into the House of Wittelsbach as the only daughter of Duke Stephen III of Bavaria-Ingolstadt and Taddea Visconti of Milan. At age 15 or 16, Isabeau was sent to the young King Charles VI of France; the couple wed three days after their first meeting.
Yolande of Aragon was Duchess of Anjou and Countess of Provence by marriage, who acted as regent of Provence during the minority of her son. She was a daughter of John I of Aragon and his wife Yolande of Bar. Yolande played a crucial role in the struggles between France and England, influencing events such as the financing of Joan of Arc's army in 1429 that helped tip the balance in favour of the French. She was also known as Yolanda de Aragón and Violant d'Aragó. Tradition holds that she commissioned the famous Rohan Hours.
Jean de Brosse (1375–1433), Lord of Boussac, Sainte-Sévère and Huriel, was a councillor and chamberlain to Charles VII of France; he was made a Marshal of France in 1426.
The Burgundian party was a political allegiance against France that formed during the latter half of the Hundred Years' War. The term "Burgundians" refers to the supporters of the Duke of Burgundy, John the Fearless, that formed after the assassination of Louis I, Duke of Orléans. Their opposition to the Armagnac party, the supporters of Charles, Duke of Orléans, led to a civil war in the early 15th Century, itself part of the larger Hundred Years' War.
The siege of Compiègne (1430) was conducted by Duke Philip III of Burgundy after the town of Compiègne had refused to transfer allegiance to him under the terms of a treaty with Charles VII. The siege is perhaps best known for Joan of Arc's capture by Burgundian troops while accompanying an Armagnac force during a skirmish outside the town on 23 May 1430. Although this was otherwise a minor siege, both politically and militarily, and ultimately ended in a defeat for the Burgundians, the capture of Joan of Arc was an important event of the Hundred Years' War.
The Lancastrian War was the third and final phase of the Anglo-French Hundred Years' War. It lasted from 1415, when King Henry V of England invaded Normandy, to 1453, when the English lost Bordeaux. It followed a long period of peace from the end of the Caroline War in 1389. The phase was named after the House of Lancaster, the ruling house of the Kingdom of England, to which Henry V belonged.
Events from the 1420s in England.
Guy XIV de Laval, François de Montfort-Laval,, comte de Laval, baron de Vitré and of La Roche-Bernard, seigneur of Gâvre, of Acquigny, of Tinténiac, of Montfort and Gaël, of Bécherel, was a French nobleman, known for his account of Joan of Arc. He and his brother André de Lohéac were simultaneously vassals of the duke of Brittany and of the king of France.
The Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War was a conflict between two cadet branches of the French royal family — the House of Orléans and the House of Burgundy from 1407 to 1435. It began during a lull in the Hundred Years' War against the English and overlapped with the Western Schism of the papacy.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts between the kingdoms of England and France during the Late Middle Ages. It originated from disputed claims to the French throne between the English royal House of Plantagenet and the French royal House of Valois. Over time, the war grew into a broader power struggle involving factions from across Western Europe, fueled by emerging nationalism on both sides.
The dual monarchy of England and France existed during the latter phase of the Hundred Years' War when Charles VII of France and Henry VI of England disputed the succession to the throne of France. It commenced on 21 October 1422 upon the death of King Charles VI of France, who had signed the Treaty of Troyes which gave the French crown to his son-in-law Henry V of England and Henry's heirs. It excluded King Charles's son, the Dauphin Charles, who by right of primogeniture was the heir to the Kingdom of France. Although the Treaty was ratified by the Estates-General of France, the act was a contravention of the French law of succession which decreed that the French crown could not be alienated. Henry VI, son of Henry V, became king of both England and France and was recognized only by the English and Burgundians until 1435 as King Henry II of France. He was crowned King of France on 16 December 1431.
Chivalry and Betrayal: The Hundred Years' War is a 2013 documentary television series written and presented by cultural historian Dr. Janina Ramirez looking at a time when the ruling classes of England and France were bound together by shared sets of values, codes of behaviour and language for three hundred years that ended with the Hundred Years' War when chivalry ended with the devastating warfare of cannon and betrayal between rulers when England lost her French possessions. It was originally broadcast by the BBC in February 2013.
Events from the year 1429 in France