Margaret III, Countess of Flanders

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Margaret III
Countess of Flanders
Flemish School - Lille - Margaret of Dampierre.jpg
Margaret of Dampierre, Countess of Flanders
Born(1350-04-13)13 April 1350
Male Castle, West Flanders, Belgium
Died16 March 1405(1405-03-16) (aged 54)
Arras, Artois, France.
Noble family Dampierre
Spouse(s)
Issue
Father Louis II, Count of Flanders
Mother Margaret of Brabant
Religion Roman Catholicism

Margaret III (13 April 1350 16/21 March 1405) was the last countess of Flanders of the House of Dampierre, as well as countess of Artois and Burgundy (as Margaret II).

Contents

Biography

Margaret was the only surviving child and heir of Count Louis II of Flanders (13461384) and Margaret of Brabant. [1] In 1355, [2] Margaret of Flanders married Philip of Rouvres, [3] grandson and heir of Odo IV, Duke of Burgundy. Philip was Count of Burgundy and Artois (13471361), Duke of Burgundy (13501361), and became Count of Auvergne and Boulogne (13601361).

Following Philip's death from a riding accident in 1361, [4] Margaret was widowed and had no issue by him. King John II of France then claimed the Duchy of Burgundy for the kingdom of France. [4] In 1364, Philip the Bold, King John's youngest son, was granted the duchy, [5] and subsequently married Margaret. [6] Margaret's second marriage to Philip the Bold took place in 1369. [7]

When Margaret's father, the Count of Flanders, died in 1384, she and Philip inherited the counties of Artois, Burgundy, Flanders, Nevers, and Rethel. [8] Philip died in 1404, and Margaret died the following year. With her death, the House of Dampierre came to an end, and the County of Flanders lost its (relative) independence to Burgundy. It came under the rule of her son, John the Fearless, and later to the House of Habsburg.

Issue

Margaret and Philip had the following children:

Legacy

The main line of the House of Dampierre ended with Margaret III. The Dampierres, originally only counts of Flanders, had through a clever marriage policy managed to inherit the counties of Nevers (1280) and Rethel (1328). Through her grandmother, a daughter of King Philip V of France, the counties of Artois and Burgundy (the "Franche Comté") were added to this (1382). These lands were to provide the core of the dominions of the House of Valois-Burgundy, which were, together with the Duchy of Burgundy, to provide them with a power base to challenge the rule of their cousins, the Valois kings of France in the 15th century.

Her eldest son, John the Fearless, succeeded her husband in 1404 as Duke of Burgundy and her as Count of Burgundy, Count of Artois, and Count of Flanders. In 1406 her younger son Anthony inherited Brabant and Limburg. Nevers and Rethel were at first, in her lifetime, given to her eldest sons John (Nevers) and Anthony (Rethel), but after John's accession to the duchy, Nevers went to her youngest son Philip. Rethel was given to Philip in 1402 when it became clear that Anthony would inherit Brabant.

Residences

The Chateau de Germolles Vue aerienne de Germolles.jpg
The Château de Germolles

In Burgundy, the Château de Germolles, offered to Margaret of Flanders by Philip the Bold in 1381, was transformed by the Duchess of Burgundy into a sumptuous country estate. It was a large rectangular building, surrounded by a moat, that enclosed a courtyard. The south and east wings contained the living apartments, while the west wing held the reception rooms. Margaret, being energetic and a country lover, decided to develop at the estate some rustic activities that would create a pleasant environment around this favourite residence of hers, as well as developing local agriculture and providing some income for the maintenance of the domain. Thus, she planted a large rose garden, and the petals were sent to Flanders to be used to make rose water. Largely preserved, the Château is today one of the best examples of the princely residences in France at the end of the Middle Ages.

Ancestry

Related Research Articles

Philip the Bold Duke of Burgundy

Philip the Bold was Duke of Burgundy and jure uxoris Count of Flanders, Artois and Burgundy. The fourth and youngest son of King John II of France and his wife, Bonne of Luxembourg, Philip was the founder of the Burgundian branch of the House of Valois. His vast collection of territories made him the undisputed premier peer of the kingdom of France and made his successors formidable subjects, and later rivals, of the kings of France.

The count of Flanders was the ruler or sub-ruler of the county of Flanders, beginning in the 9th century. The title was held for a time by the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire and Spain. During the French Revolution in 1790, the county of Flanders was annexed to France and ceased to exist. In the 19th century, the title was appropriated by Belgium and granted twice to younger sons of Belgian kings. The most recent holder died in 1983.

County of Burgundy countship

The Free County of Burgundy was a medieval county of the Holy Roman Empire, within the modern region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, whose name is still reminiscent of the title of its count: Freigraf. It should not be confused with the more westerly Duchy of Burgundy, a fiefdom of Francia since 843.

Duchy of Burgundy Vassal territory of France, 918–1482

The Duchy of Burgundy emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the ancient Kingdom of the Burgundians, which after its conquest in 532 had formed a constituent part of the Frankish Empire. Upon the 9th-century partitions, the French remnants of the Burgundian kingdom were reduced to a ducal rank by King Robert II of France in 1004. Robert II's son and heir, King Henry I of France, inherited the duchy but ceded it to his younger brother Robert in 1032. Other portions had passed to the Imperial Kingdom of Arles and the County of Burgundy (Franche-Comté).

Philip the Good 15th-century Duke of Burgundy

Philip the Good was Duke of Burgundy from 1419 until his death. He was a member of a cadet line of the Valois dynasty, to which all the 15th-century kings of France belonged. During his reign, the Burgundian State reached the apex of its prosperity and prestige and became a leading center of the arts. Philip is known in history for his administrative reforms, his patronage of Flemish artists such as Jan van Eyck and Franco-Flemish composers such as Gilles Binchois, and the capture of Joan of Arc. In political affairs, he alternated between alliances with the English and the French in an attempt to improve his dynasty's position. As ruler of Flanders, Brabant, Limburg, Artois, Hainaut, Holland, Luxembourg, Zeeland, Friesland and Namur, he played an important role in the history of the Low Countries.

Philip I, Duke of Burgundy Duke of Burgundy

Philip of Rouvres was the Count of Burgundy and Count of Artois from 1347, Duke of Burgundy from 1349, and Count of Auvergne and Boulogne from 1360. He was the only son of Philip, heir to the Duchy of Burgundy, and Joan I, heiress of Auvergne and Boulogne.

Anthony, Duke of Brabant Dutch noble

Anthony, Duke of Brabant, also known as Antoine de Brabant, Antoine de Bourgogne and Anthony of Burgundy, was Count of Rethel (1402–1406), Duke of Brabant, Lothier and Limburg (1406–1415), and Co-Duke of Luxemburg (1411-1415). He was killed at the battle of Agincourt.

County of Artois countship

The County of Artois was a historic province of the Kingdom of France, held by the Dukes of Burgundy from 1384 until 1477/82, and a state of the Holy Roman Empire from 1493 until 1659.

Burgundian Netherlands The Netherlands from 1384 to 1482

In the history of the Low Countries, the Burgundian Netherlands were a number of Imperial and French fiefs ruled in personal union by the House of Valois-Burgundy in the period from 1384 to 1482 and later their Habsburg heirs. They constituted the Northern part of the Burgundian State. The area comprised the major parts of present-day Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg and Hauts-de-France.

This is a list of counts and dukes of Rethel. The first counts of Rethel ruled independently, before the county passed first to the Counts of Nevers, then to the Counts of Flanders, and finally to the Dukes of Burgundy. In 1405 the County became part of the Peerage of France, and in 1581 it was elevated to a duchy. In 1663 it became the Duchy of Mazarin.

Louis II, Count of Flanders Count of Flanders, Nevers and Rethel

Louis II, also known as Louis of Male, a member of the House of Dampierre, was count of Flanders, Nevers and Rethel from 1346 as well as count of Artois and Burgundy from 1382 until his death.

Philip I, Duke of Brabant Count of Ligny and Saint-Pol

Philip I, Duke of Brabant, also known as Philip of Saint Pol, was the younger son of Antoine, Duke of Brabant and Jeanne of Saint-Pol, and succeeded his brother John IV as Duke of Brabant in 1427. He had already been given Saint-Pol and Ligny as an appanage on the death of his grandfather, Waleran III of Luxembourg, Count of Ligny, in 1415 at the Battle of Agincourt.

Burgundian Circle imperial circle of the Holy Roman Empire

The Burgundian Circle was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire created in 1512 and significantly enlarged in 1548. In addition to the Free County of Burgundy, the Burgundian Circle roughly covered the Low Countries, i.e., the areas now known as the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg and adjacent parts in the French administrative region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais.

Margaret I, Countess of Burgundy Countess Palatine of Burgundy

Margaret I, was a ruling Countess Palatine of Burgundy and Artois from 1361 and 1382. She was also countess of Flanders, Nevers and Rethel by marriage to Louis I, Count of Flanders, and regent of Flanders during the minority of her son Louis II, Count of Flanders in 1346.

Joan I, Countess of Auvergne Countess of Auvergne and Boulogne

Joan I of Auvergne was ruling Countess of Auvergne and Boulogne in 1332–1360, and Queen of France by her marriage to King John II.

Margaret of Bavaria Duchess consort of Burgundy

Margaret of Bavaria,, was Duchess of Burgundy by marriage to John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy. She was the regent of the Burgundian Low countries during the absence of her spouse in 1404–1419 and the regent in French Burgundy during the absence of her son in 1419–1423. She became most known for her successful defense of French Burgundy against John IV, Count of Armagnac in 1419.

House of Valois-Burgundy noble family

The House of Valois-Burgundy, or the Younger House of Burgundy, was a noble French family deriving from the royal House of Valois. It is distinct from the Capetian House of Burgundy, descendants of King Robert II of France, though both houses stem from the Capetian dynasty. They ruled the Duchy of Burgundy from 1363 to 1482 and later came to rule vast lands including Artois, Flanders, Luxembourg, Hainault, the county palatine of Burgundy (Franche-Comté), and other lands through marriage, forming what is now known as the Burgundian State.

Burgundian inheritance in the Low Countries

The Burgundian inheritance in the Low Countries consisted of numerous fiefs held by the Dukes of Burgundy in modern-day Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg. The Duke of Burgundy was a member of the House of Valois-Burgundy and, after 1482, of the House of Habsburg. Given that the Dukes of Burgundy lost Burgundy proper to the Kingdom of France in 1477, and were never able to recover it, they moved their court to the Low Countries. The Burgundian Low Countries were ultimately expanded to include Seventeen Provinces under Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. The Burgundian inheritance then passed to Philip II of Spain, whose rule was contested by the Dutch revolt, and fragmented into the Spanish Netherlands and the Dutch republic.

House of Dampierre noble dynasty

The Dampierre family played an important role during the Middle Ages. Named after Dampierre, in the Champagne region, where members first became prominent, members of the family were later Count of Flanders, Count of Nevers, Counts and Dukes of Rethel, Count of Artois and Count of Franche-Comté.

Burgundian State Historical government in what is now France and the Netherlands

The Burgundian State is a concept coined by historians to describe the vast complex of territories that is also referred to as Valois Burgundy. It developed in the Late Middle Ages under the rule of the dukes of Burgundy from the French House of Valois and was composed of both French and imperial fiefs. That territorial construction outlasted the properly 'Burgundian' dynasty and the loss of the Duchy of Burgundy itself. As such, it must not be confused with that sole fief.

References

  1. Sergio Boffa, Warfare in Medieval Brabant, 1356-1406, (Boydell & Brewer, 2004), xvii.
  2. Wim Blockmans and Walter Prevenier, The Promised Lands: The Low Countries Under Burgundian Rule, 1369-1530, transl. Elizabeth Fackelman, ed. Edward Peters, (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999), 13.
  3. David M Nicholas, Medieval Flanders, (Routledge, 1992), 225-226, 442.
  4. 1 2 W. Mark Ormrod, Edward III, (Yale University Press, 2011), 417
  5. Richard Vaughan, Philip the Bold: The Formation of the Burgundian State, Vol. 1, (The Boydell Press, 2005), 152
  6. Mapping Family Lines: A Late Fifteenth Century Example of Genealogical Display, Charlotte Bauer-Smith, Reputation and Representation in Fifteenth Century Europe, ed. Douglas L. Biggs, Sharon D. Michalove, Albert Compton Reeves, (Brill, 2004), 130.
  7. Wim Blockmans, Walter Prevenier, The Promised Lands: The Low Countries Under Burgundian Rule, 1369-1530, ed. Edward Peters, transl. Elizabeth Fackelman, (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1988), 1.
  8. Duchy of Burgundy, Cathal J. Nolan, The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization, Vol. 1, (Greenwood Publishing, 2006), 100.
Margaret III, Countess of Flanders
Born: 13 April 1350 Died: 21 March 1405
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Louis of Mâle
Countess of Flanders, Artois and Nevers
Countess Palatine of Burgundy

1384–1405
Succeeded by
John the Fearless
Countess of Rethel
1384–1402
Succeeded by
Anthony
French nobility
Preceded by
Joan III of Burgundy
Duchess consort of Burgundy
1357–1404
Succeeded by
Margaret of Bavaria