Margaret of Denmark, Queen of Scotland

Last updated

Margaret of Denmark
Margaret of Scotland (1469) by Hugo van der Goes.jpg
Margaret depicted in the Trinity Altarpiece by Hugo van der Goes, c. 1480
Queen consort of Scotland
TenureJuly 1469 – 14 July 1486
Born23 June 1456
Copenhagen Castle, Copenhagen, Denmark
Died14 July 1486(1486-07-14) (aged 30)
Stirling Castle, Stirling, Scotland
Burial
Spouse
(m. 1469)
Issue James IV of Scotland
James, Duke of Ross
John, Earl of Mar
House Oldenburg
Father Christian I of Denmark
Mother Dorothea of Brandenburg
Religion Roman Catholic
Modern grave of Queen Margaret at Cambuskenneth Abbey The grave of King James III and Queen Margaret, Cambuskenneth Abbey.jpg
Modern grave of Queen Margaret at Cambuskenneth Abbey

Margaret of Denmark (23 June 1456 – 14 July 1486) was Queen of Scotland from 1469 to 1486 by marriage to King James III. She was the daughter of Christian I, King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and Dorothea of Brandenburg.

Contents

Life

Margaret was born in Denmark to King Christian I and Queen Dorothea of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Not much is known about her upbringing. By the time she was four years old there were talks about her marriage to the Scottish Prince James. [1] In 1468 Margaret was betrothed to James of Scotland as a means to stop a feud regarding the debt Scotland owed Denmark over the taxation of the Hebrides and Isle of Man. The marriage was arranged on the recommendation of king Charles VII of France. In July 1469, at the age of 13 she married James III at Holyrood Abbey. Upon their marriage all of the Scottish debt was cancelled. [1] William Sinclair, 1st Earl of Caithness, was at that time the Norse Earl of Orkney. In 1472 he was made to exchange his Orkney fief for Ravenscraig Castle, so the Scottish throne took the earl's rights to the islands too.[ citation needed ]

Queen Margaret was given the largest jointure allowed by Scottish law in her marriage settlement - one third of the royal revenues, together with Linlithgow Palace and Doune Castle. She was interested in clothes and jewellery, and known for always being dressed in the latest fashions of the time. [2] Following the birth of her son James, in 1473 she went on a pilgrimage to Whithorn and then rejoined the king at Falkland Palace. [3] She may have taught her son James to speak Danish. She became a popular queen in Scotland and was described as beautiful, gentle, and sensible. [4]

The relationship between Margaret and James III was not described as a happy one. Reportedly, she was not very fond of her husband and had intercourse with him only for procreation, though she did respect his position as a monarch. [2] One reason for their estrangement was the fact that James favoured their second son over their eldest. [2] In 1476, James had decided that he wanted the Earldom of Ross for his second son and accused John MacDonald, the Earl, of treason. Macdonald was then put on trial before the Parliament, but upon Margaret's request he was allowed to remain as Lord of Parliament. [2] During the crisis of 1482, when James III was deprived of power by his brother for several months, Margaret was said to have shown more interest in the welfare of her children than her spouse, which led to a permanent estrangement. [2] Politically, she worked for the reinstatement of her spouse in his powers as monarch during this incident. [2] After the crisis of 1482, the couple lived apart: James III lived in Edinburgh, while queen Margaret preferred to live in Stirling with her children. [2]

Death

Margaret died at Stirling Castle on 14 July 1486 after falling ill, and was buried in Cambuskenneth Abbey. [5] Her husband, James III, was interred with her after his death in 1488. The abbey has mostly been reduced to ruins, apart from its bell-tower, which is still standing today. The grave was enclosed and restored in 1865 at the expense of their descendant, Queen Victoria. [6]

A story told by her son claims that Margaret was killed by poison given to her by John Ramsay, 1st Lord Bothwell, leader of one of the political factions. [4] As he was still favoured by the royal family after her death, this is doubtful and maybe slanderous, although he did know poisons. [4]

Jewels and costume

Records of costume and fabric bought for Margaret of Denmark survive in the accounts of the Lord Treasurers of Scotland. [7] Fabrics and fur were bought by her chamber and wardrobe servants, Andrew Balfour, Caldwell, and Sandris Wardrop (Sanders of the Wardrobe), from merchants and shopkeepers in Edinburgh including Isobel Williamson, Thomas Yare, and Sandy Turing. Shoes were made by Hud, described as a "souter". A skinner in Stirling made leather gloves. [8] Garments made in 1473 and 1474 include gowns of blue velvet and red satin, cloaks, a kirtle of green damask, a riding gown, "stomaks" made of satin lined with ermine, "bonnets of tire", "turrets" (veils), tippets and collars of velvet trimmed with fur. Gowns were also bought for the six gentlewomen of her chamber. [9]

An inventory of a chest or "kist" and a coffer called a "gardeviant" from Stirling Castle containing some of the jewels of Margaret of Denmark was made in 1488 following the battle of Sauchieburn. The contents included belts of cloth of gold and crimson fabric with gold fittings. [10] There were rosaries and gold chains, a collar of chalcedony with a pendant including a container of musk perfume, a pearl "fret" (a hair net), a swan collar, a small bag with nine unset precious stones, and a bag of lavender. There was a serpent tongue (a fossilized shark's tooth thought to be a safeguard against poison) and a piece of a unicorn horn set in gold, probably used to assay food at meals. She also owned a ring set with a "paddock stone", a toadstone also valued as an antidote to poison. There was a book of gold leaf for gilding, and purple bed curtains and a counterpane embroidered with thistles and unicorns. She had a pendant fashioned as her initial "M" set in diamonds with a great pearl. [11]

Issue

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">James V of Scotland</span> King of Scotland from 1513 to 1542

James V was King of Scotland from 9 September 1513 until his death in 1542. He was crowned on 21 September 1513 at the age of seventeen months. James was the son of King James IV and Margaret Tudor, and during his childhood Scotland was governed by regents, firstly by his mother until she remarried, and then by his second cousin, John, Duke of Albany. James's personal rule began in 1528 when he finally escaped the custody of his stepfather, Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus. His first action was to exile Angus and confiscate the lands of the Douglases.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Margaret Tudor</span> Scottish Queen consort; daughter of King Henry VII of England

Margaret Tudor was Queen of Scotland from 1503 until 1513 by marriage to King James IV. She then served as regent of Scotland during her son's minority, and successfully fought to extend her regency. Margaret was the eldest daughter and second child of King Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, and the elder sister of King Henry VIII of England.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mary of Guise</span> French noblewoman and queen of Scotland (r. 1554-60)

Mary of Guise, also called Mary of Lorraine, was a French noblewoman of the House of Guise, a cadet branch of the House of Lorraine and one of the most powerful families in France. She was Queen of Scotland from 1538 until 1542, as the second wife of King James V. As the mother of Mary, Queen of Scots, she was a key figure in the political and religious upheaval that marked mid-16th-century Scotland, ruling the kingdom as regent on behalf of her daughter from 1554 until her death in 1560.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">James III of Scotland</span> King of Scots (1460 to 1488)

James III was King of Scots from 1460 until his death at the Battle of Sauchieburn in 1488. He inherited the throne as a child following the death of his father, King James II, at the siege of Roxburgh Castle. James III's reign began with a minority that lasted almost a decade, during which Scotland was governed by a series of regents and factions who struggled for possession of the young king, before his personal rule began in 1469.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Linlithgow Palace</span> Ruined palace in Scotland

The ruins of Linlithgow Palace are located in the town of Linlithgow, West Lothian, Scotland, 15 miles (24 km) west of Edinburgh. The palace was one of the principal residences of the monarchs of Scotland in the 15th and 16th centuries. Although maintained after Scotland's monarchs left for England in 1603, the palace was little used, and was burned out in 1746. It is now a visitor attraction in the care of Historic Environment Scotland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Madeleine of Valois</span> Queen consort of Scotland

Madeleine of Valois was a French princess who briefly became Queen of Scotland in 1537 as the first wife of King James V. The marriage was arranged in accordance with the Treaty of Rouen, and they were married at Notre-Dame de Paris in January 1537, despite French reservations over her failing health. Madeleine died in July 1537, only six months after the wedding and less than two months after arriving in Scotland, resulting in her nickname, the "Summer Queen".

Margaret Drummond was a daughter of John Drummond, 1st Lord Drummond, and a mistress of King James IV of Scotland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">George Home, 1st Earl of Dunbar</span>

George Home, 1st Earl of Dunbar, KG, PC was, in the last decade of his life, the most prominent and most influential Scotsman in England. His work lay in the King's Household and in the control of the State Affairs of Scotland and he was the King's chief Scottish advisor. With the full backing and trust of King James he travelled regularly from London to Edinburgh via Berwick-upon-Tweed.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mary of Guelders</span> Queen consort of Scotland

Mary of Guelders was Queen of Scotland by marriage to King James II of Scotland. She ruled as regent of Scotland from 1460 to 1463.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yolande of Dreux, Queen of Scotland</span> Countess of Montfort

Yolande of Dreux was a sovereign Countess of Montfort from 1311 until 1322. Through her first marriage to Alexander III of Scotland, Yolande became the Queen consort of the Kingdom of Scotland. Through her second marriage to Arthur II, Duke of Brittany, she became Duchess Consort of Brittany.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Anabella Drummond</span> Queen consort of Scotland

Anabella Drummond was the Queen of Scotland by marriage to King Robert III of Scotland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Margaret of England</span> 13th-century English princess and Queen of Scotland

Margaret of England was Queen of Scots by marriage to King Alexander III.

Margaret Stewart was the younger daughter of James II of Scotland and Mary of Guelders. Once engaged to the Lancastrian Prince of Wales, Margaret instead became the mistress of William Crichton, 3rd Lord Crichton, and the mother of his illegitimate daughter, Margaret Crichton, later Countess of Rothes, and possibly his son, Sir James Crichton, progenitor of the Viscounts of Frendraught. Margaret and Lord Crichton may have been married later, after the death of Crichton's wife.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Scottish royal tapestry collection</span>

The Scottish royal tapestry collection was a group of tapestry hangings assembled to decorate the palaces of sixteenth-century kings and queens of Scotland.

Annabell Murray, Countess of Mar (1536–1603), was a Scottish landowner, courtier and royal servant, the keeper of the infant James VI and his son Prince Henry at Stirling Castle

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jacob Kroger</span> German goldsmith and thief

Jacob Kroger, was a German goldsmith who worked for Anne of Denmark in Scotland and stole her jewels.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Magdalen Livingstone</span>

Magdalen Livingstone was a Scottish courtier. She was a favoured lady-in-waiting to Mary, Queen of Scots, and later belonged to the household of Prince Henry.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Peter Sanderson (tailor)</span>

Peter Sanderson was an Edinburgh tailor who worked for Anne of Denmark wife of James VI of Scotland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Margaret Seton</span>

Margaret Seton, Lady Paisley was a Scottish aristocrat, courtier and a favourite of Anne of Denmark.

Alexander Durham was a Scottish courtier and administrator.

References

  1. 1 2 "Margaret of Denmark, Queen of Scots". The Freelance History Writer. 4 December 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Elizabeth Ewan, Sue Innes and Sian Reynolds, The Biographical Dictionary of Scottish Women: From Earliest Times to 2004 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2006). ISBN   978-0748617135.
  3. Thomas Dickson, Accounts of the Treasurer, vol. 1 (Edinburgh, 1877), pp. 29, 44.
  4. 1 2 3 "121 (Dansk biografisk Lexikon / XI. Bind. Maar – Müllner)". Runeberg.org. Retrieved 5 January 2011.
  5. Henderson 1893.
  6. Grave inscription of King James III
  7. The Wardrobe of Margaret of Denmark, Queen of Scotland, Susan Abernethy
  8. Rosalind Marshall, Scottish Queens, 1034–1714 (John Donald, 2007), pp. 75–77.
  9. Thomas Dickson, Accounts of the Treasurer, vol. 1 (Edinburgh, 1877), pp. 29–39.
  10. Rosalind Marshall, Scottish Queens, 1034–1714 (John Donald, 2007), pp. 77–78.
  11. Thomas Dickson, Accounts of the Treasurer, vol. 1 (Edinburgh, 1877), pp. 83–85: Thomas Thomson, A Collection of Royal Inventories (Edinburgh, 1815), pp. 8–11
Attribution

Wikisource-logo.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Henderson, Thomas Finlayson (1893). "Margaret (1457?-1486)". In Lee, Sidney (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography . Vol. 36. London: Smith, Elder & Co.

Scottish royalty
Preceded by Queen consort of Scotland
1469–1486
Succeeded by