Margaret of England, Duchess of Brabant

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Margaret of England
Margaret, Duchess of Brabant.jpg
Depiction of Margaret on the family tree. Her sister Mary of Woodstock was a nun; she can be seen at the right.
Duchess of Brabant, Lothier and Limburg
Reign3 May 1294 – 27 October 1312
Born15 March 1275
Windsor Castle, Berkshire
Diedaft. 1333 (aged c. 58)
Belgium
Burial
Spouse
John II, Duke of Brabant
(m. 1290;died 1312)
Issue John III, Duke of Brabant
House Plantagenet
Father Edward I Longshanks
Mother Eleanor of Castile

Margaret of England (15 March 1275 after 1333) was the tenth child and seventh daughter of King Edward I of England and his first wife, Eleanor of Castile. Her husband was John II, Duke of Brabant, whom she married in 1290, the year of her mother's death. Margaret and John had one child, John III, Duke of Brabant.

Edward I of England 13th and 14th-century King of England and Duke of Aquitaine

Edward I, also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots, was King of England from 1272 to 1307. Before his accession to the throne, he was commonly referred to as The Lord Edward. The first son of Henry III, Edward was involved early in the political intrigues of his father's reign, which included an outright rebellion by the English barons. In 1259, he briefly sided with a baronial reform movement, supporting the Provisions of Oxford. After reconciliation with his father, however, he remained loyal throughout the subsequent armed conflict, known as the Second Barons' War. After the Battle of Lewes, Edward was hostage to the rebellious barons, but escaped after a few months and joined the fight against Simon de Montfort. Montfort was defeated at the Battle of Evesham in 1265, and within two years the rebellion was extinguished. With England pacified, Edward joined the Ninth Crusade to the Holy Land. The crusade accomplished little, and Edward was on his way home in 1272 when he was informed that his father had died. Making a slow return, he reached England in 1274 and was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 19 August.

Eleanor of Castile 13th-century Spanish princess and queen of England

Eleanor of Castile was an English queen consort, the first wife of Edward I, whom she married as part of a political deal to affirm English sovereignty over Gascony.

John II, Duke of Brabant 13th and 14th-century duke of Brabant

John II van Brabant, also called John the Peaceful, was Duke of Brabant, Lothier and Limburg (1294–1312). He was the son of John I of Brabant and Margaretha of Flanders, daughter of Guy of Dampierre.

Contents

Family

Margaret was born on 15 March 1275, [1] at Windsor Castle, the tenth child of King Edward I and his cousin Eleanor of Castile.

Windsor Castle Royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire

Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire. It is notable for its long association with the English and later British royal family and for its architecture.

Margaret's fifteen siblings included Joan of Acre, Eleanor, Countess of Bar, Elizabeth of Rhuddlan and her father's successor, Edward II of England.

Joan of Acre 13th and 14th-century English princess and noblewoman

Joan of Acre was an English princess, a daughter of King Edward I of England and Queen Eleanor of Castile. The name "Acre" derives from her birthplace in the Holy Land while her parents were on a crusade.

Eleanor of England, Countess of Bar 13th-century English princess and countess of Bar

Eleanor of England was an English princess, the eldest surviving daughter of King Edward I of England and his first wife, Queen Eleanor of Castile.

Elizabeth of Rhuddlan 14th-century English princess and noblewoman

Elizabeth of Rhuddlan was the eighth and youngest daughter of King Edward I and Queen Eleanor of Castile. Of all of her siblings, she was closest to her younger brother King Edward II, as they were only two years apart in age.

Marriage

On 8 July 1290 Margaret married John II, Duke of Brabant in Westminster Abbey, London, becoming Duchess of Brabant less than four years later on 3 May 1294. She had been acquainted with her groom since childhood, [2] as they had been betrothed in 1278 when she was three years old. Margaret's wedding festivities were splendidly extravagant; they included a procession of knights in full body armour and richly dressed ladies singing as they paraded through the streets of London to the music provided by harpers, minstrels and violinists, while fools danced. [3] Their only child was John III, Duke of Brabant, successor to his father.

Westminster Abbey Church in London

Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is one of the United Kingdom's most notable religious buildings and the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and, later, British monarchs. The building itself was a Benedictine monastic church until the monastery was dissolved in 1539. Between 1540 and 1556, the abbey had the status of a cathedral. Since 1560, the building is no longer an abbey or a cathedral, having instead the status of a Church of England "Royal Peculiar"—a church responsible directly to the sovereign.

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital and largest city of the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

John III, Duke of Brabant Duke of Brabant

John III was Duke of Brabant, Lothier, and Limburg (1312–1355). He was the son of John II, Duke of Brabant, and Margaret of England.

Margaret, described as having been a good-natured, merry child in her youth, [3] was unhappy at the Brabant court, as she was forced to accept her husband's perennial succession of mistresses and the illegitimate children they bore him, [3] all of whom were raised at court alongside her own son John. The latter was her only child, born 10 years into her marriage to the Duke.

During the reign of John II, Brabant continued supporting a coalition to stop French expansion. He tried to conquer South Holland from the pro-French count John II of Holland, but was not successful. John, who suffered from kidney stones and wanted his duchy to be peacefully handed over to his son upon his death, in 1312 signed the famous Charter of Kortenberg.

Duchy of Brabant State of the Holy Roman Empire

The Duchy of Brabant was a State of the Holy Roman Empire established in 1183. It developed from the Landgraviate of Brabant and formed the heart of the historic Low Countries, part of the Burgundian Netherlands from 1430 and of the Habsburg Netherlands from 1482, until it was partitioned after the Dutch revolt.

Holland Region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands

Holland is a region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands. The name Holland is also frequently used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. This usage is commonly accepted in other countries, and sometimes employed by the Dutch themselves. However, some in the Netherlands, particularly those from regions outside Holland, may find it undesirable or misrepresentative to use the term for the whole country.

On September 27, 1312, the Duke of Brabant signed the Charter of Kortenberg that should better be referred to as a constitution. It was valid for the entire duchy of Brabant. From this charter originated a kind of "Parliament of Kortenberg" or a "Council of Kortenberg" or what was called an assembly of "The Lords of Kortenberg". With this Charter the Duchy of Brabant was the first state in the Low Countries or perhaps even the first state of Europe to give the estates the right for participation. Actually one of the first democratic decisions in feudal Europe.

Margaret and John attended the wedding of her brother Edward to Isabella of France in Boulogne on 25 January 1308. They accompanied the royal pair to England for their joint coronation at Westminster Abbey the following month.

Margaret died twenty-two years after her husband. She died in Brabant and was buried at Cathedral of St. Michael and St. Gudula, Brussels. She was the longest-living and last surviving of Edward I's nineteen children, dying in the reign of her nephew Edward III of England. Her tomb and that of her husband have been destroyed.

Ancestry

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References

  1. Richardson, Douglas, Everingham, Kimball G. (2004). Plantagenet Ancestry: a study in Colonial and Medieval Families. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company. Page 20. Google Books. Retrieved 25-11-10.
  2. Costain, Thomas B. (1958). The Three Edwards. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc. p.39
  3. 1 2 3 Costain, p.39
  4. Selby, Walford Dakin; Harwood, H. W. Forsyth; Murray, Keith W. (1895). The genealogist. London: George Bell & Sons. pp. 30–31.