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|Margaret of Parma|
Margaret of Parma by Antonio Moro, circa 1562 (detail)
|Duchess consort of Florence|
|Tenure||18 January 1536 – 6 January 1537|
|Duchess consort of Parma and Piacenza|
|Tenure||10 September 1547 – 18 January 1586|
|Born||5 July 1522|
|Died||18 January 1586 63) (aged|
|Spouse|| Alessandro, Duke of Florence |
Ottavio, Duke of Parma
Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma
|House||House of Habsburg|
|Father||Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor|
|Mother||Johanna Maria van der Gheynst|
Margaret of Parma (Italian : Margherita di Parma; 5 July 1522 – 18 January 1586) was Governor of the Netherlands from 1559 to 1567 and from 1578 to 1582. She was the illegitimate daughter of the then 22-year-old Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Johanna Maria van der Gheynst. She was a Duchess of Florence and a Duchess of Parma and Piacenza by marriage.
Margaret's mother, Johanna Maria van der Gheynst, a servant of Charles de Lalaing, Seigneur de Montigny, was a Fleming. Margaret was brought up in Mechelen,under the supervision of two powerful Spanish and Austrian Habsburg Imperial family relatives, her great-aunt, the Archduchess Margaret of Austria, and her aunt Mary of Austria, who were successive governors of the Netherlands from 1507 to 1530 and from 1530 to 1555, respectively.
Her early life followed a strict routine set forth by her father, Charles V, who used his daughter as part of his plans to secure his empire.
In 1527, the year she turned five, she became engaged to the nephew of Pope Clement VII, Alessandro de' Medici, Duke of Florence, to assist her father's ambition in gaining influence in Italy. The marriage negotiations had been initiated in 1526, and in 1529 the agreement was officially signed by her father and the Pope. In 1529, Margaret was acknowledged by her father and allowed to assume the name Margaret of Austria, and in 1533, the 11-year-old girl was brought to live in Italy and educated in the courts of Florence, Rome, and Parma.There, she was taught skills that helped her grow as an independent woman. As Margaret did not spend much time with her husband, she used this time to become exposed to the surrounding Italian culture. Though she was multi-lingual, she preferred the Italian language for the rest of her life.
In 1536, she married Alessandro, who was assassinated in 1537. On 4 November 1538, the 15-year-old widow married Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma, the 14-year-old grandson of Pope Paul III. At first she refused to marry him.Although the union proved an unhappy one, it gave her years of experience in Rome, and produced twin sons, one of whom died in infancy. She would continue her studies of the arts and politics while being married to Ottavio. The couple lived separately for much of their lives, and Margaret maintained her own court and chapel. She was in a somewhat difficult position, as the Pope and the Emperor argued about authority over Parma. In 1555, the Farnese family were acknowledged as rulers of Parma by Spain in exchange for the custody of her son.
In 1555, she left Italy for the Netherlands, where she left her son in the care of her half-brother Philip II. Philip appointed her Governor of the Netherlands when he left in 1559 for Spain. As governor, Margaret faced the rising storm of discontent against the Inquisition and Spanish despotism, and Philip had left her but nominal authority. He was determined to pursue his own arbitrary course, and the result was the revolt of the Netherlands. Margaret was forced to adjust herself to the advice of Cardinal Granvelle, Philip's choice for her chief councilor, who would grow to be greatly disliked in the Netherlands. After Granvelle's exile from the Netherlands in 1564, Margaret was forced to rely on the grandees in her Council.In 1565, an opposition party was formed from the Dutch nobility. Margaret received its complaints and, having no army to put down the dissenters, promised to stop religious repression. In 1566, Iconoclastic riots took place all over the Netherlands but she managed to quell them, with the help of her stadtholders Philip of Noircarmes (who subjugated the cities of Tournai and Valenciennes) in Hainaut and William of Orange in Holland . The next year, Philip sent her military help led by the Duke of Alba. Margaret warned Philip that actions by Alba would lead to catastrophe, but instead of trying to stop Alba, she resigned when she learned that Alba's power of attorney, granted by Philip, superseded her own.
In 1567 Margaret retired to L'Aquila in Italy. She was appointed Governor of Abruzzo,where she had inherited a domain from her late husband. She acted as the adviser to her son and to her royal bastard half-brother, John of Austria. In 1578, her son Alexander Farnese was appointed to the office of governor-general of the Netherlands; Philip appointed her his co-regent, intending that they would balance each other. However, they were unable to work together, and Margaret retired to Namur in 1582. She was given permission by Philip to return to Italy in 1583. She died in Ortona in 1586 and was buried in the church of S. Sisto in Piacenza.
Charlie R. Steen describes her as "a woman dedicated to compromise and conciliation in public affairs."
She had two sons with her second husband Ottavio:
Margaret of Austria, as Duchess of Florence and Parma, chose for her device a pearl shining from its shell, with the motto, Decus allatura coronae ("About to bring glory to the crown").
|Ancestors of Margaret of Parma|
siege of Valenciennes 1567., pp. 511-520
1586 (MDLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. As of the start of 1586, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar.
Alexander Farnese was an Italian noble and condottiero who was Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Castro from 1586 to 1592, as well as Governor of the Spanish Netherlands from 1578 to 1592. Thanks to a steady influx of troops from Spain, during 1581–1587 Farnese captured more than thirty towns in the south and returned them to the control of Catholic Spain. During the French Wars of Religion he relieved Paris for the Catholics. His talents as a field commander, strategist and organizer earned him the regard of his contemporaries and military historians as the first captain of his age.
Ottavio Farnese reigned as Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1547 until his death and Duke of Castro from 1545 to 1547 and from 1553 until his death.
Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, Comte de La Baume Saint Amour, was a Bisontin statesman, made a cardinal, who followed his father as a leading minister of the Spanish Habsburgs, and was one of the most influential European politicians during the time which immediately followed the appearance of Protestantism in Europe; "the dominating Imperial statesman of the whole century". He was also a notable art collector, the "greatest private collector of his time, the friend and patron of Titian and Leoni and many other artists".
The Duchy of Parma is a noble estate and title created in Italy in 1545. Originally a title of the Farnese family, in 1731, the Duchy passed to the Habsburgs and in 1748 to the Bourbons. The title is now held by a branch of the Bourbon-Parma family that are cousins of the monarch of the Netherlands.
Sir Anthonis Mor, also known as Anthonis Mor van Dashorst and Antonio Moro, was a Netherlandish portrait painter, much in demand by the courts of Europe. He has also been referred to as Antoon, Anthonius, Anthonis or Mor van Dashorst, and as Antonio Moro, Anthony More, etc., but signed most of his portraits as Anthonis Mor.
Margaret of Austria may refer to:
The Farnese family was an influential family in Renaissance Italy. The titles of Duke of Parma and Piacenza and Duke of Castro were held by various members of the family.
The Battle of Gembloux took place at Gembloux, near Namur, Low Countries, between the Spanish forces led by Don John of Austria, Governor-General of the Spanish Netherlands, and a rebel army composed of Dutch, Flemish, English, Scottish, German, French and Walloon soldiers under Antoine de Goignies, during the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604). On 31 January 1578 the Spanish cavalry commanded by John's nephew, Don Alexander Farnese, Prince of Parma, after pushing back the Netherlandish cavalry, attacked the Netherlandish army, causing an enormous panic amongst the rebel troops. The result was a crushing victory for the Spanish forces. The battle hastened the disintegration of the unity of the rebel provinces, and meant the end of the Union of Brussels.
Farnese may refer to:
Habsburg Netherlands, also referred to as Belgica or Flanders, is the collective name of Holy Roman Empire fiefs in the Low Countries held by the House of Habsburg. The rule began in 1482, when the last Valois-Burgundy ruler of the Netherlands, Mary, married Maximilian I of Austria. Their grandson, Emperor Charles V, was born in the Habsburg Netherlands and made Brussels one of his capitals.
Willem IV, Count van den Bergh was Stadtholder of Guelders and Zutphen from 1581 until his arrest for suspected treason in 1583.
Margherita de' Medici was Duchess of Parma and Piacenza by her marriage to Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma. Margherita was regent of Piacenza in 1635, and regent of the entire duchy from 1646 until 1648 during the minority of her son.
The causes of the Dutch Revolt and the ensuing Eighty Years War, considered to have started in June 1568, were a number of incidents and frictions had accumulated between the Dutch provinces and their Habsburg overlord.
Gerolama Orsini (1504–1590) sometimes Girolama Orsini was a member of the House of Orsini and the wife of Pier Luigi Farnese, Duke of Parma. She was the Duchess of Parma by marriage.
Johanna Maria van der Gheynst was briefly the mistress of the Emperor Charles V in 1521-1522 and bore him a daughter, Margaret of Parma. Margaret served as Governess-General of the Netherlands from 1559 to 1567 and from 1580 to 1583.
Events from the 1580s in the Spanish Netherlands and Prince-bishopric of Liège.
Margaret of ParmaBorn: 5 July 1522 Died: 18 January 1586
Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy
| Governor of the Netherlands |
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba
John of Austria
| Governor of the Netherlands |
Served alongside: Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma
Peter Ernst I von Mansfeld-Vorderort