Maria Luisa of Savoy

Last updated
Maria Luisa of Savoy
Queen Maria Luisa of Spain, Princess of Savoy.jpg
Maria Luisa di Savoia in hunting attire by Miguel Jacinto Meléndez
Queen consort of Spain
Tenure2 November 1701 – 14 February 1714
Born(1688-09-17)17 September 1688
Royal Palace of Turin, Savoy
Died14 February 1714(1714-02-14) (aged 25)
Royal Alcazar of Madrid, Spain
Burial
Spouse Philip V of Spain
Issue
Detail
Louis I of Spain
Infante Philip of Spain
Ferdinand VI of Spain
Full name
Maria Luisa Gabriella di Savoia
House Savoy
Father Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy
Mother Anne Marie d'Orléans
Religion Roman Catholicism

Maria Luisa of Savoy (Maria Luisa Gabriella; 17 September 1688 14 February 1714) was a queen consort of Spain by marriage to Philip V of Spain. [1] She acted as Regent of Spain during the absence of her spouse from 1702 until 1703, and had great influence over him as his adviser, while she was herself in turn influenced by the Princesse des Ursins.

Contents

Early life

She was the third daughter and second surviving child of Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy and his French-born wife Anne Marie d'Orléans, the youngest daughter of Philippe of France and Henrietta of England. Throughout her life, Maria Luisa remained close to her older sister Maria Adelaide who later married Louis, Duke of Burgundy, the eldest grandson of Louis XIV. In her youth, Maria Luisa was described as playful and fun loving and had received a good education. [2]

Marriage

Philip V of Spain, a French prince, was recently crowned King of Spain upon the death of childless Charles II. In order to enforce his shaky authority over Spain due to his French birth, Philip V decided to maintain ties with Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy. Philip and Maria Luisa were Second cousins through Louis XIII. Philip V's brother, Louis, Duke of Burgundy, had married the elder sister of Maria Luisa several years earlier, and in mid-1701, Philip V asked for Maria Luisa's hand with the permission of his grandfather Louis XIV. [3]

Maria Luisa was wed by proxy to Philip V on 12 September 1701 at the age of thirteen and was escorted to Nice, arriving there on 18 September. While in Nice, she was greeted by Pope Clement XI who gave her the Golden Rose on 20 September as a ritualistic gift for the young princess. [2] Within a week, she sailed from Nice for Antibes and was taken to Barcelona. The official wedding took place on 2 November 1701. [2]

Queen

Philip V was deeply in love with her from the start: as would be the case of his next consort, he was sexually dependent on her, as his religious scruples prevented him from exercising any sexual life outside of marriage. She was also said to be very beautiful and intelligent. [4] [ page needed ] Unlike what was normal for a Spanish monarch, he usually slept in her bed the entire night, and insisted upon his conjugal rights. [4] [ page needed ] Already shortly after their marriage, the French ambassador, the Duke of Gramont reported to Philip’s grandfather, Louis XIV, that Philip would be completely governed by his spouse as long as he had one, a report that led Louis XIV to warn him not to allow his queen to dominate him. [4] [ page needed ] Marie Luisa is described as remarkably mature for her age, politically savvy, articulate and hardworking, and she has been credited with giving the normally passive Philip V the energy he needed to participate in warfare. [4] [ page needed ]

Maria Luisa's coat of arms Coat of Arms of Maria Luisa of Savoy, Queen Consort of Spain.svg
Maria Luisa's coat of arms

In 1702, Philip V was obliged to leave Spain to fight in Naples as part of the ongoing War of Spanish Succession. [1] During her husband's absence, Maria Luisa acted as Regent from Madrid. She was praised as an effective ruler, having successfully implemented various changes in government and insisted upon all complaints being investigated and reports made direct to her. Her leadership encouraged the reorganization in the junta and, in doing this, inspiring people and their cities to make donations towards the war effort. [1] Despite being only fourteen at that time, Maria Luisa's effective regency made her admired in Madrid and throughout Spain. During her tenure as regent, she presided daily at the committee of government, gave audiences to ambassadors, worked for hours with ministers, corresponded with Philip and worked to prevent Savoy from joining the enemy. [4] [ page needed ]

The Princesse des Ursins was a member of the household of the Queen. She would maintain great influence over Maria Luisa as her Camarera mayor de Palacio , chief of the household to the queen. The Princesse des Ursins maintained as strong dominance of Maria Luisa by using all the rights of proximity to the queen that her position entitled her to: she was almost constantly in the presence of the queen, accompanied her wherever she went as soon as she left her private rooms, followed her to the council meetings, where she listened sitting by the side sewing; followed her back to her rooms, where she was present at the most intimate personal tasks; dressing and undressing her, and controlling whoever wished to come into her presence. As Philip V, contrary to the custom of the time, actually shared a bedroom with Maria Luisa, the Princesse also had enormous influence over the king as well. [4] [ page needed ]

After her husband's return in 1703, she resumed her role as queen consort. In 1704, the Princesse des Ursins was exiled at the order of Louis XIV, devastating Maria Luisa. However, in 1705, the Princesse returned to Madrid, much to the joy of the queen. [1]

Maria Luisa gave birth to the couple's first child, Infante Luis Felipe in 1707. Maria Luisa gave birth to three more children, two of whom would survive infancy. Towards the end of her life, the Queen became ill. She would die from the effects of tuberculosis on 14 February 1714. She was buried at San Lorenzo de El Escorial. Maria Luisa died in her 25th year.

16 September 1714, just months after Maria Luisa's death, her widower Philip V remarried by proxy, to Elisabeth Farnese, the only child and heir of the Duke of Parma. [1] All of Maria Luisa's children were to die without issue, thus there are no descendants of Maria Luisa of Savoy.

Legacy

She was nicknamed La Savoyana by her adoring subjects and was well-loved in Spain. After her death, both of her sons that lived past childhood, her youngest and oldest, were to become Kings of Spain. Her niece, Princess Maria Luisa was named after her.

Issue

  1. Louis I of Spain (25 August 1707 31 August 1724) married Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans, no issue.
  2. Infante Philip of Spain (2 July 1709 18 July 1709).
  3. Infante Philip of Spain (7 June 1712 29 December 1719) died in childhood.
  4. Ferdinand VI of Spain (23 September 1713 10 August 1759) married Infanta Maria Barbara of Portugal, no issue.

Ancestry

Related Research Articles

Giulio Alberoni Italian cardinal, statesman

Giulio Alberoni was an Italian cardinal and statesman in the service of Philip V of Spain. He is known also for being a remarkable soldier and great gourmet who advised the Spanish court on table manners and menus.

Philip V of Spain 18th-century King of Spain

Philip V was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to his abdication in favour of his son Louis on 14 January 1724, and from his reaccession of the throne upon his son's death, 6 September 1724 to his own death on 9 July 1746.

Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia King of Sardinia

Victor Amadeus II was Duke of Savoy from 1675 to 1730. He also held the titles of marquis of Saluzzo, duke of Montferrat, prince of Piedmont and count of Aosta, Moriana and Nice.

Queen Mary, Queen Marie, or Queen Maria may refer to:

Philippe II, Duke of Orléans Regent of France

Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, was a member of the royal family of France and served as Regent of the Kingdom from 1715 to 1723. Born at his father's palace at Saint-Cloud, he was known from birth under the title of Duke of Chartres. His father was Louis XIV's younger brother Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, his mother was Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate.

Louis I of Spain 18th-century King of Spain

Louis I was King of Spain from 15 January 1724 until his death in August the same year. His reign is one of the shortest in history, lasting for just over seven months.

Elisabeth Farnese Queen consort of Spain

Elisabeth Farnese was Queen of Spain by marriage to King Philip V. She exerted great influence over Spain's foreign policy and was the de facto ruler of Spain from 1714 until 1746. From 1759 until 1760, she governed as regent.

Marie Anne de La Trémoille, princesse des Ursins Famous French courtier in the last years of the reign of Louis XIV

Marie Anne de La Trémoille, princesse des Ursins, was a French courtier and royal favourite known for her political influence, being a de facto ruler of Spain from 1701 until 1714. She spent most of her life as an agent of French influence abroad, at first in Rome, and then in Spain under the new Bourbon dynasty, followed by a final period at the exiled Stuart court in Rome. She played a central role at the Spanish royal court during the first years of the reign of Philip V, until she was ousted from the country following a power struggle with the new queen consort, Elisabeth Farnese.

Elisabeth of France (1602–1644) Queen consort of Spain

Elisabeth of France or Isabel of Bourbon was Queen Consort of Spain and Portugal as the first spouse of King Philip IV of Spain. She served as regent of Spain during the Catalan Revolt in 1640-42 and 1643-44. She was the eldest daughter of King Henry IV of France and his second spouse Marie de' Medici.

Luisa de Guzmán Queen consort of Portugal

Luisa María Francisca de Guzmán y Sandoval was a queen consort of Portugal. She was the spouse of King John IV, the first Braganza ruler, as well as the mother of two kings of Portugal and a queen of England. She served as regent of Portugal de jure from 1656 until 1662, and de facto until her death in 1666.

Maria Francisca of Savoy Queen consort of Portugal

Dona Maria Francisca of Savoy was twice queen consort of Portugal as the spouse of two Portuguese kings: Afonso VI and Peter II of Portugal. She first became queen of Portugal at the age of 20 on the day of her marriage to Afonso VI; because the marriage was never consummated, she was able to obtain an annulment. On 28 March 1668, she married Afonso's brother, the Infante Peter, Duke of Beja, who was appointed prince regent the same year due to Afonso's perceived incompetence. Maria Francisca became queen of Portugal for the second time when Peter succeeded his brother as Peter II in 1683 but died herself later that year.

Christine of France Duchess consort of Savoy

Christine of France was the sister of Louis XIII and the Duchess of Savoy by marriage. At the death of her husband Victor Amadeus I in 1637, she acted as regent of Savoy between 1637 and 1648.

Marie Jeanne Baptiste of Savoy-Nemours Duchess of Savoy

Marie Jeanne Baptiste of Savoy-Nemours was born a Princess of Savoy and became the Duchess of Savoy by marriage. First married by proxy to Charles of Lorraine in 1662, Lorraine soon refused to recognise the union and it was annulled. She married Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy in 1665 who was her kinsman. The mother of the future Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia who saw the elevation of the House of Savoy to kings, she styled herself as Madama Reale or Madame Royale. She acted as Regent of Savoy from 1675 in the name of her son Victor Amadeus II, who was her husband's successor. Her regency officially ended in 1680, but she maintained power until her son banished her from further influence in the state in 1684. She left a considerable architectural legacy in Turin, and was responsible for the remodelling of the Palazzo Madama, which was her private residence. At the time of her death she was the mother of the King of Sardinia as well as great grandmother of two other kings, Louis I of Spain and Louis XV of France.

Anne Marie dOrléans Queen consort of Sardinia

Anne Marie d'Orléans was the first Queen consort of Sardinia by marriage to Victor Amadeus II of Savoy. She served as regent of Savoy during the absence of her spouse in 1686 and during the War of the Spanish Succession. She is also an important figure in British history.

Maria Antonia Ferdinanda of Spain Queen consort of Sardinia

Maria Antonia Ferdinanda of Spain was a Queen consort of Sardinia by marriage to Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia. She was the youngest daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese. She was the mother of the last three mainline Kings of Sardinia.

Philippine Élisabeth dOrléans Mademoiselle de Beaujolais

Philippine Élisabeth d'Orléans known as Mademoiselle de Beaujolais was the daughter of Philippe d'Orléans, duc d'Orléans and his wife, Françoise-Marie de Bourbon, the youngest legitimised daughter of King Louis XIV and his mistress, Madame de Montespan. As a member of the reigning House of Bourbon, and of the House of Orléans, Philippine Élisabeth was a Princesse du Sang. She died of smallpox at the age of nineteen.

Maria Vittoria of Savoy Princess of Carignano

Maria Vittoria of Savoy was a legitimated daughter of Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia, first king of the House of Savoy. Married to the head of a cadet branch of the House of Savoy, she is an ancestor of the kings of Sardinia and of the Savoy kings of Italy.

Princess Maria Luisa of Savoy (1729–1767) Daughter of the King of Sardinia

Maria Luisa of Savoy was a princess of Savoy.

Princess Margaret Yolande of Savoy Duchess of Parma

Margaret Yolande of Savoy was Princess of Savoy from birth and later Duchess consort of Parma. A proposed bride for her first cousin Louis XIV of France, she later married Ranuccio Farnese, son of the late Odoardo Farnese and Margherita de' Medici. She died in childbirth in 1663.

Juan Carlos reigned as the King of Spain from 1975 until his abdication in 2014. He was born in Rome on 5 January 1938, where his family was living in exile after proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic. He is the father of the current King, Felipe VI.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Hume, Martin Andrew Sharp (1906). "Epilogue". Queens of Old Spain. E. Grant Richards. pp.  531–537. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  2. 1 2 3 The Gentleman's magazine, Volumes 302-303, F. Jefferies, 1789, p 284
  3. The Gentleman's magazine, Volumes 302-303, F. Jefferies, 1789, p 286
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Orr, Clarissa Campbell (2004-08-12). Queenship in Europe 1660-1815: The Role of the Consort. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   9780521814225 . Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  5. Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 24.

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Maria Luisa of Savoy at Wikimedia Commons

Maria Luisa of Savoy
Born: 17 November 1688 Died: 14 February 1714
Spanish royalty
Preceded by
Mariana of Neuburg
Queen consort of Spain
2 November 1701 – 14 February 1714
Succeeded by
Elisabeth Farnese
Queen consort of Naples and Sardinia
17001713
Succeeded by
Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Queen consort of Sicily
17001713
Succeeded by
Anne Marie d'Orléans