Mariano Álvarez

Last updated
Mariano Álvarez

Noveletajf1810 06.JPG

Mariano and Pascual Alvarez (Noveleta, Cavite Town hall)
Born(1818-03-15)March 15, 1818
Noveleta, Cavite, Captaincy General of the Philippines
Died August 25, 1924(1924-08-25) (aged 106)
Cavite, Philippine Islands
Occupation Teacher, General
Known for General of the Philippine Revolution

Mariano Álvarez (Spanish:  [ˈmaˈɾjano ˈalβaɾes]  : March 15, 1818 August 25, 1924) [1] [2] [3] was a Filipino revolutionary and statesman.

Philippines Republic in Southeast Asia

The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, and Malaysia and Indonesia to the south.

Revolutionary person who either actively participates in, or advocates revolution

A revolutionary is a person who either participates in, or advocates revolution. Also, when used as an adjective, the term revolutionary refers to something that has a major, sudden impact on society or on some aspect of human endeavor.

Contents

Pre-war life

Álvarez was born in Noveleta, Cavite. He received formal schooling at the San José College in Manila, and obtained a teacher's diploma. [1] [2] He returned to Cavite and worked as a schoolteacher in Naic and Maragondon.

In 1871, he was incarcerated and tortured by the colonial authorities after insulting a Spanish soldier. [1] The following year, he was accused of involvement in the Cavite Mutiny and was hauled to Manila in chains for detention. [1] [2] Upon his eventual release, he returned to Noveleta, and in 1881, was elected capitan municipal, a position he held until the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution in 1896. [1]

Manila Capital / Highly Urbanized City in National Capital Region, Philippines

Manila, officially the City of Manila, is the capital of the Philippines. It is the most densely populated city proper in the world. It was the first chartered city by virtue of the Philippine Commission Act 183 on July 31, 1901 and gained autonomy with the passage of Republic Act No. 409 or the "Revised Charter of the City of Manila" on June 18, 1949. Manila, alongside Mexico and Madrid are considered the world's original set of Global Cities due to Manila's commercial networks being the first to traverse the Pacific Ocean, thus connecting Spanish Asia with the Spanish Americas, marking the first time in world history when an uninterrupted chain of trade routes circled the planet. Manila has been damaged by and rebuilt from wars more times than the famed city of Troy and it is also the second most natural disaster afflicted capital city in the world next to Tokyo yet it is simultaneously among the most populous and most wealthy cities in Southeast Asia.

Philippine Revolution armed military conflict between the people of the Philippines and the Spanish colonial authorities

The Philippine Revolution, also called the Tagalog War by the Spanish, was a revolution and subsequent conflict fought between the people and insurgents of the Philippines and the Kingdom of Spain - including its Spanish Empire and Spanish colonial authorities in the Spanish East Indies.

Revolutionary general

Álvarez and his son Santiago were active members of the Katipunan, the anti-Spanish secret society founded by Andrés Bonifacio in 1892. Mariano was the uncle of Bonifacio's wife, Gregoria de Jesús.

Katipunan anti-Spanish revolutionary society founded in 1892 in the Philippines

The Kataas-taasan, Kagalang-galangang, Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan, also known as Katipunan or KKK, was a Philippine revolutionary society founded by anti-Spanish colonialism Filipinos in Manila in 1892; its primary goal was to gain independence from Spain through a revolution. Documents discovered in the 21st century suggest that the society had been organized as early as January 1892 but may not have become active until July 7 of the same year; that was the date that Filipino writer José Rizal was to be banished to Dapitan. Founded by Filipino patriots Andrés Bonifacio, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa, Darilyo Valino, Rulfo Guia, Dano Belica, Tiburcio Liamson, and Gabrino Manzanero, the Katipunan was a secret organization until it was discovered in 1896. This discovery led to the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution.

Andrés Bonifacio Filipino nationalist and revolutionary

Andrés Bonifacio y de Castro was a Filipino revolutionary leader and the president of the Tagalog Republic. He is often called "The Father of the Philippine Revolution. ". He was one of the founders and later Supremo of the Kataas-taasan, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan or more commonly known as "Katipunan", a movement which sought the independence of the Philippines from Spanish colonial rule and started the Philippine Revolution. He is considered a national hero of the Philippines.

In early 1896, Álvarez was elected president of the Magdiwang, one of two Katipunan branches in Cavite along with Magdalo. The two branches evolved into separate factions with their own local governments, through their provincial councils.

Magdiwang (Katipunan faction) chapter of the Philippine revolutionary organization Katipunan

The Magdiwang was a chapter of the Katipunan, a Philippine revolutionary organization founded by Filipino rebels in Manila in 1892, with the aim to gain independence from Spain. The Magdiwang Council was acknowledged "as the supreme organ responsible for the successful campaigns against the enemy."

Magdalo (Katipunan faction) Philippine political faction

The Magdalo faction of the Katipunan was a chapter in Cavite, mostly led by Ilustrados of that province during the Philippine Revolution.

Álvarez helped facilitate growing membership of the Katipunan in Cavite. [1] [2] When the revolution started in August 1896, Bonifacio at least planned to give him overall command of all the revolutionary forces in Cavite. A draft of the appointment order survives but whether it was dispatched is uncertain. [4]

He led Filipino forces in several battles against the Spanish army in Cavite and held the rank of general. His efforts helped liberate most towns in Cavite from Spanish control within weeks from the start of the revolt. [1] He was recognized as the instigator of the revolution in Cavite. [5]

Rivalry and tension existed between the Magdiwang and Magdalo factions over jurisdiction and authority, and Álvarez, as Magdiwang head, invited Bonifacio, as Presidente Supremo ("Supreme President") [5] of the Katipunan, to meditate over them. Bonifacio was seen as partial to the Magdiwang probably due to his kinship ties with Álvarez. [6]

In their memoirs, Emilio Aguinaldo and other Magdalo personages claim that Bonifacio became the head of the Magdiwang, receiving the title Hari ng Bayan (“King of the People”) with Álvarez as his second-in-command. [4] [7] However, no documentary sources have been found substantiating these claims. [8] Instead it has been suggested that these claims stem from a misunderstanding or misrepresentation of one of Bonifacio’s titles, Pangulo ng Haring Bayan (“President of the Sovereign Nation”). [8] In his own memoirs, Santiago Álvarez clearly distinguishes between the Magdiwang government and the Supreme Council of the Katipunan headed by Bonifacio. [5]

The dispute between the Magdiwang and Magdalo soon involved the issue of command of the revolution. The Magdalo called for the abolition of the Katipunan and the establishment of a revolutionary government. Bonifacio and the Magdiwang maintained the Katipunan was already their government. After losing the internal power struggle to Aguinaldo, Bonifacio was executed in 1897. Álvarez was aggrieved by Bonifacio's death, and, like Emilio Jacinto, refused to join the forces of Aguinaldo, who had then retreated to Biak-na-Bato in Bulacan. [1] [2]

Personal life

In May 1863, he married Nicolasa Virata y del Rosario; their only child, Santiago, also a revolutionary general, was born on July 25, 1872 in Imus.

Later life

The United States of America soon gained control over the Philippines following the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War. Álvarez affiliated himself with the pro-independence Nacionalista Party and was among the signatories of the party's constitution. [1] He won election as municipal president of Noveleta.

Álvarez joined the nationalist-oriented Philippine Independent Church founded by Isabelo de los Reyes and Gregorio Aglipay in 1902. He retired to his farm following his term as municipal president, and died on August 25, 1924 from chronic rheumatism at the age of 106. [1]

The municipality of Gen. Mariano Alvarez, Cavite, established in 1981, was named in his honor.

Related Research Articles

Emilio Aguinaldo First president of the Philippines, revolutionary leader

Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy was a Filipino revolutionary, politician, and military leader who is officially recognized as the first and the youngest President of the Philippines (1899–1901) and first president of a constitutional republic in Asia. He led Philippine forces first against Spain in the latter part of the Philippine Revolution (1896–1898), and then in the Spanish–American War (1898), and finally against the United States during the Philippine–American War (1899–1901).

Maragondon Municipality in Calabarzon, Philippines

Maragondon, officially the Municipality of Maragondon,, is a heritage town and a 3rd class municipality in the province of Cavite, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 37,720 people. The town is famous for its bamboo crafts, Mounts Palay-Palay–Mataas-na-Gulod Protected Landscape which includes Mount Pico de Loro, and various ancestral houses and structures important to Philippine history and culture such as Maragondon Church and the execution site and trial house of national hero Andres Bonifacio.

Baldomero Aguinaldo Philippine Revolution leader

Baldomero Aguinaldo y Baloy was a leader of the Philippine Revolution. He was the first cousin of Emilio Aguinaldo, the first president of the Philippines, as well as the grandfather of Cesar Virata, a former prime minister in the 1980s.

Noveleta Municipality in Calabarzon, Philippines

Noveleta, officially the Municipality of Noveleta,, is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Cavite, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 45,846 people.

Edilberto Evangelista Filipino general

Edilberto Evangelista was a Filipino civil engineer and a revolutionary.

Santiago Álvarez (general) Revolutionary general

Santiago Virata Álvarez was a revolutionary general and a founder and honorary president of the first directorate of the Nacionalista Party. Also known as Kidlat ng Apoy because of his inflamed bravery and dedication as commander of Cavite's famous battles, he was celebrated in present-day Cavite City as the Hero of the Battle of Dalahican.

Mariano Trías Vice President First Philippine Republic

Mariano Trías y Closas is considered to be the first de facto Philippine Vice President of that revolutionary government established at the Tejeros Convention - an assembly of Philippine revolutionary leaders that elected officials of the revolutionary movement against the colonial government of Spain. When that assembly broke into factions, a truce known as the Pact of Biak-na-Bato was signed by the group and also recognized the elected officials and Trias as the vice president of Emilio Aguinaldo, who is also considered to be the first President of the Philippines. With the promulgation of the Malolos Constitution by the Malolos Convention, the First Philippine Republic was born. Under this Aguinaldo administration, Trias served in the cabinet initially as Secretary of Finance and, later, as Secretary of War.

Tejeros Convention Philippine elections of 1897

The Tejeros Convention was the meeting held on March 22, 1897 between the Magdiwang and Magdalo factions of the Katipunan at San Francisco de Malabon, Cavite. These are the first presidential and vice presidential elections in Philippine history, although only the Katipuneros were able to take part, and not the general populace.

Template:Infobox military person A traitor in the Philippine History. Plotted against Bonifacio.

Procopio Bonifacio y de Castro was a Filipino independence activist and revolutionary during the Philippine Revolution of 1896 against Spain. He was a member of the secret revolutionary society turned revolutionary government Katipunan with his other siblings Ciriaco and Espiridiona. His eldest brother Andrés Bonifacio was one of the founders and, eventually, president of the Katipunan.

The Imus Assembly was the meeting held between the Magdalo and Magdiwang factions of the Katipunan at Imus, Cavite, Philippines, on December 31, 1896. This was convened in order to settle the leadership dispute between the two factions.

Battle of Binakayan-Dalahican

The Battle of Binakayan-Dalahican was a simultaneous battle during the Philippine Revolution that was fought from November 9–11, 1896 that led to a decisive Filipino victory. The twin battle took place at the shores of Binakayan, in the town of Cavite Viejo ; Dalahican and Dagatan in Noveleta; and, to minimal extent, in Imus and Bacoor towns in Cavite province, Philippines that lasted for two days before the Spanish army retreated demoralized and in disarray. The result of the battle was the first significant Filipino victory in the country's history.

1897 in the Philippines details events of note that happened in the Philippines in the year 1897.

Battle of Noveleta

The Battle of Noveleta was a major battle during the Philippine revolution and was one of the very first engagements of the revolution in Cavite. In the latter part of the revolution, Noveleta played a key role for the Magdalo and Magdiwang factions. From its capture by the Magdiwang at the start of the revolution, various battles were fought and won by Filipino rebels in Cavite. Noveleta became the seat of the Magdiwang faction of the Katipunan.

Bonifacio Trial House

The Teodorico Reyes Ancestral House, more commonly known as the Bonifacio Trial House, is a historic house and museum in Maragondon, Cavite, Philippines. It was built in 1889 and served as a military court, wherein it has been a witness to the trial of Andres Bonifacio in 1897.

This is the timeline of the Philippine Revolution. It contains the events before and during the revolution.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "Mariano M. Alvarez". Kapampangan Homepage. Archived from the original on 2008-01-16. Retrieved 2008-01-08.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Reyes, Joel M.; Perez, Rodolfo III. "An Online Guide About the Philippine History: Mariano M. Alvarez". Archived from the original on 2007-10-18. Retrieved 2008-01-08.
  3. Dates of birth and death confirmed by Alvarez's great-granddaughter, Eloisa B. Lucas. See "Amazon.com: Mamma and Me:Books:Eloisa B. Lucas" . Retrieved 2008-01-08.
  4. 1 2 Ronquillo, Carlos (1996). Isagani Medina, ed. Ilang talata tungkol sa paghihimagsik nang 1896-1897. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.
  5. 1 2 3 Álvarez, Santiago. The Katipunan and the Revolution: Memoirs of a General. Paula Carolina S. Malay (translator). Ateneo de Manila University Press.
  6. The Philippine Revolution of 1896: Ordinary Lives in Extraordinary Times. Ateneo de Manila University Press. 2001.
  7. Aguinaldo, Emilio (1964). Mga gunita ng himagsikan. Manila.
  8. 1 2 Quirino, Carlos (1969). The Young Aguinaldo: From Kawit to Biyak-na-Bato. Manila.