Mariano Álvarez

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Mariano Álvarez

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Mariano and Pascual Alvarez (Noveleta, Cavite Town hall)
Born(1818-03-15)March 15, 1818
Noveleta, Cavite, Captaincy General of the Philippines
Died August 25, 1924(1924-08-25) (aged 106)
Cavite, Philippine Islands
Occupation Teacher, General
Known for General of the Philippine Revolution

Mariano Álvarez (Spanish:  [ˈmaˈɾjano ˈalβaɾes]  : March 15, 1818 August 25, 1924) [1] [2] [3] was a Filipino revolutionary and statesman.

Philippines Republic in Southeast Asia

The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, and Malaysia and Indonesia to the south.

Revolutionary person who either actively participates in, or advocates revolution

A revolutionary is a person who either participates in, or advocates revolution. Also, when used as an adjective, the term revolutionary refers to something that has a major, sudden impact on society or on some aspect of human endeavor.


Pre-war life

Álvarez was born in Noveleta, Cavite. He received formal schooling at the San José College in Manila, and obtained a teacher's diploma. [1] [2] He returned to Cavite and worked as a schoolteacher in Naic and Maragondon.

In 1871, he was incarcerated and tortured by the colonial authorities after insulting a Spanish soldier. [1] The following year, he was accused of involvement in the Cavite Mutiny and was hauled to Manila in chains for detention. [1] [2] Upon his eventual release, he returned to Noveleta, and in 1881, was elected capitan municipal, a position he held until the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution in 1896. [1]

Manila Capital / Highly Urbanized City in National Capital Region, Philippines

Manila, officially the City of Manila, is the capital of the Philippines. It is the most densely populated city proper in the world. It was the first chartered city by virtue of the Philippine Commission Act 183 on July 31, 1901 and gained autonomy with the passage of Republic Act No. 409 or the "Revised Charter of the City of Manila" on June 18, 1949. Manila, alongside Mexico and Madrid are considered the world's original set of Global Cities due to Manila's commercial networks being the first to traverse the Pacific Ocean, thus connecting Spanish Asia with the Spanish Americas, marking the first time in world history when an uninterrupted chain of trade routes circled the planet. Manila has been damaged by and rebuilt from wars more times than the famed city of Troy and it is also the second most natural disaster afflicted capital city in the world next to Tokyo yet it is simultaneously among the most populous and most wealthy cities in Southeast Asia.

Philippine Revolution armed military conflict between the people of the Philippines and the Spanish colonial authorities

The Philippine Revolution, also called the Tagalog War by the Spanish, was a revolution and subsequent conflict fought between the people and insurgents of the Philippines and the Kingdom of Spain - including its Spanish Empire and Spanish colonial authorities in the Spanish East Indies.

Revolutionary general

Álvarez and his son Santiago were active members of the Katipunan, the anti-Spanish secret society founded by Andrés Bonifacio in 1892. Mariano was the uncle of Bonifacio's wife, Gregoria de Jesús.

Katipunan anti-Spanish revolutionary society founded in 1892 in the Philippines

The Kataas-taasan, Kagalang-galangang, Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan, also known as Katipunan or KKK, was a Philippine revolutionary society founded by anti-Spanish colonialism Filipinos in Manila in 1892; its primary goal was to gain independence from Spain through a revolution. Documents discovered in the 21st century suggest that the society had been organized as early as January 1892 but may not have become active until July 7 of the same year; that was the date that Filipino writer José Rizal was to be banished to Dapitan. Founded by Filipino patriots Andrés Bonifacio, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa, Darilyo Valino, Rulfo Guia, Dano Belica, Tiburcio Liamson, and Gabrino Manzanero, the Katipunan was a secret organization until it was discovered in 1896. This discovery led to the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution.

Andrés Bonifacio Filipino nationalist and revolutionary

Andrés Bonifacio y de Castro was a Filipino revolutionary leader and the president of the Tagalog Republic. He is often called "The Father of the Philippine Revolution. ". He was one of the founders and later Supremo of the Kataas-taasan, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan or more commonly known as "Katipunan", a movement which sought the independence of the Philippines from Spanish colonial rule and started the Philippine Revolution. He is considered a national hero of the Philippines.

In early 1896, Álvarez was elected president of the Magdiwang, one of two Katipunan branches in Cavite along with Magdalo. The two branches evolved into separate factions with their own local governments, through their provincial councils.

Magdiwang (Katipunan faction) chapter of the Philippine revolutionary organization Katipunan

The Magdiwang was a chapter of the Katipunan, a Philippine revolutionary organization founded by Filipino rebels in Manila in 1892, with the aim to gain independence from Spain. The Magdiwang Council was acknowledged "as the supreme organ responsible for the successful campaigns against the enemy."

Magdalo (Katipunan faction) Philippine political faction

The Magdalo faction of the Katipunan was a chapter in Cavite, mostly led by Ilustrados of that province during the Philippine Revolution.

Álvarez helped facilitate growing membership of the Katipunan in Cavite. [1] [2] When the revolution started in August 1896, Bonifacio at least planned to give him overall command of all the revolutionary forces in Cavite. A draft of the appointment order survives but whether it was dispatched is uncertain. [4]

He led Filipino forces in several battles against the Spanish army in Cavite and held the rank of general. His efforts helped liberate most towns in Cavite from Spanish control within weeks from the start of the revolt. [1] He was recognized as the instigator of the revolution in Cavite. [5]

Rivalry and tension existed between the Magdiwang and Magdalo factions over jurisdiction and authority, and Álvarez, as Magdiwang head, invited Bonifacio, as Presidente Supremo ("Supreme President") [5] of the Katipunan, to meditate over them. Bonifacio was seen as partial to the Magdiwang probably due to his kinship ties with Álvarez. [6]

In their memoirs, Emilio Aguinaldo and other Magdalo personages claim that Bonifacio became the head of the Magdiwang, receiving the title Hari ng Bayan (“King of the People”) with Álvarez as his second-in-command. [4] [7] However, no documentary sources have been found substantiating these claims. [8] Instead it has been suggested that these claims stem from a misunderstanding or misrepresentation of one of Bonifacio’s titles, Pangulo ng Haring Bayan (“President of the Sovereign Nation”). [8] In his own memoirs, Santiago Álvarez clearly distinguishes between the Magdiwang government and the Supreme Council of the Katipunan headed by Bonifacio. [5]

The dispute between the Magdiwang and Magdalo soon involved the issue of command of the revolution. The Magdalo called for the abolition of the Katipunan and the establishment of a revolutionary government. Bonifacio and the Magdiwang maintained the Katipunan was already their government. After losing the internal power struggle to Aguinaldo, Bonifacio was executed in 1897. Álvarez was aggrieved by Bonifacio's death, and, like Emilio Jacinto, refused to join the forces of Aguinaldo, who had then retreated to Biak-na-Bato in Bulacan. [1] [2]

Personal life

In May 1863, he married Nicolasa Virata y del Rosario; their only child, Santiago, also a revolutionary general, was born on July 25, 1872 in Imus.

Later life

The United States of America soon gained control over the Philippines following the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War. Álvarez affiliated himself with the pro-independence Nacionalista Party and was among the signatories of the party's constitution. [1] He won election as municipal president of Noveleta.

Álvarez joined the nationalist-oriented Philippine Independent Church founded by Isabelo de los Reyes and Gregorio Aglipay in 1902. He retired to his farm following his term as municipal president, and died on August 25, 1924 from chronic rheumatism at the age of 106. [1]

The municipality of Gen. Mariano Alvarez, Cavite, established in 1981, was named in his honor.

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  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "Mariano M. Alvarez". Kapampangan Homepage. Archived from the original on 2008-01-16. Retrieved 2008-01-08.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Reyes, Joel M.; Perez, Rodolfo III. "An Online Guide About the Philippine History: Mariano M. Alvarez". Archived from the original on 2007-10-18. Retrieved 2008-01-08.
  3. Dates of birth and death confirmed by Alvarez's great-granddaughter, Eloisa B. Lucas. See " Mamma and Me:Books:Eloisa B. Lucas" . Retrieved 2008-01-08.
  4. 1 2 Ronquillo, Carlos (1996). Isagani Medina, ed. Ilang talata tungkol sa paghihimagsik nang 1896-1897. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.
  5. 1 2 3 Álvarez, Santiago. The Katipunan and the Revolution: Memoirs of a General. Paula Carolina S. Malay (translator). Ateneo de Manila University Press.
  6. The Philippine Revolution of 1896: Ordinary Lives in Extraordinary Times. Ateneo de Manila University Press. 2001.
  7. Aguinaldo, Emilio (1964). Mga gunita ng himagsikan. Manila.
  8. 1 2 Quirino, Carlos (1969). The Young Aguinaldo: From Kawit to Biyak-na-Bato. Manila.