|Founded||February 14, 1871|
|Named for||Maricopa people|
|• Total||9,224 sq mi (23,890 km2)|
|• Land||9,200 sq mi (24,000 km2)|
|• Water||24 sq mi (60 km2) 0.3%|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||480/sq mi (190/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−7 (Mountain)|
|Congressional districts||1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 7th, 8th, 9th|
Maricopa County is in the south-central part of the U.S. state of Arizona. As of the 2020 census the population was 4,420,568,or about 62% of the state's total, making it the fourth-most populous county in the United States and the most populous county in Arizona, and making Arizona one of the nation's most centralized states. The county seat is Phoenix, the state capital and fifth-most populous city in the United States.
Maricopa County is the central county of the Phoenix–Mesa–Chandler Metropolitan Statistical Area. The Office of Management and Budget renamed the metropolitan area in September 2018. Previously, it was the Phoenix–Mesa–Glendale metropolitan area, and in 2000, that was changed to Phoenix–Mesa–Scottsdale.
Maricopa County was named after the Maricopa Native Americans.Five Native American Reservations are located in the county. The largest are the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (east of Scottsdale) and the Gila River Indian Community (south of Chandler).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 9,224 sq mi (23,890 km2), of which 24 sq mi (62 km2) (0.3%) is covered by water. Maricopa County is one of the largest counties in the United States by area, with a land area greater than that of four other US states. From west to east, it stretches 132 miles (212 km), and 103 miles (166 km) from north to south. It is by far Arizona's most populous county, encompassing well over half of the state's residents. It is the largest county in the United States to have a capital city.
Maricopa County has 14 regional parks:
It also has at least 21 protected areas:
From 2009 to 2011, an inventory of all vascular plants growing along the Salt River (Arizona), Gila River, New River and Agua Fria River and their tributaries in the Phoenix metropolitan area was done.In October 2022, Maricopa County Environmental Services Department detected Dengue virus in mosquitoes they had trapped; in November the first locally transmitted case of dengue fever was reported in the County and Arizona state as a whole - previous dengue cases in Maricopa County had been related to travel.
|U.S. Decennial Census |
|Black or African American||5.9%||5.0%||3.7%||3.4%||3.1%||3.3%||3.7%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||30.6%||29.6%||24.8%||16.2%||13.1%||14.5%||-|
As of the census of 2000, 3,072,149 people, 1,132,886 households, and 763,565 families were living in the county. The population density was 334 people/sq mi (129 people/km2). The 1,250,231 housing units averaged of 136 per square mile (53/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 77.4% White, 3.7% African American, 1.9% Native American, 2.2% Asian, 12.0% from other races, and 2.9% from two or more races. About 29.5% of the population were Hispanics or Latinos of any race. About 19.1% reported speaking Spanish at home.
Of the 1,132,886 households, 33.0% had children under 18 living with them, 51.6% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.6% were not families. About 24.5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.9% had someone living alone who was 65 or older. The average household size was 2.67, and the average family size was 3.21.
The age distribution in the county was 27.0% under 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 31.4% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, and 11.7% who were 65 or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.10 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $45,358, and for a family was $51,827. Males had a median income of $36,858 versus $28,703 for females. The per capita income for the county was $22,251. About 8.0% of families and 11.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.4% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2010 census, 3,817,117 people, 1,411,583 households, and 932,814 families were living in the county. 414.9/sq mi (160.2/km2). The 1,639,279 housing units averaged 178.2/sq mi (68.8/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 73.0% white (58.7% non-Hispanic white), 5.0% African American, 3.5% Asian, 2.1% American Indian, 0.2% Pacific islander, 12.8% from other races, and 3.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 29.6% of the population. The largest ancestry groups were:The population density was
Of the 1,411,583 households, 35.1% had children under 18 living with them, 47.8% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.9% were not families, and 25.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.25. The median age was 34.6 years.
The median income for a household in the county was $55,054 and the median income for a family was $65,438. Males had a median income of $45,799 versus $37,601 for females. The per capita income for the county was $27,816. About 10.0% of families and 13.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.8% of those under age 18 and 7.0% of those age 65 or over.
According to data provided by the United States Census Bureau in October 2015 and collected from 2009 to 2013, 73.7% of the population aged five years and over spoke only English at home, while 20.3% spoke Spanish, 0.6% spoke Chinese, 0.5% Vietnamese, 0.4% Tagalog, 0.4% Arabic, 0.4% German, 0.3% French, 0.3% Navajo, 0.2% Korean, 0.2% Hindi, 0.2% Italian, 0.1% Persian, 0.1% Russian, 0.1% Serbo-Croatian, 0.1% Telugu, 0.1% Polish, 0.1% Syriac, 0.1% Japanese, 0.1% spoke Romanian, and 0.1% spoke other Native North American languages at home.
In 2010 statistics, the largest religious group in Maricopa County were Roman Catholics, who are organized under the Catholic Diocese of Phoenix. There are 519,950 Catholics and 99 parishes. This is followed by 242,732 LDS Mormons with 503 congregations, 213,640 non-denominational adherents with 309 congregations, 93,252 Assembly of God Pentecostals with 120 congregations, 73,207 Southern Baptists with 149 congregations, 35,804 Christian churches and churches of Christ Christians with 29 congregations, 30,014 Evangelical Lutherans with 47 congregations, 28,634 UMC Methodists with 55 congregations, 18,408 Missouri Synod Lutherans with 34 congregations, and 15,001 Presbyterians with 42 congregations. Altogether, 39.1% of the population was claimed as members by religious congregations, although members of historically African-American denominations were underrepresented due to incomplete information.In 2014, the county had 1,177 religious organizations, the fifth most out of all US counties.
The governing body of Maricopa County is its board of supervisors. The Maricopa County Board of Supervisors consists of five members chosen by popular vote within their own districts. As of 2023 [update] the board consists of four Republicans and one Democrat. Each member serves a four-year term, with no term limits.
The Maricopa County Sheriff's Office provides court protection, administers the county jail, and patrols the unincorporated areas of the county plus incorporated towns by contract.
For much of the time after World War II, Maricopa County was one of the more conservative urban counties in the United States. While the city of Phoenix has been evenly split between the two major parties, most of the rest of the county was strongly Republican. Until 2020, every Republican presidential candidate since 1952 had carried Maricopa County. This includes the 1964 presidential run of native son Barry Goldwater, who would not have carried his own state had it not been for a 21,000-vote margin in Maricopa County. Until 2020, it was the largest county in the country to vote Republican. From 1968 to 2016, Democrats held the margin within single digits only three times–in 1992, 1996, and 2016. In 2020, Joe Biden became the first Democrat in 72 years to win the county, which flipped Arizona to the Democratic column for the first time since 1996 and only the second time since 1948.Furthermore, Biden became the first presidential candidate to win more than one million votes in the county. This makes Maricopa County the third county in American history to cast more than one million votes for a presidential candidate. The county is also a statewide bellwether, voting for the statewide winning candidate in all elections except 1996.
Despite its consistent Republican allegiance since 1952, its fast-growing Hispanic population and influx of conservative retirees and Mormons, which were traditionally conservative voting blocs but were increasingly skeptical of President Donald Trump, signaled that it was a crucial bellwether in the 2020 election.
|Voter Registration as of April 2023 [update]|
|Party||Number of voters||Percentage|
Despite its political leanings at the time, Maricopa County voted against Proposition 107 in the 2006 election. This referendum, designed to ban gay marriage and restrict domestic partner benefits, was rejected by a 51.6–48.4% margin within the county, and statewide by a similar margin. Two years later, however, a majority of county residents voted to pass a successful state constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage. The amendment was later invalidated by the Supreme Court's 2015 ruling in Obergefell v. Hodges , which declared that same-sex marriage is a fundamental right in the United States.
Unlike cities and towns in Arizona, counties are politically and legally subordinate to the state and do not have charters of their own. The county Board of Supervisors acts under powers delegated by state law, mainly related to minor ordinances and revenue collection. With few exceptions, these powers are narrowly construed.The chairperson of the board presides for a one-year term, selected by the board members during a public hearing.
The county sheriff, county attorney, county assessor, county treasurer, superintendent of schools, county recorder, constables, justices of the peace, and clerk of the Superior Court are elected by the people. Retention of Superior Court judges is also determined by popular vote.
The county's dominant political figure for over two decades (from 1993 to 2017) was Sheriff Joe Arpaio, who called himself "America's Toughest Sheriff" and gained national notoriety for his flamboyant and often controversial practices and policies.
Maricopa County is home to 62 percent of the state's population and therefore dominates Arizona's politics. For example, in the 2018 Senate election, Democrat Kyrsten Sinema carried the county en route to becoming the first Democrat to win a Senate seat in Arizona since 1988.She won the county by over 60,000 votes, more than enough for the victory; she won statewide by 55,900 votes. All but one of the state's nine congressional districts include part of the county, and five of the districts have their population center located there. Most of the state's prominent elected officials live in the county. Further underlining Maricopa County's political dominance, Biden's margin of 45,109 votes was more than enough to carry the state; he only won Arizona by 10,457 votes.
|District||Name||Party||First elected||Area(s) represented|
|United States Senate|
|Class I Senator||Kyrsten Sinema||Independent||2018||At Large|
|Class III Senator||Mark Kelly||Democratic||2020|
|United States House of Representatives|
|1||David Schweikert||Republican||2010||Fountain Hills, Paradise Valley, Phoenix, Scottsdale|
|2||Eli Crane||Republican||2022||Gila River Indian Community|
|3||Ruben Gallego||Democratic||2014||Glendale, Phoenix|
|4||Greg Stanton||Democratic||2018||Chandler, Mesa, Phoenix, Tempe|
|5||Andy Biggs||Republican||2016||Chandler, Gilbert, Mesa, Queen Creek|
|7||Raul Grijalva||Democratic||2002||Avondale, Gila Bend, Goodyear, Phoenix|
|8||Debbie Lesko||Republican||2018||Glendale, Peoria, Phoenix, Surprise|
|9||Paul Gosar||Republican||2010||Buckeye, El Mirage, Glendale, Goodyear, Surprise|
The 1st, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 8th districts are all centered in Maricopa County. The 2nd and 9th are centered in rural Arizona, while the 7th is primarily Tucson-based.
|Republican||Clerk of the Superior Court||Jeff Fine||2018†|
|Republican||County Attorney||Rachel Mitchell||2022†|
|Republican||County Recorder||Stephen Richer||2020|
|Republican||County School Superintendent||Steve Watson||2016|
†Member was originally appointed to the office.
School districts with territory in the county (no matter how slight, even if the administration and schools are in other counties) include:
There is also a state-operated school, Phoenix Day School for the Deaf.
The Phoenix Indian School was formerly in the county.
The major primary commercial airport of the county is Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (PHX).
Other airports located in the county include:
In terms of freight rail, the Union Pacific Railroad and the Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad serve the county.
In terms of passenger rail, greater Phoenix is served by a light rail system. The county has no other passenger rail transport as Amtrak's Sunset Limited, which served Phoenix until June 2, 1996, has its closest stop in Maricopa in neighboring Pinal County. The train connects Maricopa to Tucson, Los Angeles, and New Orleans three times a week. However, it does not stop in Phoenix itself.
The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2020 census of Maricopa County.
† county seat
|Rank||City/Town/etc.||Population (2020 Census)||Population (2021 Estimate)||Municipal type||Incorporated|
|7||Peoria (partially in Yavapai County )||190,985||194,917||City||1954|
|13||Queen Creek (partially in Pinal County )||59,519||66,346||Town||1990|
|16||Sun City West||25,806||--||CDP|
In 2019, the largest employers in Maricopa County were:
|#||Employer||# of employees|
|2||State of Arizona||23,950|
|4||Frys Food Stores||15,170|
|7||City of Phoenix||12,190|
|9||Arizona State University||10,950|
|11||JPMorgan Chase Bank National Association||9,310|
|12||Bank of America||9,180|
|15||Mesa Unified School District 4||8,500|
|17||United States Department of the Air Force||7,720|
|19||State Farm Insurance||7,420|
|20||United States Postal Service||7,260|
According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, in 2019 the employment of Maricopa County in the following sectors was:
|Sector||Number of jobs||Percent||National percent|
|Health care and social assistance||312,385||11.2%||11.3%|
|Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services||249,786||9.0%||6.2%|
|Finance and insurance||226,934||8.2%||5.4%|
|Accommodation and food services||204,917||7.4%||7.5%|
|Professional, scientific, and technical services||200,508||7.2%||7.2%|
|Real estate and rental and leasing||169,363||6.1%||4.8%|
|Other services (except government)||140,788||5.1%||5.8%|
|Transportation and warehousing||134,151||4.8%||4.5%|
|Arts, entertainment, and recreation||64,117||2.3%||2.4%|
|Management of companies and enterprises||35,917||1.7%||1.4%|
|Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction||5,356||0.2%||0.6%|
|Forestry, fishing, and related activities||2,994||0.1%||0.5%|
Maricopa produces far more Brassica than anywhere else in the state, including far more cabbage, : 288 collards, : 289 and mustard greens, : 292 and far more eggplant : 290 and greenhouse production of tomato. : 311 Slightly more kale is grown here than Yavapai, : 291 and a close second to Yuma for broccoli, : 288 cauliflower, : 289 and spinach, : 294 and to Yavapai for field tomato. : 295 The county is top for parsley and is tied with Pima for other fresh herbs. : 290 Some of the state's melon, okra, and bell pepper are also grown here. : 289
Almost all the apricot, : 298 freestone peach, : 300 persimmon, : 301 and nectarine : 299 in the state are grown here. The county also ties for the highest amount of cling peach with Cochise, : 300 along with Pima produces almost all the pomegranate, : 302 and grows most of the kumquat. : 302 Maricopa's farms grow a middling amount of fig, : 299 grape ( Vitis spp. including V. vinifera ), : 299 and pear (Pyrus spp.) other than Bartlett. : 300 A small amount of plum is also produced here. : 301
All of the boysenberry, : 307 half of the elderberry (along with Yavapai), : 307 and a small amount of the state's blackberry : 307 and strawberry : 308 are harvested here.
A large part of the vegetable seed in Arizona is grown here. : 310
Phoenix is the state capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Arizona, with 1,608,139 residents as of 2020. It is the fifth-most populous city in the United States and the most populous state capital in the country.
Coconino County is a county in the north-central part of the U.S. state of Arizona. Its population was 145,101 at the 2020 census. The county seat is Flagstaff. The county takes its name from Cohonino, a name applied to the Havasupai people. It is the second-largest county by area in the contiguous United States, behind San Bernardino County, California. It has 18,661 sq mi (48,300 km2), or 16.4% of Arizona's total area, and is larger than the nine smallest states in the U.S.
Mohave County is in the northwestern corner of the U.S. state of Arizona. As of the 2020 census, its population was 213,267. The county seat is Kingman, and the largest city is Lake Havasu City. It is the fifth largest county in the United States.
Yavapai County is near the center of the U.S. state of Arizona. As of the 2020 census, its population was 236,209, making it the fourth-most populous county in Arizona. The county seat is Prescott.
Buckeye is a city in Maricopa County, Arizona, United States. It is Arizona's largest city by area, and it is the westernmost suburb in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. As of the 2020 census, the population was 91,502, up from 50,876 in 2010, and 6,537 in 2000. It was the fastest-growing city in the United States for 2017, 2018, and 2021.
Cave Creek is a town in Maricopa County, Arizona, United States. It is part of the Phoenix metropolitan area. As of the 2020 census, the population of the town was 4,892.
Glendale is a city in Maricopa County, Arizona, United States. Located about nine miles northwest of the state capital Phoenix, Glendale is known for State Farm Stadium, which is the home of the Arizona Cardinals football team. The city also contains the Arrowhead Towne Center shopping mall. As of the 2020 census, Glendale had a population of 248,325.
Peoria is a city in Maricopa and Yavapai counties in the U.S. state of Arizona. Most of the city is located in Maricopa County, while a portion of it in the north is in Yavapai County. It is a major suburb of Phoenix. As of the 2020 census, the population of Peoria was 190,985, up from 154,065 in 2010. It is the sixth-largest city in Arizona in land area and the ninth-largest in population. It was named after Peoria, Illinois. The word peoria is a corruption of the Miami-Illinois word for "prairie fire". It is the spring training home of the San Diego Padres and Seattle Mariners, who share the Peoria Sports Complex.
Queen Creek is a town in Maricopa and Pinal counties, Arizona, United States. The population was 59,519 as of the 2020 census, up from 26,361 at the 2010 census. It is a suburb of Phoenix, located in the far southeast area of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. Earlier this year, a large battery factory was scheduled for 2025.
Scottsdale is a city in the eastern part of Maricopa County, Arizona, United States, and is part of the Phoenix metropolitan area. Named Scottsdale in 1894 after its founder Winfield Scott, a retired U.S. Army chaplain, the city was incorporated in 1951 with a population of 2,000. At the 2020 census, the population was 241,361, which had grown from 217,385 in 2010. Its slogan is "The West's Most Western Town". Over the past two decades, it has been one of the fastest growing cities in the United States.
Maricopa is a city in the Gila River Valley in Pinal County, Arizona, United States. With 66,290 residents as of 2022, Maricopa is the largest incorporated municipality in Pinal County.
Black Canyon City is an unincorporated community and census-designated place (CDP) in Yavapai County, Arizona, United States. The population is 2,677 as of the 2020 census.
The Phoenix Metropolitan Area, also known as the Valley of the Sun, the Salt River Valley, Metro Phoenix, or The Valley, is the largest metropolitan statistical area in the Southwestern United States, with its largest principal city being the city of Phoenix. It includes much of central Arizona. The United States Office of Management and Budget designates the area as the Phoenix-Mesa-Chandler Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), defining it as Maricopa and Pinal counties. It anchors the Arizona Sun Corridor megaregion along with the second-most populous metropolitan area in the state, the Tucson metropolitan area. The gross domestic product of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area was $255 billion in 2018, 16th-largest amongst metro areas in the United States.
Arizona's 1st congressional district is a congressional district located in the U.S. state of Arizona, covering northeastern Maricopa County. Before 2023, geographically, it was the eleventh-largest congressional district in the country and included much of the state outside the Phoenix and Tucson metropolitan areas. From 2013 through 2022, it also included the Navajo Nation, the Hopi reservation, and the Gila River Indian Community, with 25% of the population being Native American. At that time, the district had more Native Americans than any other congressional district in the United States. In the 2022 elections, David Schweikert was elected in the redefined district. It was one of 18 districts that would have voted for Joe Biden in the 2020 presidential election had they existed in their current configuration while being won or held by a Republican in 2022.
Arizona's 2nd congressional district is a congressional district located in the U.S. state of Arizona. The district is in the north eastern part of the state and includes Apache, Coconino, Gila, Navajo, and Yavapai counties in their entirety and portions of Graham, Maricopa, Mohave, and Pinal counties. The largest city in the district is Flagstaff.
Wickenburg Unified School District #9 (WUSD) is a school district headquartered in Wickenburg, Arizona.
The Arizona Sun Corridor, shortened Sun Corridor, is a megaregion, or megapolitan area, in the southern area of the U.S. state of Arizona. The Sun Corridor is comparable to Indiana in both size and population. It is one of the fastest growing conurbations in the country and is speculated to double its population by 2040. The largest metropolitan areas are the Phoenix metropolitan area – Valley of the Sun, and the Tucson metropolitan area – The Old Pueblo. The regions' populace is nestled in the valley of a desert environment. Similar to Southern California, the urban area extends into Mexico, reaching the communities of Heroica Nogales and Agua Prieta.
The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Phoenix, Arizona, United States.
The following is a timeline of the history of the area which today comprises the U.S. state of Arizona. Situated in the desert southwest, for millennia the area was home to a series of Pre-Columbian peoples. By 1 AD, the dominant groups in the area were the Hohokam, the Mogollon, and the Ancestral Puebloans. The Hohokam dominated the center of the area which is now Arizona, the Mogollon the southeast, and the Puebloans the north and northeast. As these cultures disappeared between 1000 and 1400 AD, other Indian groups settled in Arizona. These tribes included the Navajo, Apache, Southern Paiute, Hopi, Yavapai, Akimel O'odham, and the Tohono O'odham.
The Democratic victory – declared days after CNN projected Biden's win in the presidential race – was anchored by Maricopa County, home to Phoenix and nearly 60% of all people in the state. Maricopa is the fastest-growing county in the country, transforming over the last two decades into a sprawling mass of metropolitan hubs, sun-scorched planned communities and bustling strip malls.