Marie Beuzeville Byles
Marie at Graduation, University of Sydney
|Died||21 November 1979 79) (aged|
Cheltenham, New South Wales, Australia
|Residence||Ahimsa, Cheltenham, New South Wales|
|Education|| Presbyterian Ladies' College, Sydney |
Pymble Ladies' College
|Alma mater||University of Sydney (BA 1921, LLB 1924)|
|Occupation||Solicitor and author|
|Known for||First practising female solicitor in N.S.W, pacifist, mountaineer, explorer, feminist, author and conservationist|
Marie Beuzeville Byles (8 April 1900 – 21 November 1979) was a committed conservationist, pacifist, the first practising female solicitor in New South Wales (NSW), mountaineer, explorer and avid bushwalker, feminist, journalist, and an original member of the Buddhist Society in New South Wales. She was also a travel and non-fiction writer.
The conservation movement, also known as nature conservation, is a political, environmental, and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including animal and plant species as well as their habitat for the future.
Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence. The word pacifism was coined by the French peace campaigner Émile Arnaud (1864–1921) and adopted by other peace activists at the tenth Universal Peace Congress in Glasgow in 1901. A related term is ahimsa, which is a core philosophy in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. While modern connotations are recent, having been explicated since the 19th century, ancient references abound.
A solicitor is a legal practitioner who traditionally deals with most of the legal matters in some jurisdictions. A person must have legally-defined qualifications, which vary from one jurisdiction to another, to be described as a solicitor and enabled to practise there as such. For example, in England and Wales a solicitor is admitted to practise under the provisions of the Solicitors Act 1974. With some exceptions, practising solicitors must possess a practising certificate. There are many more solicitors than barristers in England; they undertake the general aspects of giving legal advice and conducting legal proceedings.
The eldest of three children, Marie was born in 1900in Ashton upon Mersey in what was then Cheshire, England, to progressive-minded parents. Her younger brothers were David John Byles and Baldur Unwin Byles (1904–1975). Her parents were Unitarian Universalists, Fabian socialists and pacifists. Her mother Ida Margaret, née Unwin, was a suffragette and had studied at The Slade School of Fine Art, until "her artistic talents were lost to the drudgery of housekeeping", and who impressed upon her daughter the necessity of being financially independent of men. Her father, Cyril Beuzeville Byles was a railway signal engineer. In England he involved his children in campaigns against fences that prevented public access for recreational walks.
Ashton upon Mersey is an area of the Metropolitan Borough of Trafford, Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 9,693 at the 2011 census. It lies on the south bank of the River Mersey, 5 miles (8.0 km) south of Manchester city centre.
Cheshire is a county in North West England, bordering Merseyside and Greater Manchester to the north, Derbyshire to the east, Staffordshire and Shropshire to the south and Flintshire, Wales and Wrexham county borough to the west. Cheshire's county town is the City of Chester (118,200); the largest town is Warrington (209,700). Other major towns include Crewe (71,722), Ellesmere Port (55,715), Macclesfield (52,044), Northwich (75,000), Runcorn (61,789), Widnes (61,464) and Winsford (32,610)
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north-northwest. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.
The family moved to Australia in 1911 because Cyril Byles was appointed Chief Signals Engineer with the New South Wales Government Railways, to design the signal system for electrifying the railway system.They found a block of land in Beecroft and in 1913 built a house there which they named 'Chilworth'. The family spent summers by the sea, and in 1913 they also built a small cottage at Palm Beach, on Sunrise Hill facing the lighthouse.
The New South Wales Government Railways (NSWGR) was the agency of the Government of New South Wales that administered rail transport in New South Wales, Australia, between 1855 and 1932.
A railway electrification system supplies electric power to railway trains and trams without an on-board prime mover or local fuel supply. Electric railways use electric locomotives to haul passengers or freight in separate cars or electric multiple units, passenger cars with their own motors. Electricity is typically generated in large and relatively efficient generating stations, transmitted to the railway network and distributed to the trains. Some electric railways have their own dedicated generating stations and transmission lines but most purchase power from an electric utility. The railway usually provides its own distribution lines, switches and transformers.
Beecroft is a suburb of northern Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia 22 kilometres north-west of the Sydney central business district in the local government areas of Hornsby Shire and City of Parramatta. Beecroft is considered to be in the Northern Suburbs of Sydney.
Marie was educated at Beecroft Primary School, and at the Presbyterian Ladies' College, Sydney at Croydon from 1914 to 1915, and in 1916 and 1917 at the new second campus of the school at Pymble (now known as Pymble Ladies' College). She excelled, and became a prefect and dux of the school in 1916, and Head Prefect and dux the following year.At matriculation, she won an Exhibition to the University of Sydney.
The Presbyterian Ladies' College, Sydney is an independent, Presbyterian, day and boarding school for girls in Croydon, an inner-western suburb of Sydney, Australia. The school has a non-selective enrolment policy for all years but Year 11, and caters for approximately 1,250 girls from age four to age eighteen (Year 12), including 65 boarders. Students attend PLC from all regions of the greater metropolitan area, New South Wales, and overseas.
Croydon is a suburb in the Inner West of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is located 9 kilometres west of the Sydney central business district. Croydon is split between the two local government areas of Burwood Council and the Inner West Council.
Pymble is a suburb on the Upper North Shore of Sydney in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Pymble is 16 kilometres (10 mi) north-west of the Sydney Central Business District in the local government area of Ku-ring-gai Council.
Marie Byles never married, had no children, and considered it a waste of potential when her friend Dot Butler chose to have children rather than continue with full-time mountaineering.
In 1932 she joined The Women's Club, which was created in Sydney in 1901 to provide a place where women "interested in public, professional, scientific and artistic work" could meet.
Marie was one of a small number of women to attend the University of Sydney. She graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in 1921 and in 1924 she completed a Bachelor of Laws degree and became the first woman to be admitted as a solicitor in New South Wales.Although Ada Evans had graduated in law in 1902, it had been illegal for a woman to practise law in Australia until 1918. After clerking for four years, in 1929 Marie set up a legal practice, the first woman to do so in New South Wales.
Marie operated two law practices – one in Eastwood and the other in the central Sydney.She gave young women opportunities to participate in the profession. 'The business in Eastwood built up because she had the reputation of getting things done so quickly and that was almost unknown in a legal office, she was notorious.' (Employee, Ruth Milton). She worked mainly on conveyancing and probate, and also to ensure just divorce settlements for female clients. She retired and handed over the legal practice to a partner in 1970.
As a student, Marie wrote and published articles on legal, political, and environmental subjects.From 1927–1936 she had the position of legal correspondent for the Australian Women’s Mirror . She wrote articles against women changing their name on marriage, so as to protect their financial assets. As legal correspondent she brought attention to laws and court practices that discriminated against women. She gave lectures for the Australian League of Nations Union and wrote pamphlets for The United Associations of Women.
As a teenager at her family's holiday retreat at Palm Beach, Marie would look through her telescope across Broken Bay to the bushland beyond on the Central Coast. The area was marked on maps as Bouddi, an aboriginal name meaning nose. It was a coal reserve visited only by fishermen. In 1920 Marie and some of her university friends set out to walk through the bush of Bouddi to Maitland Bay, then known as 'Boat Harbour', where they camped. It became a favourite spot for them. The only bushwalking club at the time was The Mountain Trails Club led by Myles Dunphy, which did not admit women.By 1929, there was an increasing focus on organised recreation for the city and suburban population and Marie joined the two-year-old 'Sydney Bushwalkers Club'. In 1930, a new name for Boat Harbour was proposed by the Club; bushwalker Dorothy Lawry suggested "Maitland Bay" after the steamer that was wrecked at the northern end of the beach in 1889.
Over the next five years, with the support of the Federation of Sydney Bushwalkers Clubs, Marie successfully campaigned in the press for the area to be placed under public ownership. The creation of Bouddi Natural Park in 1935 was a landmark achievement for the early conservationists. The Lands Department set aside an even larger area than Marie had proposed.Marie Byles was elected a trustee of the board that managed the park, and for many years organized volunteers to clear and maintain its walking tracks. A lookout over Bouddi has been named after her; it is accessible by car, on The Scenic Road in Killcare Heights just south of the Bouddi National Park Visitor Centre.
In 1927–28, Marie had saved enough money from working for four years as a law clerk to take a year off to travel.She set off on a Norwegian cargo boat, and it is from this journey that she wrote her popular book By Cargo Boat and Mountain, published in 1931. Later she was periodically able to leave her law practice in the hands of partners, to climb mountains in Britain, Norway and Canada. In 1935 she climbed Mt Cook in New Zealand. After finding that an expedition to Alaska would be too expensive, in 1938 she led a large expedition to Mt Sansato, in Western China near the Tibetan border. At times her party in China traveled with a military escort to protect them from bandits. Due to poor weather, the expedition failed to reach the summit, and Marie was bitterly disappointed.
She became interested in the Quaker denomination of Christianity, but was refused membership. During her travels through Burma, China and Vietnam in 1938, Marie often chose to stay in temples, which brought her into direct contact with non-European cultures and religions. On her return, Marie renewed her interest in the teachings of Gandhi, and began exploring Buddhism. A collapsed foot arch meant that she was no longer able to walk long distances or climb, and she studied spirituality and meditation to find ways of dealing with her pain.
Over the following years she spent a year in India, including the Himalayas, and made three trips to Burma and two trips to Japan. In 1960 she formed a meditation group, inviting interested people from any religion or none to meet on Saturday afternoons to study meditation techniques.In later life she became particularly drawn to Mahayana Buddhism and the conscious practice of kindness and compassion. From these experiences she completed four books on Buddhism.
By 1938 Marie left her family home in Beecroft and built her own house on bushland that she had bought in 1935 at the edge of nearby Cheltenham, adjacent to crown land.She named it 'Ahimsa' after the term used by Gandhi meaning "harmlessness". The four-room simple cottage is built of fibro and sandstone, and the large north-facing verandah is primarily where Marie slept and lived in preference to the interior rooms. In addition to the house, Marie wanted to have a place on her land for groups to meet for discussions and meditation. By 1949, the 'Hut of Happy Omen' was complete, designed as an open sleepout with bunks and a large sandstone fireplace. She had another small house built next to 'Ahimsa' in 1975, called 'Sentosa' (a Malay language word meaning peace and tranquility).
In 1970 Marie bequeathed her property to The National Trust of Australia (NSW), which she had helped in 1946 when she was the consulting solicitor who drafted the organisation's constitution.
Marie died at 'Ahimsa' in 1979.In 1985 a dramatised documentary, A Singular Woman, was made by Gillian Coote using text from an unpublished autobiography written by Byles, along with reenactments and commentary by friends. Her papers (1923-1982) are held in the State Library of New South Wales (http://archival.sl.nsw.gov.au/Details/archive/110345231).
Source: Marie Byles in libraries ( WorldCat catalog)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Marie Byles and Ahimsa .|
The Bouddi National Park is a protected national park that is located in the Central Coast region of New South Wales, in eastern Australia. The 1,532-hectare (3,790-acre) national park is situated 46 kilometres (29 mi) northeast of Sydney. A section of the national park extends into the Tasman Sea, creating fully protected land, shore and marine habitats. The park contains one of the last mature temperate rainforests on the Central Coast, Fletchers Glen.
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Ahimsa is an heritage-listed residence and meditation meeting place located at 67 Cobran Road, Cheltenham, Hornsby Shire, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by and built by Marie Byles during 1937. It is also known as Ahimsa, The Hut of Happy Omen and Sentosa. The property is owned by the National Trust of Australia (NSW). It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 1 March 2002.